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Brahman said:

That Mahat which was first produced, is (afterwards) called egoism; when it is born as (the feeling itself) 7 I, that is said to be the second creation. That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities 8,

p. 334

that from which the changes take place 1; it is full of light, the supporter of consciousness; it is that from which the people are produced, the Pragâpati. It is a deity, the producer of the deities, and of the mind; it is the creator of the three worlds. That which feels 2 thus--'I am all this'--is called (by) that (name). That eternal world is for those sages who are contented with knowledge relating to the self, who have pondered on the self, and who are perfected by sacred study and sacrifice. By 3 consciousness of self one enjoys the qualities; and thus that source of all entities, the producer of the entities, creates (them); and as that from which the changes take place, it causes all this to move; and by its own light, it likewise charms the world.


333:1 I. e. says Arguna Misra, the world of the understanding. Does this mean the world of Hiranyagarbha? The understanding is said to be the 'subtle body' of Hiranyagarbha (Vedânta Paribhâshâ, p. 46). Probably the reference spiritually interpreted is to the state in which egoism and all its products are non-existent.

333:2 Literally, 'the high and holy passage to the great self.'

333:3 The Mahat first manifests itself as Vishnu before it manifests itself as Brahman or Siva (Sânkhya-sâra, p. 16), hence he is. sate to be the Lord in the primary creation. It may be added, that in the Sânkhya-sâra where this passage is quoted the original word rendered 'cognition' above (khyâti) does not occur. but in lieu of it occurs Brahman. The sentence 'And the talented man' &c. is also wanting there.

333:4 I. e. the understanding. See Sankara on Svetâsvatara, p. 329; Katha, p. 100.

333:5 Source of enlightenment, Arguna Misra. Cf. Mundaka, pp. 303-308 (gloss).

333:6 I. e. attaching himself to the Purusha, as the never-changing reality, and rising above Prakriti and its manifestations.

333:7 I. e. when the Mahat develops into the feeling of self-consciousness--I--then it assumes the name of egoism.

333:8 See on this Sânkhya-sâra. Hall's Introd. p. 31, note.

334:1 So Arguna Misra. Nîlakantha says it means 'born from the change, or development, viz. Mahat.' The Sânkhya-sâra, p. 17, however, shows it means 'appertaining to the quality of goodness.' See also Sânkhya-kârikâ 25, and commentary there, which is of great help here. The sense is this: Egoism is of three descriptions; it appertains to the quality of goodness, and as such is the creator of the deities and mind, the deities being those presiding over the ten senses (cf. Sânkhya-sâra, p. 17); it is full of light, or appertains to the quality of passion (cf. ibid.), and as such imparts to the other two qualities their virtue of activity (cf. Sânkhya- kârikâ commentary, p. 91, Târânâth's ed.); it is also of the quality of darkness, and as such the producer of the: triple world (see ibid.) See Sânkhya-sûtra II, 17, 18, and comment, where a view somewhat different in one or two details is stated.

334:2nkhya-sâra, p. 16; Sânkhya-kârikâ 24, p. 89 (Târânâth's ed.)

334:3 Arguna Misra says that the words Ahankâra &c. are here explained; qualities here means objects, as at Gîtâ, p. 55. The meaning of the first clause is, that the feeling that the objects are for oneself, and therefore enjoying them, gives the name of Ahankâra to the principle in question, its creation of all the elements gives it the name of Bhûtâdi. It is called Vaikârika, as the cause of the various activities and developments going on. The last clause seems to be an explanation of the epithet Taigasa, also applied to egoism.

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