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Thirty Minor Upanishads, tr. by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar, [1914], at

p. 34




Om. Manas (mind) is said to be of two kinds, the pure and the impure. That which is associated with the thought of desire is the impure, while that which is without desire is the pure. To men, their mind alone is the cause of bondage or emancipation. That mind which is attracted by objects of sense tends to bondage, while that which is not so attracted tends to emancipation. Now inasmuch as to a mind without a desire for sensual objects there is stated to be salvation, therefore an aspirant after emancipation should render his mind ever free from all longing after material objects. When a mind freed from the desires for objects and controlled in the heart attains the reality of Āṭmā, then is it in the Supreme Seat. Till that which arises in the heart perishes, till then it (Manas) should be controlled. This only is (true) wisdom. This only is true Ḍhyāna (meditation). Other ways are but long or tedious. It (Brahman) is not at all one that can be contemplated upon. It is not one that cannot be contemplated upon. It is not capable of contemplation, (and yet) it should be contemplated upon. Then one attains Brahman that is devoid of partiality. Yoga should be associated with Swara (sound, accent). (Brahman) should be meditated upon without Swara. By meditating without Swara upon Brahman, that which is cannot become non-existent. Such a Brahman is partless, devoid of fancy and quiescent (or free from the action of mind). Whoever cognizes "I" to be that Brahman

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attains certainly Brahman. A wise man having known that Brahman, that is without fancy, without end, without cause, or example, beyond inference and without beginning, is emancipated. There is (for him then) no destruction, no creation, no person in bondage, no devotee, no aspirant for salvation, no emancipated person. This is the truth. Āṭmā that should be contemplated upon is One in (the three states), the waking, the dreaming, and the dreamless sleep. There is no rebirth to him who goes beyond the three states. The one Bhūṭāṭmā of all beings is in all beings. Like the moon (reflected) in water, he appears as one and as many. While a pot is being carried (from one place to another), the Ākāś (ether) that is within it is not carried (along with it). As the pot alone is carried, Jīva (within the body) may be likened to the Ākāś. Like the pot, the body has various kinds of forms. The body which perishes again and again is not conscious of its own destruction. But he (the Jīva) knows (it) always. He who is enveloped by the Māyā of sound, is never able to come to (or see) the sun (of Parabrahman) from the darkness (of ignorance). Should such darkness be cleared, then he alone sees the non-dual state. Parabrahman is Śabḍākshara. 1 What remains after the cessation of Śabḍa-Veḍas, that is Akshara (indestructible)', should be meditated upon by a learned man who wishes to secure quiescence to his Āṭmā.

Two Viḍyās (sciences) are fit to be known, viz., Śabḍabrahman and Parabrahman. One who has completely mastered Śabḍabrahman attains Parabrahman. Having studied well the books, the learned man should persevere studiously in Jñāna (the acquisition of knowledge) and Vijñāna (Self-realisation according to such knowledge). Then he should discard the whole of the books, as a person in quest of grain gives up the straw. Though there are cows of different colours, yet their milk is of the same colour. Like milk is seen Jñāna, and like cows are seen the different kinds of forms (in the universe). As ghee is latent in milk, so is Vijñāna (Self-realisation) latent in every being. Through churning always the Manas with the

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churning-stick of Manas and the string of Jñāna, Parabrahman that is partless, calm and quiescent should be brought out like fire from the wood. I am that Brahman. That Vāsuḍeva who is support of all beings, who lives in all and who protects all creatures is Myself. That Vāsuḍeva is Myself.

Such is the Upanishaḍ.



34:1 Lit., the immortal germ.

35:1 It is the indestructible known through the sound or the Veḍas.

Next: 7. Āṭmaboḍha-Upanishaḍ of Ṛgveḍa