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The Talmud, by Joseph Barclay, [1878], at


1. The rue, and the sorrel with spreading leaves, and the wild savory, the coriander of the mountains, and the parsley of the marshes, and the rocket of the desert, are free from tithes; and they may be bought from all men in the Sabbatical year, because nothing like them is legally guarded. Rabbi Judah said, "the sprouts of the mustard are allowed, because transgressors are not suspected for taking them from a guarded place." Rabbi Simon said, "all vegetables that sprout again are allowed, excepting the sprouts of cabbage, because there is not their like amongst the greens of the field." But the Sages say, "whatever sprouts again is forbidden."

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2. There are three countries to be public property in the Sabbatical year: Judah and beyond Jordan and Galilee; and each is divided into three parts: Upper Galilee, Lower Galilee, and the Vale. From the village of Hananiah and upwards, every part in which the sycamore tree does not grow is Upper Galilee. And from the village of Hananiah and lower down, where any sycamore tree grows, is Lower Galilee. And the neighbourhood of Tiberias is the Vale. And in Judah, the mountains, the plain, and the vale, and the plain of Lydda is as the plain of the south. And its mountains are as the king's mountain. 1 From Bethhoron and to the sea is one province.

3. "And wherefore did the Sages say three countries?" "That men might eat during the Sabbatical year in every one of them, till the last fruits be finished in it." R. Simon said, "they did not say three countries, they said only in Judah." And all the other countries are reckoned as the king's mountain; and all countries are reckoned the same for olives and dates.

4. Men may eat so long as there is any fruit legally free, but they must not eat of that which is legally guarded. Rabbi José "allowed it, even when guarded." They may eat fruit so long as it is found in bird's nests, and such fruit as is twice produced in each year, but they must not eat of winter fruit. R. Judah "allowed it at all times, if it ripened before the summer ended."

5. "If men pressed three sorts of fruit in one barrel?" R. Eliezer said, "they may eat of the first." R. Joshua said, "even of the last." Rabban Gamaliel said, "everything, the species of which is finished growing in the field, its species is to be removed from the barrel." 2 Rabbi Simon said, "all greens are reckoned as one. They are to be cleared away from the house." They may eat of the leeks till the teasels have ceased growing in the valley of Beth-Netopha.

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6. "He who gathers fresh herbs?" "He may use them till their sap dry out." "And he who binds the dry in bundles?" "He may use them till the second rain descends." 1 "The leaves of reeds and the leaves of vines?" "They may be used till they fall from their stems." "And he who binds the dry in bundles?" "He may use them till the second rain descends. Rabbi Akiba said, "they may be used by all persons till the second rain descends."

7. "Like to this rule is his case who rented a house to his neighbour till the rains?" "This means till the second rain descends." "He who by his vow cannot get assistance from his neighbour till the rains?" "This means till the second rain descends." "When may the poor enter into the gardens?" 2 "When the second rain descends." "When may they use and burn the stubble and straw of the Sabbatical year?" "When the second rain descends."

8. "A man had fruit of the Sabbatical year, and the time came for clearing it out from his house?" "He may divide to every one victuals for three meals; and the poor may eat the fruit after the clearing of it out, but not the rich." The words of Rabbi Judah. Rabbi José said, "the poor and the rich are alike, they may eat it after it is cleared out."

9. "A man had fruits of the Sabbatical year, whether they fell to him by inheritance, or were given to him by gift?" R. Eliezer said, "let them be given to those who may eat them." But the Sages say, "the transgressor must not profit, but let them be sold to those who may eat them, and let their price be divided to every man." "He who eats dough of the Sabbatical year before the heave-offering be separated from it?" "He is guilty of death."


79:1 The king's mountain is perhaps Mount Ephraim, or the mountain range over the plain of Sharon. It is also suggested that it might have been the mountains round Kirjathjearim (Abu Goosh?). It contained Cephar Bish, Cephar Sheclaim, Cephar Dikraia, etc.

79:2 Others read "and the decision is as his word."

80:1 The second or the "latter" rain (Joel ii. 23), called Malkosh, falls in Spring chiefly during the months of March and April.

80:2 Lev. xxiii. 22; Deut. xxiv. 19.

Next: Chapter X