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1. The Nishekakarman (ceremony of impregnation)

[XXVII. 1-14. Âsv. I, 4-18; Gobh. II, 1-9; Pâr. I, 4-11, 1; Sânkh. I, 12-28; M. II, 29-35, 66, 67; Y. I, 11-13; Gaut. VIII, 14.--15-24, 26, 27. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21; M. II, 38-47; Y. I, {footnote p. 113} 14, 37, 38; Âpast. I, 1, 1, 18-21; I, 1, 25 33-3, 6; Gaut. I, 5, 11-26.--25. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 22; M. II, 49; Y. I, 30; Âpast. I, 1, 3, 28-30; Gaut. II, 36.--28, 29. M. II, 174, 64.]

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must be performed when the season fit for procreating children[1] distinctly appears (for the first time).

2. The Pumsavana (ceremony to cause the birth of a male) must be performed before the embryo begins to move.

3. The Sîmantonnayana (ceremony of parting the hair) should take place in the sixth or eighth month (of pregnancy).

4. The Gâtakarman (birth-ceremony) should take place on the birth of the child.

5. The Nâmadheya (naming-rite) must be performed as soon as the term of impurity (caused by the birth of the child) is over.

6. (The name to be chosen should be) auspicious in the case of a Brâhmana;

7. Indicating power in the case of a Kshatriya;

8. Indicating wealth in the case of a Vaisya;

9. Indicating contempt in the case of a Sûdra.

[1. 1 'Garbha' here means 'ritu,' i.e. the time favourable for procreation, following immediately upon the menstrual evacuation, and the above ceremony should be performed once only, in order to consecrate the mother once for all. (Nand.)

2, 3. The embryo begins to move in the fourth month of pregnancy, and the Pumsavana must be performed in the second or third month of every pregnancy. Thus Nand., who combats expressly the opinion that this ceremony has the consecration of the mother, and not the consecration of the ftus, for its object. Regarding the Sîmantonnayana he seems to consider both views as admissible. According to the former view it would have to be performed only once, like the Nishekakarman.

6-9. Nand. quotes as instances of such names: 1. Lakshmîdhara; 2. Yudhishthira; 3. Arthapati; 4. Lokadâsa or (observing, {footnote p. 116} at the same time, another rule regarding the second part of a compound name), 1. Vishnusarman; 2. Bhîmavarman; 3. Devagupta; 4. Dharmadâsa.]

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10. The Âdityadarsana, (ceremony of taking the child out to see the sun) should take place in the fourth month (after birth).

11. The Annaprâsana (ceremony of first feeding) should take place in the sixth month.

12. The Kûdâkarana '(tonsure rite) should take place in the third year [1].

13. For female children the same ceremonies, (beginning with the birth ceremony, should be performed, but) without Mantras.

14. The marriage ceremony only has to be performed with Mantras for them.

15. The initiation of Brâhmanas (should take plate) in the eighth year after conception[1];

16. Of Kshatriyas, in the eleventh year after conception[1];

17. Of Vaisyas,, in the twelfth year after conception[1];

18. Their girdles should be made of Muñga grass, a bow-string, and Balbaga (coarse grass) respectively.

19. Their sacrificial strings and their garments should be made of cotton, hemp, and wool respectively.

[10. According to Nand., who quotes a passage of Yama in support of his opinion, this Sûtra has to be divided into two, which would, however, require several words to complete their sense, the import of the first being, that the child should be taken out to see the sun in the third month, and to see the moon in the fourth month. See the Introduction.

12. 1 'The third year,' i. e. either after conception, or after birth. (Nand.)

15-17. 1 'Nand., 'or after birth.' See Pâr. and Âsv. loc. cit.]

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20. The skins (which they wear) should be those of a black antelope, of a tiger, and of a he-goat respectively.

2 1. Their staves should be made of Palâsa, Khadira, and Udumbara wood respectively.

22. Their staves should be of such a length as to reach the hair, the forehead, and the nose respectively.

23. Or all (kinds of staves may be used for all castes indiscriminately).

24. And they should not be crooked, nor should the bark be stripped off.

25. In begging alms, they should put in the word 'Lady' at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of their request (according to their caste).

26. The ceremony of initiation must not be delayed beyond the sixteenth year in the case of a Brâhmana; beyond the twenty-second, in the case of a Kshatriya; and beyond the twenty-fourth, in the case of a Vaisya.

27. After that, the youths belonging to any of those three castes, who have not been initiated at the proper time, are excluded from initiation, and contemned by the twice-born, and are called Vrâtyas.

28. That skin, that cord, that girdle, that staff, and that garment which has been given to any one (on his initiation), that he must for ever wear when performing any religious observance.

29. His girdle, his skin, his staff, his string, and his ewer he must throw into the water when broken (or spoiled by use), and receive others consecrated with Mantras.

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