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Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, [1843], at

p. 14



"Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with a mingled seed, neither shall a garment of mingled woollen come upon thee" (Levit. xix. 19).

"Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with divers seeds, lest the fruit of thy seed, which thou hast sown, and the fruit of thy vineyard, become defiled. Thou shalt not plough with an ox and an ass together. Thou shalt not wear a garment of divers sorts of woollen and linen together" (Deut. xxii. 9, 11).

§ 1. Wheat and ‏זוּאנִין‎ 1 are not in the relation of kilaim, 2 towards each other. Barley and oats are not kilaim, neither are spelt and rye, nor beans and chickpeas, nor small peas and ‏מוֹפַה‎, 3 nor white beans and scarlet beans.

§ 2. Cucumbers and melons are not kilaim. R. Jehudah saith they are. Lettuce and cabbage-lettuce are not kilaim; neither are endive and wild succory; nor common [garden] leek and wild leek; nor common coriander and wild coriander; nor common mustard and Egyptian mustard; nor Egyptian pumpkins and bitter pumpkins; nor Egyptian beans and pod-beans.

§ 3. Turnips and rape [turnip radishes] are not kilaim; neither are cabbage and [wild] colewort, nor ‏תְּרָדִים‎ 4 and ‏לְעוֹנִים‎. 5 R. Akivah adds, neither are common garlic and wild garlic; nor onions and shalots; nor ‏תּוֹרְמוֹם‎ 6 and ‏פַּלְסוּם‎. 7

§ 4. Among the [fruits of] trees, pears and crustumina 8 are not kilaim; nor are quinces and medlars. The apple and crab apple, apricots and almonds, plums and pistachios, although similar [in flavour] are, nevertheless, kilaim.

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§ 5. Radishes and rape, mustard and lapsano, 9 Greek and Egyptian pumpkins [together] and bitter pumpkins, although similar, are, nevertheless, kilaim.

§ 6. The wolf and the dog, the fox and the fox-hound, goats and deer, sheep and chamois, the horse and the mule, the mule and the ass, the ass and the zebra, although similar, are kilaim.

§ 7. [The fruits of] trees must not be grafted on trees of a different kind; nor [one kind of] shrub, [plant or herb] on another kind of shrub; nor yet [scions of] trees on shrubs, nor shrubs on trees. R. Jehudah permits the grafting of shrubs on trees.

§ 8. Shrubs must not be planted on a sycamore-bush; rue must not be grafted on white cassia, because that [would be a shrub] on a tree; a scion of figs must not be planted among ‏חֲצוּב‎ 10 to cool it; a vine-branch must not be sunk [trained] into a melon-bed, to instil its juices therein, because that is a tree on a plant; pumpkin-seed must not be set among mallow, in order that it may be preserved therein, as that is herb in herb.

§ 9. If turnips and radishes be hidden [in the ground] beneath a vine, so that part of the leaves are visible, man need not feel any hesitation [to use them], either on the score of kilaim or of the 7th [sabbatical] year, 11 nor yet of tithes; and they [the turnips and radishes] may be taken [out of the ground] on the Sabbath-day. If wheat and barley be sown at once [together], that forms kilaim. R. Jehudah saith, "Kilaim are not formed unless two kinds of wheat be sown to one of barley, or two kinds of barley to one of wheat; or wheat, barley, and spelt, be sown together."


14:1 Commentators differ as to what kind of plant is designated by this name. Surenhusius renders it lolium [darnel]. Some believe it to be some species of vicia [vetch], while others consider it a kind of ervum [tare]: all agree that it is non-edible.

14:2 The word "kilaim" denotes the commixture of things differing in kind, species, or nature; here it means mixed seeds of various kinds.

14:3 A kind of pea or legume [a pod-vegetable].

14:4 Bieta [beet].

14:5 Armel [thrift].

14:6 Lupinus albus [white lupine].

14:7 Lupinus pilosus [rose lupine],

14:8 A kind of small pear.

15:9 Nipplewort. Most of the names in the text are derived from the Arabic; vide Maimonides in loco.

15:10 Supposed to be hedera [ivy.]

15:11 Should they have been hidden in the sixth year, and remain in the ground till the seventh.

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