Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, , at sacred-texts.com
§ 1. The prohibition to carry or convey [from one reshuth 1 into another] on the Sabbath, is twofold; which [according to the decision of the sages], form four [prohibitions for him who is] inside [of the reshuth]; and also twofold which [according to the decision of the sages], form four [prohibitions for him who is] outside [of the reshuth]. How is this to be understood? A mendicant stands outside [of the private property], and the master of the house inside [of it]: 2 should the mendicant put his hand in [to the private reshuth], and [either] put [his wallet] into the master's hand, or take something out of it [the master's hand into his own], and draw his hand back, [into the public reshuth, in which he is standing], the mendicant is guilty, but the master of the house is absolved. Should the master stretch out his hand [into the public reshuth in which the mendicant is standing,] and put [his gift] into the hand of the mendicant, or take [the wallet] out of it, and draw his hand back [into the house or private reshuth in which he is], the master of the house is guilty, but the mendicant is absolved. Should the mendicant put his hand in, and the master take [the wallet] out of it, or put [his gift] into it, and the mendicant [then] draw his hand out, both are absolved. Should the master stretch out his hand, and the mendicant take [the gift] out of it, or put [his wallet] into it, both are absolved. 3
§ 2. A man is not to sit down to the barber, near the time of מנחה until he has said his prayers; 4 nor must man [about that
time on the Sabbath-eve] visit the bath, or the tan-yard; he must not sit down to his meal, nor yet in judgment; but if he have begun [to do either] he needs not leave off. [The study of the Law] is to be interrupted for the Shemang, but not for the Tephilah. 5
§ 3. The tailor must not go out with his needle near dusk [on the Sabbath-eve], lest he forget and carry it out with him [during the Sabbath]. The scribe [writer] is not to go out with his writing-reed [pen]; nor must a man cleanse his garments of vermin, or read by candle-light [on the Sabbath-eve]. They [the sages] have indeed permitted [that] a teacher may superintend children, who are reading [by candle-light], but he [himself] must not read. From the same motive [to avoid the possible occasion to sin] a man afflicted with a running issue, must not take his meals with a woman afflicted with the same disease. 6
§ 4. The following are among the decisions enacted in the Upper Hall of Hananiah, the son of Hezekiah, the son of Giorion, when they [the sages] went thither, and went up to visit him. On that occasion the sages present were counted, and [the sages of] the school of Shammai were found to be more numerous than [those of] the school of Hillel. On that day eighteen enactments were decreed.
§ 5. Beth Shammai declare it unlawful to soak the materials for making ink, or drugs for dying, or vetch [to feed cattle] [on the Sabbath-eve], unless there be time sufficient to soak it through, during the day [before the Sabbath comes in]: but Beth Hillel permit it.
§ 6. Beth Shammai declare it unlawful to put bundles of flax into the oven [on the Sabbath-eve], unless there be time sufficient to steam [dry] them during the day; nor to put wool into the dye-kettle, unless there be time sufficient for the wool to imbibe the dye during the day [before the Sabbath comes in]: all of which Beth Hillel permit. Beth Shammai declare it unlawful to spread [set] nets for game, fowl, or fish [on the Sabbath-eve], unless there be time sufficient for it to be caught therein during the day [before the Sabbath comes in]: but Beth Hillel permit it.
§ 7. Beth Shammai declare it unlawful to sell any thing to a heathen [on the Sabbath-eve], or to help him to load, or to load for him, unless there be time sufficient for him to reach a neighbouring
town [or village] during the day [before the Sabbath comes in]: but Beth Hillel permit it.
§ 8. Beth Shammai declare it unlawful to deliver skins to a heathen tanner, or clothes to a heathen laundress [on the Sabbath-eve], unless there he time enough for them to be got ready during the day [before the Sabbath comes in]: all of this Beth Hillel permit to be done, while the sun remains above the horizon.
§ 9. R. Simeon ben Gamaliel saith, "It was the custom in my father's house, to deliver white garments to the heathen laundress three days before Sabbath." [Both schools] agree, that it is permitted to put blocks on the oil-press, and the round logs on the wine-press near the coming in of the Sabbath]. 7
§ 10. Neither meat, onions, nor eggs, must be fried [on the Sabbath-eve], unless there be time sufficient for them to get quite done during the day [before the Sabbath comes in]. Bread must not be put into the oven towards dusk [nightfall] on the Sabbath-eve, nor cakes on the coals, unless there be time enough for the surface to become crusted during the day [before the Sabbath comes in], R. Eleazar saith [unless there be time sufficient for] the bottom to become crusted.
§ 11. It is permitted to put the paschal offering into the oven towards dusk on the Sabbath-eve 8 And the priests [in the Temple] may stir the fire a little in the hearth-room, 9 but in other halls [of the Temple] only if there is time sufficient for the fire to seize on the greater part of the wood. R. Jehudah saith of coals, "if any part of them be ignited [before the Sabbath come in]."
37:1 Property or space, vide Introduction.
37:2 The illustration purposely chosen is an act of charity, to shew that no deed, however commendable in itself, can authorise a needless infraction of the law.
37:3 In the first two instances the mendicant and the master respectively completed the carrying, each of them conveying the gift or wallet from one reshuth to the other. In the last two instances the act of either was incomplete.
37:4 Vide Treatise Berachoth, ch. IV. § I. This rule also applies to the week day.
38:5 Vide Treatise Berachoth, chap. II. § 4.
38:6 As both are unclean, and excluded from general society, their being left alone together might lead to improper intercourse.
39:7 Although the continued pressure of the logs extracts the juice of the olive or the vine on the Sabbath.
39:8 If the 14th of Nisan fell on a Friday, which thus became the eve of the festival as well as of the Sabbath.
39:9 A hall in the Temple, in which a fire was constantly kept up, and in which the ministering priests used to warm themselves.