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Thirty Minor Upanishads, tr. by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar, [1914], at

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Om. The body is a compound of pṛṭhivī (earth) and other mahābhūṭas (primordial elements, as pas or water, agni or fire, vāyu or air, and ākāś). (In the body), that which is hard is (of the essence of) earth; that which is liquid is (of the essence of) water; that which is hot is (of the essence of) fire; that which moves about is (of the essence of) vāyu; that which is perforated is (of the essence of) ākāś. The ear and others are the jñānenḍriyas (organs of sense). The ear is of the essence of ākāś, the skin of the essence of vāyu, the eye of the essence of fire, the tongue of the essence of water, and the nose of the essence of earth; sound, touch, form, taste, and odour being respectively the objects of perception for these organs. These arose respectively out of the primordial elements, beginning with earth. The mouth, the hands, the legs, the organs of excretion and the organs of generation are the karmenḍriyas (or organs of action). Their functions are respectively talking, lifting, walking, excretion, and enjoyment. Anṭaḥkaraṇa (or the internal organ) is of four kinds—manas, buḍḍhi, ahaṅkāra, and chiṭṭa. Their functions are respectively saṅkalpa-vikalpa, (or will-thought and doubt), determination, egoism, and memory. The seat of manas is the end of the throat, that of buḍḍhi the face, that of ahaṅkāra the heart, and that of chiṭṭa the navel. The bone, skin, nādis, nerves, hair, and flesh are of the essence of earth. Urine,

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phlegm, blood, śukla (or sperm), and sweat are of the essence of water. Hunger, thirst, sloth, delusion, and (desire of) copulation are of the essence of fire. Walking, scratching, opening and closing the gross eyes, etc., are of the essence of vāyu. Desire, anger, avarice, delusion, and fear are of the essence of ākāś. Sound, touch, form, taste, and odour are the properties of earth: sound, touch, form, and taste are the properties of water: sound, touch, and form, are the properties of fire: sound and touch are the properties of vāyu: sound alone is the property of ākāś. There are three guṇas (or qualities), sāṭṭvika, rājasa, and ṭāmasa. Non-killing, veracity, not stealing, continence, non-covetousness, refraining from anger, serving the guru, purity (in mind and body), contentment, right conduct, abstinence from self-praise, freedom from pompousness, firm conviction in the existence of God, and not causing any injury to others—all these are to be known as sāṭṭvika-guṇas chiefly. I am the actor, I am the enjoyer, I am the speaker, and I am the egoistic—such are said by knowers of Brahman to be rājasa-guṇas. Sleep, sloth, delusion, desire, copulation, and theft are said by expounders of the Veḍas to be ṭāmasa-guṇas. Those having saṭṭva-guṇa (go) up (viz., to higher spheres)—those having rājasa-guṇa (stay) in the middle (viz., the sphere of earth)—those having ṭāmasa-guṇa (go) down (viz., to hell, etc.). Perfect (or divine) knowledge is of sāṭṭvika-guṇa; knowledge of ḍharma is of rājasa-guṇa, and mental darkness is of ṭāmasa. Jāgraṭa (waking state), svapna (dreaming state), sushupṭi (dreamless sleeping state), and ṭurya (the fourth state beyond these three) are the four states. Jāgraṭa is (the state) having (the play of) the fourteen organs, the organs of sense (five), the organs of action (five), and the four internal organs. Svapna is (the state) associated with the four internal organs. Sushupṭi is (the state) where the chiṭṭa is the only organ. Ṭurya is that state having jīva alone. Regarding jīvāṭmā and Paramāṭmā (enjoying the three states) of a person with opened eyes, with closed eyes, and with eyes in an intermediate state with neither, jīva is said to be the Ksheṭrajña (the lord of the body). The organs of sense

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[paragraph continues] (five), the organs of action (five), prāṇas (five), manas, and buḍḍhi—all these seventeen are said to constitute the sūkshma or liṅga (viz., subtle) body. Manas, buḍḍhi, ahaṅkāra, ākāś, vāyu, fire, water, and earth—these are the eight prakṛṭis (or matter): ear, skin, eye, tongue, nose the fifth, the organs of excretion, the organs of secretion, hands, legs, speech the tenth, sound, form, touch, taste, and odour are the fifteen modifications (of the above eight prakṛṭis). Therefore the ṭaṭṭvas are twenty-three. The twenty-fourth is avyakṭa (the undifferentiated matter) or praḍhāna. Purusha is other than (or superior to) this. Thus is the Upanishaḍ.


113:1 This Upanishaḍ treats of Sarīra or the body.

Next: 16. Garbha-Upanishaḍ of Kṛshṇa-Yajurveḍa