Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, , at sacred-texts.com
O long-lived (Gambûsvâmin)! I (Sudharman) have heard the following Discourse from the Venerable (Mahâvîra). We now come to the Lecture called 'the Lotus.' The contents of it are as follows: (1)
There is a lotus-pool containing much water and mud, very full and complete, answering to the idea (one has of a lotus-pool), full of white lotuses, delightful, conspicuous, magnificent, and splendid. (2)
And everywhere all over the lotus-pool there grew many white lotuses, the best of Nymphaeas, as we are told, in beautiful array, tall, brilliant, of fine colour, smell, taste, and touch, (&c., all down to) splendid. (3)
And in the very middle of this lotus-pool there grew one big white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas,
as we are told, in an excellent position, tall, (&c., all down to) splendid. (4)
[§§ 3 and 4 are to be repeated with the word 'all' or 'whole' added to 'lotus-pool' 1.] (5)
Now there came a man from the Eastern quarter to the lotus-pool, and standing on the bank of it he saw that one big white lotus, (&c., as above). Now this man spoke thus: 'I am a knowing, clever, well-informed, discerning, wise, not foolish man, who keeps the way, knows the way, and is acquainted with the direction and bent of the way. I shall fetch that white lotus, the best of all Nymphaeas.' Having said this the man entered the lotus-pool. And the more he proceeded, the more the water and the mud (seemed to) extend. He had left the shore, and he did not come up to the white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, he could not get back to this bank, nor to the opposite one, but in the middle of the lotus-pool he stuck in the mud. (6)
This was the first man. Now (we shall describe) the second man. There came a man from the Southern quarter to the lotus-pool, and standing on the bank of it he saw that one big white lotus (&c., all as above). There he saw one man who had left the shore, but had not come up to the white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, who could not get back to his bank, nor to the opposite one, but stuck in the mud in the middle of the lotus-pool. Now the second man spoke of the first man thus: 'This man is not knowing, not clever, (&c., see above, all down to) not acquainted with the direction and bent
of the way.' For that man said: 'I am a knowing, (&c., all down to) I shall fetch that white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas.' But this white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, cannot be got in the way this man tried. (7)
'However, I am a knowing, clever, (&c., all down to the end of the paragraph) he stuck in the mud.' This was the second man. (The same thing happened to a third and a fourth man, who came from the Western and Northern quarters respectively, and saw two and three men respectively sticking in the mud. Some MSS. give the story at length, others abbreviate it.) (8, 9)
Now a monk living on low food and desiring to get to the shore (of the Samsâra), knowing, clever, (&c., all down to) acquainted with the direction and bent of the way, came to that lotus-pool from some one of the four quarters or from one of the intermediate points (of the compass). Standing on the bank of the lotus-pool he saw the one big white lotus, (&c., as above). And he saw there those four men who having left the shore, (&c., all as above) stuck in the mud. Then the monk said: 'These men are not knowing, (&c., all down to) not acquainted with the direction and bent of the way; for these men thought: We shall fetch that white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas. But this white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, cannot be got in the way these men tried. I am a monk living on low food, (&c., all down to) acquainted with the direction and bent of the way. I shall fetch that white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas.' Having said this the monk did not enter the lotus-pool; but standing on the bank of it he raised his voice: 'Fly up,
[paragraph continues] O white lotus, best of Nymphaeas!' And the white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas, flew up. (10)
I have told you, O long-lived Sramanas, a simile 1; you must comprehend the meaning of it 2. The Nirgrantha monks and nuns worshipped and praised the Venerable Ascetic Mahâvîra, and then spoke thus: 'You have told, O long-lived Sramana, the simile, but we do not comprehend its meaning, O long-lived Sramana!' The Venerable Ascetic Mahâvîra addressed the crowd of Nirgrantha monks and nuns, and spoke thus: Ah, you long-lived Sramanas! I shall tell, declare, explain, expound, and demonstrate it with its meaning, reasons, and arguments. Thus I say: (11)
O long-lived Sramanas 3, meaning 4 the world I spoke of the lotus-pool. Meaning Karman I spoke of the water. Meaning pleasures and amusements I spoke of the mud. Meaning people in general I spoke of those many white lotuses, the best of Nymphaeas. Meaning the king I spoke of the one big white lotus, the best of Nymphaeas. Meaning heretical teachers I spoke of those four men. Meaning the Law I spoke of the monk. Meaning the church 5 I spoke of the bank. Meaning the preaching of the Law I spoke of (the monk's) voice. Meaning Nirvâna I spoke of (the lotus') flying up. Meaning these things, O long-lived Sramanas, I told this (simile). (12)
Here in the East, West, North, and South many men have been born according to their merit, as inhabitants of this our world, viz. some as Âryas, some as non-Âryas, some in noble families, some in low families, some as big men, some as small men, some of good complexion, some of bad complexion, some as handsome men, some as ugly men. And of these men one man is king, who is strong like the great Himavat, Malaya, Mandara, and Mahêndra mountains, (&c., all down to) who governs his kingdom in which all riots and mutinies have been suppressed 1.
And this king had an assembly of Ugras 2 and sons of Ugras, Bhôgas 2 and sons of Bhôgas, Aikshvâkas and sons of Aikshvâkas, Gñâtris and sons of Gñâtris, Kauravas and sons of Kauravas, warriors and sons of warriors, Brâhmanas and sons of Brâhmanas, Likkhavis and sons of Likkhavis, commanders and sons of commanders, generals and sons of generals. (13)
And of these men some one 3 is full of faith. Forsooth, the Sramanas or Brâhmanas made up their mind to go to him. Being professors of some religion (they thought) 'We shall teach him our religion.' (And they said): 'Know this, dear sir, that we explain and teach this religion well. (14)
'Upwards from the soles of the feet, downwards
from the tips of the hair on the head, within the skin's surface is (what is called) Soul 1, or what is the same, the Âtman. The whole soul lives; when this (body) is dead, it does not live. It lasts as long as the body lasts, it does not outlast the destruction (of the body). With it (viz. the body) ends life. Other men carry it (viz. the corpse) away to burn it. When it has been consumed by fire, only dove-coloured bones remain, and the four bearers return with the hearse to their village. Therefore there is and exists no (soul different from the body). Those who believe that there is and exists no (such soul), speak the truth. Those who maintain that the soul is something different from the body, cannot tell whether the soul (as separated from the body) is long or small, whether globular or circular or triangular or square or sexagonal or octagonal or long, whether black or blue or red or yellow or white, whether of sweet smell or of bad smell, whether bitter or pungent or astringent or sour or sweet, whether hard or soft or heavy or light or cold or hot or smooth or rough. Those, therefore, who believe that there is and exists no soul, speak the truth. Those who maintain that the soul is something different from the body, do not see the following (objections): (11)
'As a man draws a sword from the scabbard and shows it (you, saying): "Friend, this is the sword, and that is the scabbard," so nobody can draw (the soul from the body) and show it (you, saying): "Friend, this is the soul, and that is the body." As a man draws a fibre from a stalk of Muñga grass and shows it (you, saying): "Friend, this is the stalk, and that is the fibre;" or takes a bone out of the flesh, or the
seed of Âmalaka 1 from the palm of his hand, or a particle of fresh butter out of coagulated milk, and shows you both things separately 2; or as he presses oil from the seed of Atasî 3, and shows the oil and oil-cake separately, or as he presses the juice from the sugar-cane, and shows the juice and the molasses 4 separately, so nobody can show you the soul and the body separately. The same applies also when fire is churned from Arani-wood. Those who believe that there is and exists no soul, speak the truth. Those who say that the soul is different from the body, are wrong.' (16)
This murderer says: 'Kill, dig, slay, burn, cook, cut or break to pieces, destroy! Life ends here; there is no world beyond.'
These (Nâstikas) cannot inform 5 you on the following points: whether an action is good or bad, meritorious or not, well done or not well done, whether one reaches perfection or not, whether one goes to hell or not. Thus undertaking various works they engage in various pleasures and amusements for their own enjoyment. (17)
Thus some shameless men becoming monks propagate a Law of their own. And others believe it, put their faith in it, adopt it, (saying:) 'Well, you speak the truth, O Brâhmana, (or) O Sramana! We shall present you with food, drink, spices, and sweetmeats, with a robe, a bowl, or a broom.'
Some have been induced to honour them, some have made (their proselytes) to honour them. (18)
Before (entering an order) they were determined to become Sramanas, houseless, poor monks who would have neither sons nor cattle, to eat only what should be given them by others, and to commit no sins. After having entered their order they do not cease (from sins), they themselves commit sins, they cause others to commit sins, and they assent to another's committing sins. Thus they are given to pleasures, amusements, and sensual lust; they are greedy, fettered, passionate, covetous, the slaves of love and hate; therefore they cannot free themselves (from the Circle of Births), nor free anybody else from it, nor free any other of the four kinds of living beings from it. They have left their former occupations, but have not entered the noble path. They cannot return (to worldly life), nor get beyond it; they stick (as it were) in pleasures and amusements. Thus I have treated of the first man (as one who believes that) soul and body are one and the same thing. (19)
Now I shall treat of the second man 1 (as one who believes that) everything consists of the five elements.
Here in the East, (&c., see §§ 13, 14, all down to) teach this religion well. (20)
'There are five elements 2 through which we explain
whether an action is good or bad, (&c., see § 18, all down to) hell or not. Everything down to a blade of grass (consists of them). (21)
'And one should know the intermixture 1 of the elements by an enumeration of them. Earth is the first element, water the second, fire the third, wind the fourth, and air the fifth. These five elements are not created, directly or indirectly, nor made; they are not effects nor products; they are without beginning and end; they always produce effects, are independent of a directing cause or everything else; they are eternal. Some, however, say that there is a Self besides the five elements. What is, does not perish; from nothing nothing comes. (22)
All living beings, all things, the whole world consists of nothing but these (five elements). They are the primary cause of the world, even down to a blade of grass. (23)
'A man buys and causes to buy, kills and causes to kill, cooks and causes to cook, he may even sell and kill a man. Know, that even in this case he does not do wrong.'
These (Nâstikas) cannot inform you, (&c., see §§ 15-18, all down to) they stick (as it were) in pleasures and amusements.
Thus I have treated of the second man (who believes that) everything consists of the five elements. (24)
Now I shall treat of the third man (who believes that) the Self 2 is the cause of everything.
Here in the East, (&c., see §§ 12, 13, all down to) teach this religion well. (25)
'Here all things have the Self for their cause and their object, they are produced by the Self, they are manifested by the Self, they are intimately connected with the Self, they are bound up in the Self.
'As, for instance, a tumour is generated in the body, grows with the body, is not separate from the body, but is bound up in the body: so all things have the Self for their cause, (&c., all as above).
'As, for instance, a feeling of indisposition is generated in the body, grows with the body, is never separate from the body, but is bound up in the body: so all things have the Self for their cause, (&c., all as above).
'As, for instance, an anthill is made of earth, grows through earth, is not separate from earth, but is bound up in earth: so all things, (&c., all as above).
'As, for instance, a tree springs up on earth, grows on earth, is not separate from earth, but is bound up in earth: so all things, (&c., all as above).
'As, for instance, a lotus springs up in earth, grows on earth, is not separate from earth, but is bound up in earth: so all things, (&c., all as above).
'As, for instance, a mass of water is produced by water, grows through water, is not separate from water, but is bound up in water: so all things, (&c., all as above).
'As, for instance, a water-bubble is produced in water, grows in water, is not separate from water,
but is bound up in water: so all things, (&c., all as above). (26)
'And the twelve Aṅgas, the Canon of the Ganins 1, which has been taught, produced, and declared by the Sramanas, the Nirgranthas, viz. the Âkârâṅga (all down to) the Drishtivâda, is wrong, not true, not a representation of the truth; but this (our doctrine) is correct, is true, is a representation of the truth.'
The (heretics in question) make this assertion, they uphold this assertion, they (try to) establish this assertion.
Therefore they cannot get out of the misery produced by this (error), even as a bird cannot get out of its cage. (27)
These (heretics) cannot inform you, (&c., see §§ 16-19, all down to) they stick, as it were, in pleasures and amusements.
Thus I have treated of the third man (who believes that) the Self is the cause of everything. (28)
Now I shall treat of the fourth man who believes that Fate is the cause of everything.
Here in the East, (&c., see §§ 12, 13, all down to) teach this religion well. (29)
'There are two (kinds of) men. One man admits action, another man does not admit action. Both men, he who admits action, and he who does not admit action, are alike, their case is the same, because they are actuated by the same force 2. (30)
'An ignorant man thinks about the cause as follows: "When I suffer, grieve, blame myself, grow feeble 1, am afflicted, or undergo great pain, I have caused it; or when another man suffers, &c., he has caused it." Thus an ignorant man thinks himself or another man to be the cause of what he or the other man experiences. (31)
'A wise man thinks about the cause as follows: "When I suffer, &c., I did not cause it; and when another man suffers, &c., he did not cause it 2."
'A wise man thinks thus 3 about the cause of what he himself or another man experiences. I say this: "Movable or immovable beings in all the four quarters thus (i.e. by the will of Fate) cone to have a body, to undergo the vicissitudes of life, to lose their body, to arrive at some state of existence, to experience pleasure and pain 4."'
Entertaining such opinions these (heretics) cannot inform you, (&c., as in § 17, down to the end). (32)
These worthless men entertain such opinions, and believe in them till they cannot return, (&c., as in § 19 down to) amusements.
I have treated of the fourth man who believes that Fate is the cause of everything. (33)
These four men, differing in intellect, will, character, opinions, taste, undertakings, and plans, have left their former occupations, but have not entered the noble path. They cannot return (to worldly life) nor get beyond it; they stick (as it were) in pleasures and amusements. (34)
I say: here in the East, West, North, and South there are some men, viz. Âryas, non-Âryas, (&c., as in § 13, all down to) ugly men. They own small or large houses and fields, they own few or many servants and peasants. Being born in such-like families, they renounce (their possessions) and lead a mendicant's life. Some leave their kinsmen and their property to lead a mendicant's life; others, who have no kinsmen nor property, lead a mendicant's life. Whether they have kinsmen and property or not, they renounce them and lead a mendicant's life. (35)
Previously, however, they thought thus: 'Here, indeed, a man, who is on the point of turning monk, makes the following reflections with regard to different things: I possess fields, houses, silver, gold, riches, corn, copper, clothes, real valuable property, as riches, gold, precious stones, jewels, pearls, conches, stones, corals, rubies 1. I enjoy sounds, colours, smells, tastes, and feelings of touch. These pleasures and amusements belong to me, and I belong to them.' (36)
A wise man, previously, should thus think to
himself: 'Here, indeed, some painful illness or disease might befall me, unwished for, unpleasant, disagreeable, nasty 1, painful and not at all pleasant. O ye dear pleasures, take upon you this painful illness or disease, unwished for, unpleasant, disagreeable, nasty, painful and not at all pleasant, that I may not suffer, grieve, blame myself, grow feeble, be afflicted, and undergo great pain 2. Deliver me from this painful illness or disease, (&c., all as above).' But this desire of his has never yet been fulfilled. (37)
Here, in this life, pleasures and amusements are not able to help or to save one. Sometimes a man first forsakes pleasures and amusements, sometimes they first forsake him. Pleasures and amusements are one thing, and I am another. Why then should we be infatuated with pleasures and amusements which are alien (to our being)? Taking this into consideration, we shall give up pleasures and amusements. A wise man thinks them alien to himself. (38)
There are things more intimately connected with me, viz. my mother, father, brother, sister, wife, children, grandchildren, daughters-in-law, servants, friends, kinsmen, companions, and acquaintances. These my relations belong to me, and I belong to them. A wise man, previously, should think thus to himself: 'Here, indeed, some painful illness or disease might befall me, (&c., all as in § 37 down to the end, but substitute "relations" for "pleasures"). (39)
'Or some painful illness or disease, unwished for, (&c., all down to) not at all pleasant might befall my dear relations. I will take upon me this painful illness or disease, &c., that they may not suffer, (all down to) undergo great pain. I will deliver them from this painful illness or disease.' But this desire of his has never yet, been fulfilled. For one man cannot take upon himself the pains of another; one man cannot experience what another has done 1. (40)
Individually a man is born, individually he dies, individually he falls (from this state of existence), individually he rises (to another) 2. His passions 3, consciousness, intellect, perceptions, and impressions belong to the individual exclusively. Here, indeed, the bonds of relationship are not able to help nor save one. (All as in § 38 down to the end; substitute 'bonds of relationship' for 'pleasures and amusements.') (40
There are things more intimately connected with me, viz. my hands, feet, arms, legs, head, belly, character, life, strength, colour, skin, complexion, ear, eye, nose, tongue, and touch; they are part and parcel of me. But I grow old with regard to life, strength, (all down to) touch. The strong joints become loose, the body is furrowed with wrinkles, the black hair turns white, even this dear body which has grown with food, must be relinquished in due time.
[paragraph continues] Making such reflections, a monk should lead a mendicant's life and know that all things are divided into living beings and things without life, (and living beings again into) movable and immovable ones. (42)
Here, indeed, householders are killers (of beings) and acquirers of property, and so are even some Sramanas and Brâhmanas. They themselves kill movable and immovable living beings, have them killed by another person, or consent to another's killing them. (43)
Here, indeed, householders are killers (of beings) and acquirers of property, and so are even some Sramanas and Brâhmanas. They themselves acquire sentient or senseless objects of pleasure, have them acquired by another person, or consent to another's acquiring them. (44)
Here, indeed, householders are killers (of beings) and acquirers of property, and so are even some Sramanas and Brâhmanas. But I am no killer (of beings) nor an acquirer of property. Relying upon 1 householders and such Sramanas and Brâhmanas as are killers (of beings) and acquirers of property, we shall lead a life of chastity. (He should, however, part company with them.) (The pupil asks): What is the reason thereof? (The teacher answers): As before (their ordination they were killers of beings), so (they will be) afterwards, and vice versâ. It is evident that (householders) do not abstain (from sins) nor exert themselves (in control); and (as monks) they will relapse into the same (bad habits). (45)
The householders and those Sramanas and Brâhmanas, who are killers (of beings) and acquirers of property, commit sins both (from love and hatred). But a monk who takes this into consideration, should lead a life subject to neither (love nor hatred). (46)
I say: in the East, West, North, and South (a true monk) will have renounced works, be exempt from works, will have put an end to them. This has been taught (by the prophets, &c.). (47)
The Venerable One has declared that the cause (of sins) are the six classes of living beings, earth-lives, &c. As is my pain when I am knocked of-struck with a stick, bone, fist, clod, or potsherd; or menaced, beaten, burned, tormented, or deprived of life; and as I feel every pain and agony from death down to the pulling out of a hair: in the same way, be sure of this, all kinds of living beings feel the same pain and agony, &c., as I, when they are ill-treated in the same way 1. For this reason all sorts of living beings should not be beaten, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor deprived of life 2. (48)
I say: the Arhats and Bhagavats of the past, present, and future, all say thus, speak thus, declare thus, explain thus: all sorts of living beings should not be slain, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented, nor driven away. This constant, permanent, eternal, true Law has been taught by wise men who comprehend all things. Thus a monk abstains from (the five cardinal sins) slaughter of living beings, &c. He does not clean his teeth with
a tooth-brush 1, he does not accept collyrium, emetics, and perfumes. (49)
A monk who does not act, nor kill, who is free from wrath, pride, deceit, and greed, who is calm and happy, should not entertain the following wish: May I, after my departure from this world, by dint of my intellect, knowledge, memory, learning, or of the performance of austerities, religious duties, chastity, or of this habit to eat no more than is necessary to sustain life, become a god at whose command are all objects of pleasure, or a perfected saint who is exempt from pain and misery. (Through his austerities) he may obtain his object, or he may not obtain it. (50)
A monk should not be infatuated with sounds, colours, smells, tastes, and feelings of touch; he should abstain from wrath, pride, deceit, and greed, from love, hate, quarrel, calumny, reviling of others, aversion to control and delight in sensual things, deceit and untruth, and the sin of wrong belief. In this way a monk ceases to acquire gross Karman, controls himself, and abstains from sins. (51)
He does not kill movable or immovable beings, nor has them killed by another person, nor does he consent to another's killing them. In this way a monk ceases to acquire gross Karman, controls himself, and abstains from sins. (52)
He does not acquire sentient or senseless objects of pleasure, nor has them acquired by another person, nor does he consent to another's acquiring them. In this way, (&c., all as above). (53)
He does no actions arising from sinful causes 1, nor has them done by another person, nor does he consent to another's doing them. In this way (&c., all as above). (54)
A monk should not take food, drink, dainties, and spices when he knows that (the householder) to satisfy him, or for the sake of a co-religionist, has bought or stolen or taken it, though it was not given nor to be taken, but was taken by force, by acting sinfully towards all sorts of living beings 2; nor does he cause another person to eat it, nor does he consent to another's eating it. In this way (&c., all as above). (55)
A monk may think as follows: The (householders) have the means (to procure food for those) for whose sake it is prepared; viz. for himself 3, his sons, daughters, daughters-in-law, nurses, relations, chiefs, male and female slaves, male and female servants; for a treat of sweetmeats, for a supper, for a breakfast the collation has been prepared. This food is to be eaten by some people, it is prepared by some one else, it is destined for some one else, it is free from the faults occasioned either by the giver or by the receiver or by the act of receiving it 4, rendered pure 5, rendered free from living matter 6, wholly free from living things 7, it has been begged, has been given to the monk on account of his profession 8,
it has been collected in small bits 1, it is food fit for a learned monk, it is lawful to eat it at the present occasion, it is of the prescribed quantity, it greases, as it were, the axle of the carriage and anoints the sore, being just sufficient to enable one to practise control and to carry the burden of it; he should consume that food (without delay) even as the snake returning to its hole; that is to say: one should eat when it is time for eating, drink when it is time for drinking, dress when it is time for dressing, seek cover when it is time for seeking cover, and sleep when it is time for sleeping. (56)
A monk who knows the proper measure (in all things) travelling in one direction or other, should teach, explain, and praise (the Law), preach it unto those who exert themselves well, and to those who do not, to all who come to listen. (He should preach to them): indifference for the peace of mind, cessation of passion, Nirvâna, purity, simplicity, humility, freedom from bonds 2. He should preach the Law which prohibits to kill any living being, after having well considered it. (57)
When a monk preaches the Law, he should preach it not for the sake of food, drink, clothes, resting-place, or lodging, nor for any objects of pleasure; but he should preach the Law indefatigably, for no other motive than the annihilation of Karman. (58)
Those heroes of faith who are instructed in the Law by such a monk and exert themselves well, are
possessed of all (virtues), abstain from all (sins), cease from all (passions), conduct themselves well in every way, and reach final beatitude. (59)
Such a monk searches the Law, knows the Law, and endeavours to gain Liberation; as it has been said: 'He may get the white lotus, the best of Nymphaeus, or he may not get it.' Such a monk knows and renounces actions, worldly occupations, and the life of a householder; he is free from passions, possesses the Samitis, is wise, always exerts himself; he is to be called: a Sramana, a Brâhmana, calm, a subduer of his senses, guarding himself, liberated, a seer, a sage, virtuous, wise, a monk, living on low food, desiring to get to the shore (of the Samsâra), fulfilling the general and particular virtues 1. (60)
Thus I say.
335:1 With the exception of the fifth and sixth lectures, the whole Book (srutaskandha) is in prose. I have adhered to the subdivision of the lectures exhibited in the Bombay edition, which, on the whole, agrees with that of most MSS.
335:2 The lectures of this Book are called, according to the Niryukti, Great (mahâ) Lectures.
336:1 In the text the words savvâvanti ka nam are prefixed to the text of §§ 3 and 4. I give the explanation of Sîlâṅka.
338:1 Nâê = gñâtam, literally, that which is known.
338:2 In the text the sentence closes with bhante, a word frequently used in addressing members of the order.
338:3 These words are in the original repeated in each of the following sentences. I drop them in the translation.
338:4 Appâhattu = atmany âhritya, literally, having in my mind.
339:1 This is one of the varnaka or typical descriptions which are so frequent in the canonical books. The full text is given in the Aupapâtika Sûtra, ed. Leumann, § II, p. 26 f. Of the many meanings the word varnaka may have, 'masterpiece' seems the one in which it must be taken here. Many varnakas are, partly at least, composed in a curious metre which I have named Hypermetron, see Indische Studien, vol. xvii, pp. 389 ff.
339:2 Concerning the Ugras and Bhôgas compare note 2 on p. 71.
339:3 Apparently the king is meant.
341:1 Emblica Myrobalanos.
341:2 I have somewhat condensed this passage.
341:3 Ayauttasî in Prâkrit; it is Linum Usitatissimum.
341:4 Khôya. See Grierson, Peasant Life of Bihar, p. 236. The word is apparently derived from root kshud.
341:5 Padivêdenti = prativêdayanti. The commentators, however, explain it as 'understand.'
342:1 According to the commentators the Lôkâyatikas or the Sâṅkhyas are intended. The latter explain the whole world as developed from the Prâkriti or chaos, and contend that the âtman does not act. The Lôkâyatikas deny the separate existence of the âtman, and maintain that the elements are called âtman when they manifest intellect (kaitanya).
342:2 Mahabbhûya = mahâbhûta.
343:2 The word used in the text is îsara = îsvara, but afterwards purisa = purusha is used in its place. Both words are synonymous p. 344 with âtman, the first may denote the highest âtman as in the Yôga philosophy, or the paramâtman as in the Vêdânta.
345:2 Viz. Fate. For it is their destiny to entertain one belief or the other, and they are not amenable to it. This is the interpretation of the commentators. But to the phrase kâranam âpanna they give here a meaning different from that in the following paragraphs. I therefore propose the following translation of the end of the p. 346 paragraph: 'are equally (wrong), (err) alike as regards the cause (of actions).'
346:1 Tippâmi, explained 'lose strength of body.' The word cannot be tripyâmi, because it means 'I am satisfied.' The word is probably derived from the root tik 'to kill.' Tippâmi would be an irregular passive, just as sippâmi from sik, see Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung, vol. xxvii, p. 250. Leumann, Aupapâtika Sûtra, glossary sv. tippanayâ, explains this word by 'crying' on the authority of Abhayadêva. Either meaning suits the passages where it occurs in our text.
346:2 But Fate is the cause.
346:3 That is to say, that Fate distributes pleasure and pain.
346:4 I render the rather ambiguous expressions in the original according to the interpretation of the commentators.
347:1 The same enumeration of valuable things occurs elsewhere, e.g. Kalpa Sûtra, Lives of the Ginas, § 90.
348:1 The original has six synonyms for disagreeable, which it is impossible to render adequately in English.
348:2 The same words occurred in § 31.
349:1 I.e. his Karman.
349:2 According to the commentators the last two passages should be translated: 'individually he leaves (his possessions, &c.), individually he is joined (to them).'
349:3 Ghañghâ = kalaha.
350:1 Nissâe = nisrayâ, explained âsrayêna.
351:1 The text repeats the phrases just translated.
351:2 The same words form the text of the homily in Âkârâṅga I, 4.
352:1 Or rather a piece of wood with which the Hindus rub their teeth.
353:1 Sâmparâyika. The commentators say: tak ka pradvêshanihnavamâtsaryântarâyâsâtanôpaghâtair badhyatê.
353:2 Compare Âkârâṅga Sûtra II, I, I, II.
353:3 Apparently the householder is intended.
353:4 Udgama, utpâdanâ, êshanâ. See above, p. 131, note 7.
354:1 Samudânikam, i.e. as bees collect honey from many flowers. Cf. p. 80, note 1.
354:2 Compare Âkârâṅga Sûtra I, 7, 4, I, part i, p. 68, note 3.
355:1 Karanakaranapâravid. Karana is explained by mûlaguna, karana by uttaraguna. The mûlagunas consist in the observance of the five vows, the uttaragunas are the five Samitis, the three Guptis, &c., in short, the duties of a monk.