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The non-Arabist will gain much insight into Muslim life and thought by reading such translations as that of Ibn Khallikan by De Slane (Paris-London; 1843-71), the Persian Tabari, by Zotenberg (Paris; 1867-74), Ibn Batuta by Defrémery and Sanguinetti (Paris; 1853-58), Mas‘udi by C. Barbier de Meynard and Pavet de Courteille (Paris; 1861-77), Ibd Khaldun's Prolégomènes by De Slane (Paris; 1862-68), ad-Dimishqi by Mehren (Copenhagen; 1874), al-Beruni's Chronology by Sachau (London; 1879).

The translations and notes in De Sacy's Chrestomathie arabe (Paris; 1826) can also be used to advantage.

Very many valuable articles will be found scattered through the Zeitschrift of the German Oriental Society (hereafter ZDMG), the Journal asiatique (hereafter JA), the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (hereafter JRAS) and the Vienna Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes (hereafter WZ).

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It is always worth while to consult the Encyclopædia Britannica.

The best translations of the Qur’an into English are those by E. H. Palmer (2 vols., Oxford; 1880) and J. M. Rodwell (London; 1871). The first more perfectly represents the spirit and tone, and the second more exactly the letter. The commentary added by Sale to his version and his introduction are still useful.

The Thousand and One Nights should be read in its entirety in Arabic or in a translation by every student of Islam. English translation by Lane (incomplete but accurate and with very valuable commentary); Burton (last edition almost complete; 12 vols., London: 1894). Payne's translation is complete, as is also Burton's privately printed edition; but, while exceedingly readable, Payne hardly represents the tone of the original. There is an almost complete and very cheap German version by Henning published by Reclaim, Leipzig); Mardrus' French version is inaccurate and free to such an extent as to make it useless. Galland's version is a work of genius; but it belongs to French and not to Arabic literature.

R. P. A. Dozy: Essai sur l’histoire de l’islamisme. Leyden, 1879. A readable introduction.

A. MÜLLER: Der Islam im Morgen-und-Abendland. 2 vols. Berlin, 1885, 1887. The best general history of Islam.

STANLEY LANE-POOLE: The Mohammedan Dynasties; chronological and genealogical tables with historical introductions. Westminster, 1894. An indispensable book for any student of Muslim history.

C. BROCKELMANN: Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur. 2 vols. Weimar, 1898, 1899. Indispensable for names, dates, and books, but not a history in any true sense.

T. B. HUGHES: A Dictionary of Islam. London, 1896. Very full of information, but to be used with caution. Based on Persian sources largely.

E. W. LANE: An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians. First edition, London, 1836; third, 1842. Many others. Indispensable.

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C. M. DOUGHTY. Travels in Arabia Deserta 2 vols. Cambridge, 1888. By far the best book on nomad life in Arabia. Gives the fullest and clearest idea of the nature and workings of the Arab mind.

J. L. BURCKHARDT: Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabys. 2 vols. London, 1831.

T L. BURCKHARDT: Travels in Arabia. 2 vols. London, 1829.

R. F. BURTON: Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to al-Madinah and Meccah. 2 vols. Last edition, London, 1898. On the Hajj and Muslim life, thought and studies generally in the middle of the nineteenth century. Readable and accurate to a degree.

C. SNOUCK HURGRONJE: Mekka. 2 vols. and portfolio of plates. Haag, 1888, 1889. Is somewhat dull beside Burton, but very full and accurate.

W. ROBERTSON SMITH Lectures on the Religion of the Semites. First Series. New edition, London, 1894. Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia. Cambridge, 1885.

IGNAZ GOLDZIHER: Muhammedanische Studien. I, Halle a. S., 1889. II, 1890. Epoch-marking books; as are all Goldziher's contributions to the history of Muslim civilization.

ALFRED VON KREMER Geschichte der herrschenden Ideen des Islams. Leipzig, 1868.

ALFRED VON KREMER Culturgeschichte des Orients enter den Chalifen. 2 vols. Wien, 1875-77. Culturgeschichtliche Streifzüge. Leipzig, 1873.

EDWARD G. BROWNE: A Year Among the Persians. London, 1893. A most valuable account of modern Persian life, philosophy, and theology, and especially of Sufiism and Babism.

EDWARD G. BROWNE: A Literary History of Persia. New York, 1902. Really political and religious prolegomena to such a history.

G. A. HERKLOTS: Qanoon-e-Islam, or the Customs of the Moosulmans of India. London, 1832.

Next: II. On Muslim History and on Present Condition of Muslim World