The Talmud: Selections, by H. Polano, , at sacred-texts.com
Man is born with his hands clenched; he dies with his hands wide open. Entering life he desires to grasp everything; leaving the world, all that he possessed has slipped away.
Even as a fox is man; as a fox which seeing a fine vineyard lusted after its grapes. But the palings were placed at narrow distances, and the fox was too bulky to creep between them. For three days he fasted, and when he had grown thin he entered into the vineyard. He feasted upon the grapes, forgetful of the morrow, of all things but his enjoyment; and lo, he had again grown stout and was unable to leave the scene of his feast. So for three days more he fasted, and when he had again grown thin, he passed through the palings and stood outside the vineyard, meagre as when he entered.
So with man; poor and naked he enters the world, poor and naked does he leave.
Very expressive is the legend, one of many woven around the name of Alexander.
He wandered to the gates of Paradise and knocked for entrance,
"Who knocks?" demanded the guardian angel.
Who is Alexander?"
"Alexander--the Alexander--Alexander the Great--the conqueror of the world."
"We know him not," replied the angel; "this is the Lord's gate, only the righteous enter here."
Alexander begged for something to prove that he had reached the gates of Paradise, and a small piece of a skull was given to him. He showed it to his wise men, who placed it in one scale of a balance. Alexander poured gold and silver into the other scale, but the small bone weighed heavier; he poured in more, adding his crown jewels, his diadem; but still the bone outweighed them all. Then one of the wise men, taking a grain of dust from the ground placed that upon the bone, and lo, the scale flew up.
The bone was that which surrounds the eye of man; the eye of man which naught can satisfy save the dust which covers it in the grave.
When the righteous dies ‘tis earth that meets with loss. The jewel will ever be a jewel, but it has passed from the possession of its former owner. Well may the loser weep.
Life is a passing shadow, say the Scriptures. The shadow of a tower or a tree; the shadow which prevails for a time? No; even as the shadow of a bird in its flight, it passeth from our sight, and neither bird nor shadow remains.