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1. They declare that the offspring of a Sûdra and of a female of the Brâhmana caste becomes a Kândâla, 1

2. (That of a Sûdra and) of a female of the Kshatriya caste, a Vaina,

3. (That of a Sûdra and) of a female of the Vaisya caste, an Antyâvasâyin.

4. They declare that the (son) begotten by a Vaisya on a female of the Brâhmana caste becomes a Râmaka, 4

5. (The son begotten by the same) on a female of the Kshatriya caste, a Pulkasa.

6. They declare that the (son) begotten by a Kshatriya on a female of the Brâhmana caste becomes a Sûta. 6

7. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'One may know by their deeds those who have been begotten secretly, and to whom the stigma of springing from unions in the inverse order of the castes attaches, because they are destitute of virtue and good conduct.' 7

p. 95

8. (Children) begotten by Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas on females of the next lower, second lower, and third lower castes become (respectively) Ambashthas, Ugras, and Nishâdas. 8

9. (The son of a Brâhmana and) of a Sûdra woman (is) a Pârasava.

10. They declare that the condition of a Pârasava is that of one who, though living, is (as impure) as a corpse. 10

11. Some call that Sûdra race a burial-ground. 11

12. Therefore (the Veda) must not be recited in the presence of a Sûdra.

13. Now they quote also the (following) verses, which Yama proclaimed:

'The wicked Sûdra-race is manifestly a burial-ground. Therefore (the Veda) must never be recited in the presence of a Sûdra.'

14. 'Let him not give advice to a Sûdra, nor what remains from his table, nor (remnants of) offerings (to the gods); nor let him explain the holy law to such a man, nor order him (to perform) a penance.' 14

15. 'He who declares the law to such a man, and he who instructs him in (the mode of) expiating (sin), sinks together with that very man into the dreadful hell, (called) Asamvrita.'

16. 'If ever a worm is produced in an open wound (on his body), he shall purify himself by the Prâgâpatya penance, and give gold, a cow, (and) a garment as presents (to Brâhmanas).' 16

p. 96

17. Let him not approach a wife of the Sûdra caste after he has built the fire-altar for a Srauta-sacrifice.

18. For a Sûdra-wife who belongs to the black race, (is espoused) for pleasure, not in order to fulfil the law.


94:1 XVIII. Vishnu XVI, 6.

94:4 Krishnapandita reads Romaka, 'a Roman,' for Râmaka, and the B. MS. supports him. The other MSS., including I. O. 913, give the reading adopted above. I prefer it, as there is no reason to assume that the Vâsishtha Dharmasâstra belongs to the late period when the Hindus had become aware of the existence of the Roman empire. On the other hand, it may be urged that Romaka is a correction which would easily suggest itself to a Pandit, who was unable to find a parallel passage in which the word Râmaka occurs.

94:6 Vishnu XVI, 6.

94:7 Manu X. 40.

95:8 Gautama IV, 16.

95:10 I omit the words sava iti mritâkhyâ, 'a corpse is another name for one who has died,' as an interpolation.

95:11 Âpastamba I, 3, 9, 9. 12. Vishnu XXX, 14.

95:14-15. Identical with Manu IV, 80-81.

95:16 A Prâgâpatya penance, i.e. a Krikkhra, see below, XXI, 20. p. 96 The verse belongs rather to the section on penances, and seems to have been entered here merely because it stood in Yama's text with the other two, and the author, to use a homely Indian comparison, 'did not disdain to catch a fish, though he went to fetch water.'

Next: Chapter XIX