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Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, [1843], at


§ 1. The following are the points relating to meals, respecting which the schools of Shammai and of Hillel differ. Beth Shammai

p. 11

hold that on festivals man must first say the blessing of the day and then [that] on the wine: whereas, Beth Hillel hold, he must [first] say the blessing on the wine and then that of the day.

§ 2. Beth Shammai say, the hands must be washed first, and the goblet [for the blessing] be filled afterwards. But Beth Hillel say the goblet must be filled first, and then the hands be washed.

§ 3. Beth Shammai say, man is to put the napkin on which he wipes [his hands] on the table; whereas Beth Hillel say, he is to put it on the couch.

§ 4. Beth Shammai say, that after a meal, the room must be swept out first, and the hands be washed afterwards [for the grace]; whereas Beth Hillel say, the hands are to be washed first, and then the room is to be swept.

§ 5. Beth Shammai say the blessings 1 in the following order:—Over the light, the food, the spices, and the distinction of the festival [‏הבדלה‎]; whereas Beth Hillel say, the light, the spices, the food, and ‏הבדלה‎. According to Beth Shammai, the form of blessing on the light is, "who created the light of fire;" but, according to Beth Hillel, it is, "Creator of the lights of fire." 2

§ 6. The blessing must not be said over light and spices belonging to an idolator, nor over light and spices placed near a corpse, nor yet over light and spices placed before objects of idolatry. The blessing over the light is not to be said until the person saying the blessing has enjoyed the benefit of the light.

§ 7. If a person has forgotten to say grace after his meal, Beth Shammai hold, he must return to his place and there say grace; but Beth Hillel hold, he may say it in any place where he recollects [the omission]. Until when does the obligation to say grace remain in force? Until the food in his stomach has been digested.

§ 8. If wine be placed on the table after the food, and there be but one goblet full, Beth Shammai hold, that the blessing on the wine is to be said first, and then the grace after meat; whereas Beth Hillel hold, that the grace after meat is to be said first, and then the blessing on the wine. The response "Amen" must be made when an Israelite pronounces a blessing: but is not to be made after a Samaritan, unless the whole of the blessing has been heard.


11:1 Referring to the meal at the expiration of a Sabbath or holy day, should there be but one goblet of wine left. Most of these regulations have a direct reference to the customs of the East, in the days of the Mishna.

11:2 i.e., The various tints of the rays of light.

Next: Chapter IX