The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, , at sacred-texts.com
1. "With what may they light (lamps) on the Sabbath?" "And with what may they not light?" "They may not light with cedar moss, nor with unhackled flax, nor with floss silk, nor with a wick of willow, nor with a wick of nettles, nor with weeds from the surface of water, nor with pitch, nor with wax, nor with castor oil, nor with the defiled oil of heave-offering, nor with the tail, nor with the fat." Nahum the Median said, "they may light with cooked fat." But the Sages say, "whether cooked or uncooked, they must not light with it."
2. They must not light with the defiled oil of the heave-offering on a holiday. Rabbi Ishmael said, "they must not light with pitch dregs for the honour of the Sabbath." But the Sages allow all oils, "with sesame oil, with nut oil, with radish oil, with fish oil, with colocynth oil, with pitch dregs and naphtha." Rabbi Tarphon said, "they must only light with olive oil."
3. "They must not light with anything that grows from wood, except flax. And all that grows from wood does not contract the uncleanness of tents, 3 except flax. "A wick of cloth folded but not singed?" Rabbi Eliezer says, "it
contracts uncleanness, and they must not light it." Rabbi Akiba says, "it is clean, and they may light it."
4. A man must not perforate an eggshell, and fill it with oil, and put it on the mouth of the lamp, because it drops, even though it be of pottery. But Rabbi Judah "allows it." "But if the potter joined it at first?" "It is allowed, since it is one vessel." A man must not fill a bowl of oil, and put it by the side of the lamp, and put the end of the wick into it because it imbibes. But Rabbi Judah "allows it."
5. "Whoever extinguishes the lamp because he fears the Gentiles, or robbers, or a bad spirit, or that the sick may sleep?" "He is free." "He spares the lamp?" "He spares the oil?" "He spares the wick?" "He is guilty." But Rabbi José frees in all cases except the wick, because "it makes coal."
6. For three transgressions women die in the hour of childbirth: when they neglect times, and the dough offering, 1 and lighting the Sabbath lamp.
7. Three things are necessary for a man to say in his house on the eve of the Sabbath at dusk. "Have you taken tithes?" "Have you prepared erub?" 2 "Light the lamp." "It is doubtful if it be dark or not?" 3 "They must not tithe that which is certainly untithed, and they must not baptize vessels, and they must not light the lamps. But they may take tithes of the doubtful heave-offering, and prepare erub, and cover up hot water."
85:1 When the eve of the passover and the eve of the Sabbath coincided.
85:2 In the Temple. See tract Measurements, c. 1.
85:3 Numb. xix. 18.
86:1 Num. xv. 20.
86:2 i.e. Have you so joined houses that are apart that they may be counted as one on the Sabbath for carrying articles etc. It is done by persons blessing a piece of dough which is common property.
86:3 When three stars are seen, it is dark.