Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, , at sacred-texts.com
§ 1. What is meant by עָרִים [a kind of espalier on which vines are trained]? When a row of five vines is planted near a hedge [wall] ten hands high, or near the side of a trench [ditch or cavity] ten hands deep and four wide, in that case, four amoth must be left for the cultivation of each vine, which [space] must, according to Beth Shammai, "be measured from the stem of the vine towards the field [ground];" but according to Beth Hillel, "from the hedge to the field." R. Jochanan ben Nourie saith, "Whosoever adopts either of these opinions is in error; for the Law is—If there be a space of four amoth from the stem of the vine to the hedge [or trench], the room necessary for the due cultivation of the vine must be allowed [for that purpose] and the remainder of the ground may be sown on." What constitutes the room [space] necessary for the due cultivation of the vine? Six hands in every direction. R. Akivah saith, "three hands only are required [in every direction]."
§ 2. If an espalier of vines overhangs the steps of a terrace [on a hill], R. Eleazar ben Jacob saith, "When all the grapes can be gathered by a person standing on the [even] ground, four amoth [space] must be left beyond the espalier, within which [four amoth] it is prohibited to sow; but when the grapes cannot all be gathered by a person standing on the [even] ground, the prohibition [to sow] is limited to the spot covered by the espalier. R. Eleazar saith, "If a man has planted one row of vines on the even ground, and another row on the steps of a terrace, should the terrace have an elevation of
ten hands from the ground, the two rows need not be considered as connected; but they must be so considered if the height of the terrace be less than ten hands.
§ 3. When vines have been trained over part of the laths of a trellis, it is unlawful to sow under the remaining part [on which there are no vines]; should however any kind of seed have been thus sown, that does not consecrate the vine [render its produce unlawful]; but when the young shoots of the vine have spread over the whole trellis, whatsoever is sown underneath is unlawful. Such is likewise the case if a vine be trained over any portion of a wild tree, אִילָן סְרָק.
§ 4. When vines are trained over part of a fruit-tree [not wild], it is lawful to sow under the remaining part of the tree; and should even the young shoots of the vine have spread beyond it, they may be bent [or drawn] back, and it is lawful to sow beneath. It once happened that R. Joshua came to R. Ishmael, in the village Aziz, when R. Ishmael shewed him a vine which had been trained over part of a fig-tree, and asked, "May I sow under the remaining parts of the tree?" R. Joshua replied, "[You may]; it is lawful." He then took R. Joshua to a place called Beth Hamaganya, and shewed him a vine trained over a thick bough [or arm] of a sycamore-tree, from which many other boughs branched out, [and repeated the question], when R. Joshua decided that it was only unlawful to sow under the particular bough on which the vine had been trained; but that under all the other boughs it was lawful [to sow].
§ 5. What is meant by the expression אִילָן סְרָק a wild tree? All trees which are not fruit-bearing. R. Meir saith, "Excepting only the olive and the fig-tree, all [other] trees are called אִילָן סְרָק." R. José saith, "All trees with which it is not usual to plant entire fields [orchards], are called אִילָן סְרָק wild trees."
§ 6. The פסקי עריס, or those parts of an espalier of vines which are no longer covered with vines, must be of the extent of eight amoth, and something more, in order that it may be lawful to sow underneath. Of all the measurements established by the sages, when treating of vineyards, this is the only instance in which they require "something more," beyond the fixed measure. The expression פסקי עריס, "part of an espalier of vines," is used when the middle of such an espalier has been destroyed, but five vines still remain on either side; if the open space between the two sides is only eight amoth, it may not be sown in; but if it is eight amoth and something more, the necessary room must be left for the due cultivation
of the vine, and the remainder [of the open space] may be sown in.
§ S. It is lawful to sow under such reeds [extending beyond the vine-espalier] as a person does not wish to cut away; but if these reeds have been thus placed with the intention to train the young shoots of the vine on them, it is not lawful to sow under them.
§ 9. When branches of vines extend beyond the espalier, it is to be considered as if a plummet were pending from these branches, and all that space which comes within and under the perpendicular line of the plummet, it is unlawful to sow on. Such is likewise the case with the extending branches of a single vine. When vine-branches have been drawn from one tree to another [to connect them], it is prohibited to sow underneath them; but if they have been fastened by means of a rope [line] or [a band of] reeds, it is lawful to sow under the line; but if it [the rope] has been thus placed in order to train the young shoots of the vine thereon, it is not lawful to sow underneath.
24:1 Sisymbrium Iris [a kind of colewort].
24:2 Supposed to be hedera [ivy].
24:3 Cynara [artichoke].