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Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, [1843], at


§ 1. Wherewith may [a man let] an animal go out? 1a and wherewith may [he] not [let] it go out? The camel [he] may [let] go out with its halter, the she camel with a nose-ring; the Lybian ass with bridle and bit; the horse with its collar; all [animals] that wear a collar may go out therewith, and be led thereby; [in case it, the collar, becomes unclean] it must be rinsed, and dipped in its place [without taking it off.]

§ 2. The ass goes out with its rug [while it is tied on him]. He-goats may go out with a leather bandage round their privates; sheep with their tails fastened up or down, and with wrapper; 2 sire-goats

p. 44

with their udders tied up. R. Jose prohibits all these, excepting the sheep with wrapper. R. Jehudah saith, "She-goats may go out with their udders tied up, if [this be done] to dry [up the milk], but not if it be done to [preserve the] milk."

§ 3. Wherewith may [a man] not [let] animals go out? The camel must not go out with a rag tied to its tail, 3 nor with its legs strapped, 4 nor with its fore and hind-legs fastened together; 5 this [applies] to all domestic animals. A man must not fasten camels together and lead them, but he may hold the [different] ropes in his hand, only [taking care] that they do not get twisted. 6

§ 4. An ass must not go out with its rug that had not been fastened on [before the Sabbath], nor with a bell, although it be muffled, nor with a wooden frame-work round its neck, 7 nor with a strap to its legs. Hens must not go out with cords 8 tied on them, nor with straps to their feet. Rams must not go out with go-carts to their tails; 9 nor sheep with sneezing-wood; 10 nor calves with a reed-yoke; 11 nor a cow with the skin of a hedgehog tied to her udders, 12 nor with a strap between her horns. The cow of R. Eleazar hen Azariah went out [on the Sabbath] with a strap between her horns, which was against the consent of the sages.


43:1a The point in question is to decide what is necessary for the safe guidance of the animal, and what is to be considered a burden.

43:2 To preserve the fine wool.

44:3 As a mark to distinguish them by.

44:4 Lest they rub their legs together and wound them.

44:5 To prevent their running away.

44:6 As perhaps they may be kilaim.

44:7 If the beast has a sore upon its neck, a frame of wood is made around it to prevent its rubbing the sore with its head.

44:8 As marks whereby to distinguish them.

44:9 Their tails are so fat that they are supported on small go-carts.

44:10 ‏חנונות‎, according to some, it is veratrum [white hellebore], which being put up the nostrils of a sheep causes it to sneeze, and so to shake off the vermin; according to others, it is an ointment applied to the newly-shorn sheep, to protect them against the cold.

44:11 A light yoke, put on calves to break them in to a heavy one.

44:12 To prevent weasels or reptiles from sucking them.

Next: Chapter VI