Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, , at sacred-texts.com
§ 1. A לולב [palm-branch] which has been acquired by theft, or which is withered, is not valid. One which comes from a grove 1 [devoted to idolatry], or from a rejected town 2 [that has been enticed to idolatry], is not valid. If the point has been broken off, or the leaves torn off, it is not valid: if they are only dissevered, it is valid. R. Jehudah saith, "It must be tied together at the top." A loolab from the Iron Mount 3 [is valid]. A loolab that measures three hands [in length] sufficient to shake it by, is valid.
§ 2. A myrtle-bough which has been acquired by theft, or which is withered, is not valid. One which comes from a grove, or from a rejected town, is not valid. If the point has been broken off, or
the leaves torn off, or if one has more berries on it than leaves, it is not valid: if they [the number of berries] have been lessened, it becomes valid; but this must not be done on the festival.
§ 3. A willow of the brook, which has been acquired by theft, or which is withered, is not valid. One which comes from a grove, or from a rejected town, is not valid. If the point has been broken off, or the leaves torn off, or if it be a צפצפה, 4 it is not valid. One that is faded, or from which some of the leaves have dropped off, or which has grown on dry ground [not near a brook], is valid.
§ 4. R. Ishmael saith "[A man is to use] three myrtle boughs, two willows, one palm-branch, and one citron; even if two out of the three myrtle-boughs have their points broke off [they may be used]." R. Tarphon saith, "Even though all three should have their points broke off [they may be used]." R. Akivah saith, "Even as one citron and one loolab [only are used], so likewise [are] one myrtle-bough and one willow [only to be used]."
§ 5. A citron which has been acquired by theft, or which is withered, is not valid. One that comes from a grove, or from a rejected town, is not valid. One [taken] off a tree which is not circumcised, 5 is not valid; nor [one taken] from heave-offering 6 that is unclean. From clean heave-offering man is not to take a citron; but if he leas taken one, it is valid. One [taken] from Demai, 7 Beth Shammai declare not valid, but Beth Hillel declare it valid. Man is not to take a citron from second tithe in Jerusalem, but if he has taken one, it is valid.
§ 6. If one stain 8 spread over the greater portion of the citron, if it has lost its crown, or the fine rind thereof has been peeled off, or if it be split, or perforated [or not entire]; if ever so little thereof be wanting, it is not valid. If the stain be spread over the smaller portion of the citron, if it has lost its stalk, or if that be perforated [but the citron itself is entire], so that no part thereof, however
small, be wanting, the citron is valid; a dark coloured one is not valid. A leek-green citron R. Meir pronounces valid: but R. Jehudah declares it not valid.
§ 7. [Respecting] the [minimum] legal size of a small citron, R. Meir saith, "[It must be] like a nut." R. Jehudah saith, "like an egg; and of a large citron [it must be such] that a man can hold two in one hand." Such is the dictum of R. Jehudah: but R. Jose saith, "Even though [he must use] two hands to one citron [it is of legal size and valid]."
§ 8. The loolab must only be tied with its own kind [palm branches]. Such is the dictum of R. Jehudah: but R. Meir saith, "[it may be tied] even with twine." R. Meir also said, "It happened that the inhabitants of Jerusalem tied a loolab with gold lace." But they [the sages] replied, "[Yes, they did so], but [beneath the gold lace] they tied it with its own kind."
§ 9. When did they shake the loolab?" At [the verse] הודו לה׳, [praise ye the Lord, &c.], 9 at the beginning and ending thereof; and at the verse, אנא ה׳ הושיעה נא [O Lord, we beseech thee, save us.]" 10 Such is the dictum of Beth Hillel: but Beth Shammai hold, "[That the loolab must] also [be shaken] at [the verse] אנא ה׳ הצליהח נא, [O Lord, we beseech thee, prosper us]." 11 R. Akivah said, "I watched [particularly noticed] Rabbon Gamaliel and R. Joshua; and I saw, that while all the people shook their palm branches [at both the last-mentioned verses], they [the two rabbies] only shook theirs at הושיעה נא." If a person is on the road, and has no loolab with him, he must, when he gets home, shake it at his table, [even while at his meals]. If he has not done it in the morning, he must do it towards the evening, as the whole of the day is valid for [the use of] the loolab.
§ 10. If the hallel 12 be read to a man by a bondman, or a woman, or a minor, he must repeat after them [word for word] what they read; 13 but it is a disgrace to him. 14 If a grown-up person 15 read it [the hallel] to him, he only repeats after him [responds] Hallelujah.
§ 11. At a place where it is the custom to repeat [read certain 16 verses twice], a man is to repeat [them]. Where it is the custom simply [to recite them once] a man is simply [to recite them once]. Where it is the custom to say a benediction after the loolab, a man is to say a benediction. In every case, according to the custom of the country, [a man must conform thereto]. If a person purchase a loolab from his neighbour during the seventh [Sabbatical year], he [the vendor], is to give him a citron as a gift [in the bargain]; for it is not permitted to buy a citron during the seventh [Sabbatical year].
§ 12. Formerly the loolab was used in the Temple [on each of the] seven [days of the festival]; and, in the country, [every place except the Temple at Jerusalem], the first day [only]. But after the Temple was destroyed, R. Jochanan ben Sachai decreed, "That in the country [everywhere] the loolab should be used [during the whole] seven [days] of the festival, in memory of the Holy Temple." He, at the same time, also decreed, "that on the day of נוף 17 it should be unlawful to eat new grain."
§ 13. If the first day of the festival fall on a Sabbath, every man is to bring his loolab to the Synagogue [on the Sabbath-eve, and leave it there]. On the [next] morning they come early to Synagogue, and each man must distinguish [seek out] his own loolab, and take it; for the sages hold, "that a man cannot fully acquit himself of his duty on the first day of the festival, by means of a loolab that belongs to his neighbour; whereas, on the subsequent days of the festival, he may fully acquit himself of his duty, by means of a loolab belonging to his neighbour."
§ 14. R. José saith, "If the first day of the festival fall on the Sabbath, should a man forget [that it is the Sabbath-day], and carry his loolab out [into the public reshuth], 18 he is absolved; because he carried it out with intent to fulfil the law."
§ 15. A woman may receive the loolab out of the hand of her son, or of her husband, and put it back into water on the Sabbath. R. Jehudah saith; "On the Sabbath it may be put back, on the festival they may add [fresh water], and on the middle days they may change [the water; pouring out the stale, and putting fresh water in its stead]. A minor, who understands how to shake the loolab, is bound to perform that duty."
134:1 In which the palm-tree is devoted to idolatrous rites.
134:2 Deut. xiii. 12.
134:3 A mountain near Jerusalem, southward, the palm-branches on which were very short.
135:4 The distinguishing marks of a brook-willow [salix helix] are dark wood, long leaves, with smooth margin; those of a צפצפה are white wood, round leaves, with serrated margin. Among the many different species of willow which answer to this last description, it is impossible to describe which is the one meant by the text.
135:5 Vide Levit. xix. 23, and Mishna, Treatise Orlah.
135:6 Numb. xviii. 11, 12.
135:7 Fruit of which it is doubtful whether the legal dues have been paid.
135:8 But if there are two different stains on the body of the citron, even though they spread only over a small portion thereof, or if there be any stain on the crown, the citron is not valid.
136:9 Ps. cxvii.
136:10 Ps. cxviii. 25.
136:11 Ps. cxviii, end of verse 25.
136:12 The lauds, a prayer composed of Psalms cxiii. to cxviii. inclusive.
136:13 Whosoever is not legally obliged to perform a duty cannot exempt others by acting as their deputy. And as bondmen, women, and minors are not legally compelled, their reciting the prayer will not exempt the man; who, therefore, must repeat it verbatim.
136:14 It is disgraceful to him that he has not learned his prayers.
136:15 A youth of the legal age of thirteen years and upwards, who, being legally obliged, may act as deputy for another.
137:16 From the verse אודך כי עניתני. (Ps. cxviii. 21, to the end.)
137:17 The day of waving [the sheaf of the first fruits]. The 16th day of Nissan [the first month] was so called. (Vide Lev. xxiii. 10, 11.)
137:18 Vide Introduction to Treatise Sabbath.