1. Killing birds, amphibious animals, and aquatic animals (such as fish);
2. And worms or insects;
3. Eating (nutmegs or other) plants similar to intoxicating drinks (in their effect upon the system):
[XL. 1. M. XI, 70.
2. Regarding the penances mentioned here, see XLVI, II, 12, 20.
XLI. 1-4. M. XI, 71.
3. 'Or the term madyânugata means hemp and the like.' (Nand.) Kullûka (on M. XI, 71) interprets it by 'what has been brought in the same basket or vessel with spirituous liquor;' by the same, by 'what has been defiled by spirituous liquor.' The rendering given in the text agrees with the first interpretation proposed by Nand.]
4. Such are the crimes causing defilement.
5. The penance ordained for crimes causing defilement is the Taptakrikkhra penance (if they were committed unintentionally), or they shall be atoned for by the Krikkhrâtikrikkhra penance (if they were committed intentionally).