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p. 204


1. He must not bathe in another man's pool;

2. In cases of distress (if there is no other water at hand) he may bathe (in another man's pool), after having offered up five (or seven, or four) lumps of clay and (three jars with) water.

3. (He must not bathe) during an indigestion;

4. Nor while he is afflicted (with a fever or other illness);

5. Nor without his clothes; 6. Nor at night; 7. Unless it be during an eclipse; 8. Nor in the twilight.

9, He must bathe early in the morning, when he beholds the east reddening with the rays of the (rising) sun.

10. After having bathed, he must not shake his head (in order to remove the water from his hair);

11. And he must not dry his limbs (with his hand or with a cloth);

12. Nor must he touch any oily substance.

[LXIV. I. M. IV, 201.--1, 2. Y. I, 159-3, 4. M. IV, 129.--5. M. IV, 45; Gaut. IX, 61; Âsv. III, 9, 6; Pâr. II, 7, 6; Sânkh. IV, 12, 31.--6. M. IV, 129.--12. M. IV, 83.--13, Sânkh. IV, 12, 32.--15. Gaut. IX, 16.--16. M. IV, 263; Y. I, 159.--24. M. IV, 152; Y. I, 100.--27. Y. I, 196.

5. The term nagna, literally 'naked,' has to be taken in its widest sense here. According to Bhrigu and Gobhila it includes, besides one wholly undressed, 'one without his upper garment, one who has dirty clothes on, one clad in lower garments of silk only, one who wears double clothing or even a greater number of clothes, one who wears a small piece of cloth over the pudenda only,' &c. (Nand.) See also M. IV, 129.]

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13. He must not put on again the garment which he wore before, without its having been washed.

14. After having bathed, he must cover with his head a turban[1] and put on two garments[2] washed (by himself).

15. He must not converse, (after having bathed,) with barbarians, low-caste persons, or outcasts.

16. He must bathe in cascades, ponds dug by the gods, and lakes.

17. Stagnant water is more pure (and purifies more effectually) than water taken out (of a well or the like); the water of a spring is more pure than that of a tank; the water of a river is more pure than the former; water collected by (Vasishtha or some other) devout sage[1] is even more pure; but the water of the Ganges is the purest of all.

19. After having removed the dirt by means of earth and water[1], and after having dived under water and returned (to the bank of the river), he must address the bathing-place with the three Mantras (beginning with the words), 'Ye waters are[2],'with the four Mantras (beginning with the words),

[14. 1 Ushnîsha, 'a turban,' here denotes a bandage used for drying the head, which is wrapped around the head and closely tied together.--2 I. e. an upper and an under garment. (Nand.)

16. The term devakhâta, 'ponds dug by the gods,' refers to Pushkara and other holy bathing-places. (Nand.) See below LXXXV.

17. 1 Nand. cites Vasishthaprâkî and Visvâmitraprâkî as instances of holy bathing-places of this description.

18. 1 Nand. refers this and the following Sûtras to a midday bath, because a verse, which he quotes, forbids the use of earth (in order to clean one's self with it) in the morning bath. But it seems to follow from 35 and 42, that an the rules given in this chapter refer to that bath, which must be taken at sunrise every day.--2 Rig {footnote p. 206} veda X, 9, 1-3, &c.--3 Taitt. Samh. V, 6, 1, 1-2, &c.--4 Rig-veda I, 23, 22, &c.]

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'The golden-coloured (waters)[3],' and with (the one Mantra beginning with the words), 'Carry away (all), that, O ye waters[4].'

19. Then he must dive underwater and mutter the Aghamarshana three times;

20. Or (he must mutter three times the Mantra which begins with the words), 'That most exalted step of Vishnu;'

21. Or the Drupadâ Sâvitrî (which begins with the words, 'Like one released from a post);

22. Or the Anuvâka (which begins with the words), 'They get their minds ready;'

23. Or the Purushasûkta.

24. After having bathed, he must feed the gods and the manes, while standing in the water with his wet clothes on.

25. If (being unable to remain in water after having bathed) he has changed his dress, (he must feed the gods and the manes,) after having crossed the bathing-place (and reached the bank).

26. (But) he must not wring his bathing-dress till he has satisfied the gods and the manes.

2 7. After having bathed[1] and sipped water, he must sip water (once more) according to the rule.

28. He must offer (sixteen) flowers to Purusha,

[20. Rig-veda I, 22, 20, &c.

21. Taitt. Brâhm. II, 4, 4, 9; 6, 6, 3; cf. Vâgasan. Samh. XX, 20; Atharva-veda VI, 115, 3.

22. Rig-veda V, 81, &c.

24. 'The use of the particle ka indicates that he must anoint himself after having bathed.' (Nand.)

27. 'This expression refers back to the whole proceeding described above, up to the wringing of the bathing-dress. (Nand.)]

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while muttering the Purushasûkta, one with each verse.

29. Afterwards (he must offer) a libation of water.

30. He must first offer one to the gods with the Tîrtha sacred to the gods.

31. Then he must offer an other to the manes with the Tîrtha sacred to the manes.

32. In offering the latter he must first of all feed (the manes of) his next of kin (such as his father, mother, maternal grandfather, uncles, brothers, &c.)

33. After that (he must feed) his relatives (such as a sister's son, a father-in-law, a brother-in-law, &c.) and distant kinsmen (such as the sons of his father's sisters and of his mother's sisters).

34. Then (he must feed) his (deceased) friends.

35. According, to the above rule he must bathe every day.

36. After having bathed, he must mutter as many purifying Mantras as possible.

37. And he must mutter the Gâyatrî even more often (than other Mantras);

38. And the Purushasûkta.

39. There is nothing more sublime than those two (prayers).

40. One who has bathed is thereby entitled to perform the offerings to the Visvedevâs and to the manes, to mutter sacred texts, and to exercise the duty of hospitality, as prescribed by law.

[30, 31. See LXII, 3, 4.

37, 38. 'Or the meaning of these two Sûtras is, that the Gâyatrî and the Purushasûkta always have to be muttered besides the other Mantras.' (Nand.)

40. Nand. refers the term vidhinodite to a separate duty, that {footnote p. 208} of worshipping the gods; the particle ka to the propitiation of the planets by sacrifices and other such duties; and the particle tathâ to optional acts, such as the gift of a cow to a Brâhmana, and the like. But this is certainly a too extensive interpretation of the text.]

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41. Distress and misfortune, bad dreams and evil thoughts are taken from him even who only sprinkles himself with water (no matter from where it comes): that is the law.

42. He who regularly takes the prescribed bath (every morning), does not experience the tortures of Yama's hell. By the regular bath criminals even obtain their absolution.

Next: LXV.