Satapatha Brahmana Part III (SBE41), Julius Eggeling tr. , at sacred-texts.com
5:2:4:11. He offers the Vaisvadeva 1 (All-gods’ offering); for by means of the Vaisvadeva, Pragâpati created abundance (of food) and creatures, thinking, 'May I be consecrated, after creating abundance and creatures!' And in like manner does this (Sacrificer) now, by the Vaisvadeva, create abundance and creatures, thinking, 'May I be consecrated, after creating abundance and creatures!'
5:2:4:22. He then offers the Varunapraghâsâh 2; for by means of the Varunapraghâsâh Pragâpati delivered the creatures from Varuna's noose, and those creatures of his were produced healthy and faultless: 'May I be consecrated for healthy, faultless creatures!'
he thought. And in like manner does this (Sacrificer) now, by the Varunapraghâsâh, deliver the creatures from Varuna's noose, and those creatures of his are produced healthy and faultless: 'May I be consecrated for healthy, faultless creatures!' so he thinks.
5:2:4:33. He then performs the Sâkamedhâh 1; for by the Sâkamedhâh the gods slew Vritra, and gained that universal conquest which now is theirs. And in, like manner does this (Sacrificer) thereby now slay his wicked, hateful enemy; and in like manner does he gain the victory, thinking, 'May I be consecrated, when safety and security are gained!'
5:2:4:44. He then performs the Sunâsîrya 2, thinking, 'May I be consecrated, having encompassed both essences! Thereupon the Pañkavâtîya 3 (oblation to the five winds). Having poked the Âhavanîya fire asunder into five parts, he offers, cutting out butter with the dipping-spoon.
5:2:4:55. He offers in the forepart (of the fire), with (Vâg. S. IX, 35), 'To the Agni-eyed gods, the east-seated, hail!' He then offers in the southern part
with, 'To the Yama-eyed 1 gods, the south-seated, hail!' He then offers in the hind part with, 'To the Visvadeva-eyed gods, the west-seated, hail!' He then offers in the northern part with either, 'To the Mitrâvaruna-eyed gods,--or, To the Marut-eyed gods,--the north-seated, hail!' He then offers in the centre with, 'To the Soma-eyed gods, the above-seated; the venerable, hail!'
5:2:4:66. Having then poked (the fire) together, he offers with (Vâg. S. IX, 36), 'The gods that are Agni-eyed, east-seated, to them hail!--The gods that are Yama-eyed, south-seated, to them hail!--The gods that are Visvadeva-eyed, west-seated, to them hail!--The gods that are Mitrâvaruna-eyed--or, Marut-eyed--north-seated, to them hail!--The gods that are Soma-eyed, above-seated, venerable, to them hail!' Now as to why he thus offers.
5:2:4:77. Now when, by means of the Sâkamedhâh, the gods were gaining that universal conquest, which now is theirs, they said, 'Verily the fiends, the Rakshas, suck out these (creatures) in the (four) quarters: come, let us throw the thunderbolt at them!' Now the ghee is a thunderbolt: with that thunderbolt, the ghee, they smote the fiends, the Rakshas, in the (four) quarters, and gained that universal conquest which now is theirs. And in like manner does this (Sacrificer) smite the fiends, the Rakshas, in the quarters, by that thunderbolt, the ghee; and thus he gains the victory, thinking, 'May
[paragraph continues] I be consecrated, when safety and security have been gained!'
5:2:4:88. And as to why he offers those five latter oblations. Now when they poke the Âhavanîya asunder into five parts, thereby they wound and tear some of the fire; and hereby now he heals it: therefore he offers those five latter oblations.
5:2:4:99. For this (offering) a carriage and pair, with a side horse, is the priest's fee. Three horses, the warrior, and the charioteer,--these are five breaths, and the breath is the same as the wind: and because that is the fee for this sacrifice, therefore it is called Pañkavâtîya (belonging to the five winds).
5:2:4:1010. He may also heal (some disease 1) with this (offering): For yonder blower (or purifier, the wind) is this breath; and the breath is the same as the vital energy. Now he (the wind) blows as one only, but on entering into man, he is divided tenfold; and ten are those oblations he offers: thus he (the priest) endows him with the ten vital airs, with the whole, entire vital energy; and were he now even as one whose vital spirit has departed, verily by this (offering) he (the priest) brings him round again.
5:2:4:1111. Thereupon the Indraturîya 2.--There is a cake on eight potsherds for Agni, a barley pap for Varuna, a pap of gavedhukâ seed (coix barbata) for Rudra; and a mess of sour curds from a yoke-trained
cow for Indra: this Indraturîya he offers. Now Indra and Agni on that occasion consulted with each other: 'Verily the fiends, the Rakshas, suck out these (creatures) in the (four) quarters: come, let us throw the thunderbolt at them!'
5:2:4:1212. Agni then spake, 'Let there be three shares for me, one for thee!'--'So be it!'--By that offering those two smote the fiends, the Rakshas, in the (four) quarters, and gained that universal conquest which now is theirs. And in like manner does this (Sacrificer) by that offering smite the fiends, the Rakshas, in the quarters; and gain the victory, thinking, 'May I be consecrated, when safety and security have been gained!'
5:2:4:1313. Now what cake on eight potsherds there is for Agni, that is one of Agni's shares; and what barley pap there is for Varuna--Varuna being the same as Agni--that is Agni's second share; and what pap of gavedhukâ seed there is for Rudra--Rudra being the same as Agni--that is Agni's third share. And as to why it is prepared of gavedhukâ seed: that god surely is (the recipient) of refuse (remains of offering) 1, and gavedhukâ grass is refuse,--hence it is prepared of gavedhukâ seed. And what mess of sour curds there is from a yoke-trained cow for Indra, that is the fourth share (being that) of Indra--turîya being the same as katurtha (fourth)--hence the name Indraturîya. That same yoke-trained cow is the fee for this (offering); for by her shoulder she is of Agni's nature, since her shoulder is, as it were, fire-burnt; and in that, being a female, she improperly draws (the cart), that is her Varunic
nature; and in that she is a cow, she is of Rudra's nature 1; and in that Indra's sour curds (come) from her, thereby she is of Indra's nature. Indeed that (cow) commands all that: therefore that same yoke-trained cow is the fee.
5:2:4:1414. Thereupon he performs the Apâmârgahoma; for by means of apâmârga plants (achyranthes aspera) the gods wiped away (apa-marg) the fiends, the Rakshas, in the quarters, and gained that universal conquest which now is theirs. And in like manner does this (Sacrificer) now by means of apâmârga plants wipe away the fiends, the Rakshas, in the quarters; and in like manner does he gain the victory, thinking, 'May I be consecrated, when safety and security have been gained!'
5:2:4:1515. He takes apâmârga grains in a dipping-spoon of either palâsa (butea frondosa) or vikaṅkata (flacourtia sapida) wood. They take a firebrand from the Anvâhâryapakana (southern) fire; and proceed therewith eastward or northward; and there having made up a fire he offers.
5:2:4:1616. He takes the firebrand with (Vâg. S. IX, 37; Rik S. III, 24, 1), 'Encounter the arrays, Agni!'--arrays means battles: 'encounter the battles!' he thereby says;--'Repel the evil-wisher!'--the evil-wisher is the enemy: 'beat off the enemy!' he thereby says;--'Unconquerable, conquering the evil-doers!'--unconquerable he is indeed, by the Rakshas, the fiends; and conquering the evil-doers, for he conquers every evil:
therefore he says, 'conquering the evil-doers;'--'Bestow glory upon the offerer of sacrifice!'--'bestowing blessing on the Sacrificer,' is what he thereby says.
5:2:4:1717. Thereupon making up the fire he offers with (Vâg. S. IX, 38), 'At the impulse of the God Savitri I offer with the arms of the Asvins, with the hands of Pûshan, with the strength of the Upâmsu!' for the Upâmsu 1 (cup of Soma) is the mouth (or opening) of the sacrifice: thus he slays the fiends, the Rakshas, by the mouth of the sacrifice;--'Slain is the Rakshas, hail!' thus he slays the fiends, the Rakshas.
5:2:4:1818. If the dipping-spoon is of palâsa wood,--the palâsa being the Brahman--it is with the Brahman that he slays the fiends, the Rakshas; and if it is of vikaṅkata wood,--the vikaṅkata being the thunderbolt--it is with the thunderbolt that the slays the fiends, the Rakshas: 'For the slaughter of the Rakshas (I take) thee!' therewith he slays the fiends, the Rakshas.
5:2:4:1919. If he offers after going eastward, he throws the spoon towards the east; and if he offers after going northward, he throws the spoon towards the north, with, 'We have slain the Rakshas!' thus he slays the fiends, the Rakshas.
5:2:4:2020. Thereupon they return (to the sacrificial ground) without looking back. Now by this (ceremony) also he may make for himself a counter-charm 2. In whatever direction from there (his evil-wisher) is,
looking back thither he offers; for the Apâmârga is of a backward effect: whosoever does anything to him there, him indeed he thereby pitches backward. Let him indicate the name of that one, saying, 'We have slain so and so! So and so is slain!' thus he slays the fiends, the Rakshas.
47:1 This, the first of the Seasonal offerings, is to be performed on the full-moon of Phalgunî, the other three then following after intervals of four months each. During these intervals the ordinary Fortnightly sacrifices are to be performed from day to day in this way that either the Full-moon and New-moon sacrifice are performed on alternate days, or the former on each day of the bright fortnights, and the latter on each day of the dark fortnights. Thus, according to Âsv. Sr. IX, 3, 6; while Kâty. XV, 1, 18 allows only the latter mode. The final Seasonal offering, or Sunâsîrya, which ordinarily is performed a twelvemonth after the Vaisvadeva, or on the full-moon of Phâlguna, is on the present occasion to be performed just a year after the opening sacrifice, or Pavitra (p. 42, note 1), i.e. on the first day of the bright fortnight of Phâlguna, being immediately followed by the Pañkavâtîya.
47:2 See part i, p. 391 seq.
48:1 See part i, p. 408 seq.
48:2 See part i, p. 444 seq., where the word is fancifully explained as composed of suna (prosperity) and sîra (= sâra, sap),--the two essences here referred to. Sâyana, following Yâska (and Sat. Br. II, 6, 3, 6-8?), identifies the two component elements with Vâyu, the wind, and Âditya, the sun; see part i, p. 445, note 3.
48:3 The authorities of the Black Yagus (Taitt. Br. I, 7, 1, 5) call this oblation Pañkâvattîya, i.e. 'consisting of fivefold cut (or ladled)' ghee, which is offered without disturbing the fire. Prior to this oblation, Âpastamba (Taitt. S., vol. ii, p. 93), however, prescribes a so-called Pañkedhmîya, i.e. an oblation 'on five firebrands,' the fire being, as here, poked about so as to form separate heaps in the four quarters and in the centre.
49:1 Yama is the ruler of the departed ancestors, residing in the southern quarter.
50:1 Tenâpy etena vishtâvrâge (v. l. vishtâbrâge) bhishagyet. Kânva rec.
50:2 That is, the ceremony in which the fourth oblation belongs to Indra. While the Mâdhyandinas perform this ceremony on the same day (the pratipad of the bright fortnight of Phalgunî), the Kânvas do so on the following day; the Apâmârgahoma being then likewise shifted on another day.
51:1 On Rudra's epithet vâstavya, see I, 7, 3, 1, 8.
52:1 Rudra rules over the beasts (III, 6; 2, 20), whence he is also called the lord of beasts (pasûnâm pati, I, 7, 3, 8; Pasupati V, 3, 3, 7). Pûshan, the genius of thrift and prosperity, is also (like the Greek Pan) regarded as the protector of cattle: see V, 2, 5, 8.
53:1 See part ii, p. 248.
53:2 Viz. an amulet consisting of a band running back into itself. The Kânva text has,--Tena hâpy etena vishtâvrâge pratisaram kurvîta.