Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, , at sacred-texts.com
§ 1. It is lawful to let down fruit on the festival by a trap-door, and to cover fruit, and jars containing oil, to protect them from water dripping thereon; but this may not be done on the Sabbath. It is nevertheless lawful to place a utensil under a dropping vessel on the Sabbath [to prevent the waste of the liquor].
§ 2. In whatsoever a person transgresses and infringes the precept of resting on the Sabbath [שבות], whether in doing any optional action, 1 or a legal action, 2 he will also transgress, if he does them on the festival. The following actions are prohibited ors account of the precept to rest [שבות]:—It is prohibited to climb trees, to mount any animal, to swim on the waters, to clap with the hands, 3 to strike on the hips, 4 or to dance. The following are prohibited as optional
actions:—It is unlawful to administer justice, to acquire a woman as a wife [by giving her a ring, money, &c.], and to perform the ceremony of taking off the shoes of one that refuses to marry the widow of his deceased brother (Deut. xxv. 5, &c.), or to marry such a brother's widow. The following are prohibited as legal actions:—It is not permitted to consecrate any thing, to value sacred things, to pronounce any thing as devoted [to the service of the temple], and to separate heave-offerings and tithes; all these actions have been decided to be prohibited to be done on the festival, and a fortiori on the Sabbath. There is no difference between the Sabbath and the festival, except that the preparation of food is permitted on the latter.
§ 3. Cattle and utensils may be brought as far only as their owners may go, 5 and when a person commits his cattle to his son or shepherd, they may not be brought or driven further than the owner may go. Utensils that are appropriated to the exclusive use of one among brethren living together in the same house, may be brought as far as that brother may go; but if they are not thus exclusively appropriated to one only, they may be brought to the places where all may go.
§ 4. A utensil that had been borrowed since the day before the festival, maybe carried as far as the borrower may go; but if on the festival, as far as the lender may go: and when one woman has borrowed of another spice, water, or salt, to make dough, they may be carried as far as both may go. Rabbi Jehudah excepts water, because its substance does not remain visible.
§ 5. Burning coals may be carried as far as the owners thereof may go, but a flame may be carried everywhere. If a coal of consecrated fire be applied to profane use, the sin of desecration has been committed, 6 and although no profane use may be made of the flame of a sacred fire, yet the person who thus applies it has not incurred the penalty, and thus, if any person carries [on the Sabbath] a burning coal into a public place, he is guilty, but does not incur the penalty for a flame only. The waters of a well belonging to a private individual, may be carried as far as that person may go, but if it belonged to a town, as far as the inhabitants thereof may go. The waters of a well made for the use of travellers [such as those] who
core from Babylon, may be carried as far as the person who draws them may go.
§ 6. If a person has fruit in another town, whose inhabitants have made an erub [Sabbatical mixture] in order to bring him something [on the festival], they may not bring him any of his own fruit, but if he has made the erub himself, the fruit may be carried to any place he is allowed to go.
§ 7. When any person has invited guests 7 [on the festival], they may not carry home with them any food, unless he has on the day before the festival granted the guests a right of possession to their portions. 8 It is not lawful to give drink to, or to slaughters animals living free [not under the control of man], but it is allowed in respect to domestic animals. The animals which at night are in town, or in the suburbs thereof, are considered domestic; and those which lie at night in the open field 9 are called animals living free [i.e. not under the immediate care of man].
153:1 Actions proper to be done, but not strictly necessary.
153:2 Actions legally enjoined, but prohibited to be done on the Sabbath.
153:3 As a sign of rejoicing.
153:4 As a mark of despair, or mourning. (Compare Jeremiah xxi. 19.)
154:5 This and the following sections can only be understood by a reference to what is laid down concerning the Sabbatical limits תחום שבת, in Treatise Erubin.
154:6 And the person who has thus used it must bring the sacrifice called קרבן מעילה.
155:7 This treats of guests living in another place, who have made erub to be able to go to the residence of their host.
155:8 By expressing himself to that effect to some person on that day: in which case the guests, although not present, gain a right to their portions.
155:9 Beyond the תחום, or Sabbatical limits, and remain there during the summer months.