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Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, [1843], at


§ 1. When the festival takes place on Friday, it is unlawful to prepare thereon, on purpose, any food for the Sabbath, but for the festival alone, and whatever remains, remains for the Sabbath, and a person ought to prepare on the day before the festival, some article of food on account of the Sabbath, 1 and cook [additionally on the festival] in reference to it. Beth Shammai say, "It is necessary to prepare two articles of food." But Beth Hillel say, "One dish is sufficient." They agree, however, that fish with egg on it may be considered as two dishes. If the food thus prepared has been eaten, or lost [previous to the cooking of the food for the Sabbath], nothing more may be cooked in addition on account thereof; but if a small part of it had been left, more food may be cooked in addition, and on account thereof, for the Sabbath.

§ 2. When the festival happens immediately after the Sabbath, Beth Shammai say, "Every thing requiring purification must be immersed before the Sabbath." But Beth Hillel say, "Vessels must be immersed before the Sabbath, and human beings on the Sabbath."

§ 3. Both schools agree, that water which has become polluted, may be purified by putting it into an earthenware vessel, and bringing it in contact with the waters of a bath, but not in an unclean vessel. It is lawful, however, to immerse vessels whose original appropriation

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has been altered, 2 and men may bathe when they have changed from one company to another [to eat the Paschal lamb]. 3

§ 4. Beth Shammai say, "A person may bring peace-offerings on the festival, but he may not impose his hands upon them; 4 neither may [a private individual] bring burnt-offerings thereon." But Beth Hillel allow the bringing of peace and burnt-offerings, and the imposition of hands upon them.

§ 5. Beth Shammai teach it to be unlawful to boil water on the festival for the purpose of washing the feet, unless the water is also fit to drink. But Beth Hillel allow it. A person may also light a fire for the sole purpose of warming himself by it.

§ 6. In three things Rabbon Gamaliel decides in aggravation [i.e. prohibiting], like the school of Shammai: viz. "It is prohibited to cover or place the pots of victuals in a hot place on the eve of the festival [so as to retain their heat]; as also on the Sabbath; to put together on the festival a disjointed lamp, and to bake thereon large loaves, but thin cakes only." Rabbon Gamaliel said, They never used in my father's house to bake large loaves on the festival, but thin cakes only." But the sages said unto him, "What proof does this practice of your father's family afford, who, although strict themselves in this respect, did nevertheless allow all Israel to bake on the festival, large loaves and thick pieces of dough [or cakes]?"

§ 7. He [Rabbon Gamaliel] decided in alleviation [that is, permitting] in respect to the three following things: he allowed to sweep on the festival between the couches or sofas 5 [after dinner], to put perfume on the coals [after dinner], 6 and to prepare a complete 7 kid on the nights of Passover; but the sages prohibit all these.

§ 8. Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah permitted three things, which the other sages prohibit: his cow was allowed to go out on the Sabbath with a strap attached to her horns, 8 he held it also to be

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lawful to curry cattle on the festival, and to grind thereon pepper in a pepper-mill. R. Jehudah says, "It is not lawful to curry cattle on the festival, because a wound may be inflicted [by the teeth of the iron currycomb], but they may be curried with a wooden comb." The Rabbins decide it to be unlawful to curry cattle either with an iron currycomb or with a wooden comb.

§ 9. A handmill, used to grind pepper, is liable to contract pollution in the three separate vessels of which it is composed: namely, as a vessel of capacity, 9 as a metal vessel, 10 and as a vessel of the sieve kind. 11

§ 10. A child's cart is liable to contract pollution through pressure, 12 and may be moved on the Sabbath from place to place; yet it may only be dragged over clothes or carpets. 13 Rabbi Jehudah says, "It is not lawful to drag any vessel or piece of furniture on the Sabbath, excepting such a [light] cart, because it only makes a slight impression on the ground [and does not remove the soil so as to make a furrow]."


147:1 This is what is known by the name of ‏ערובי תבשילין‎, or "Mixture of the cooking, or preparation of food," of which the following account and reason are given by Maimonides: "The Rabbins, in order to prevent cooking, or preparation of food on the festival for the following working-days, have prohibited it even for the Sabbath immediately following [and of course for a working-day]. They have ordered however, that some article of food should be prepared on the day before the festival, to which more may be cooked in addition on the festival, which has been ordered with the intention of reminding the general mass that it is not lawful to prepare any food on the festival which is not eaten thereon. It is called ‏ערוב‎, or mixture, because it mixes or combines the preparation of food necessary for the festival, with that required for the family's use on the Sabbath" (Maim. Hilchoht Yom Tob, ch. VI. and the ‏השנה‎ of ‏הראב״ר‎).

148:2 If a person has immersed vessels to be used for oil for common use, and wishes afterwards to use them for sacred purposes [such as putting in them wine of heave-offering, &c.], a fresh immersion will be required.

148:3 See Treatise Pesachim, chap. IX.

148:4 Leviticus i. 4.

148:5 The cushions on which the ancients reclined to eat.

148:6 Also an ancient eastern custom, which burning, not being strictly necessary, is prohibited by the sages on the festival.

148:7 Complete, with its head, legs, and entrails, on the roasting spit, and in the same manner as the roasting of the Passover lamb is prescribed.

148:8 See Treatise Sabbath, chap. V. § 4.

149:9 The lower part, where the ground pepper is collected.

149:10 The upper part, where the whole pepper is put in.

149:11 The middle part, which allows only the finely ground particles to pass through.

149:12 See Mishna, order Taharoth.

149:13 In order to avoid making a furrow on the ground.

Next: Chapter III