"Queen of Heaven", the Babylonian and Assyrian, xxxi.
Rä, Egyptian sun god, xli, xliv; compared with Surya, 32; Brahma emerges from chaos egg like, for, 114 n; Shiva acts like, 150.
Race run by gods, 14.
Races, the mythical, "silver", "golden", "bronze", and "iron", 110. See World's Ages, Lunar Race, and Solar Race.
Racial types, variety of in India, xvii, xviii; influence of disease on, xli.
Rädhä´, Krishna's favourite, 129, 149.
Ragnarok (rag´na-rok), in Teutonic mythology, xliv n; in Indian giant lore, 65.
Rähu, swallower of sun and moon, 64; the rational theory, 71; the demon of eclipse, origin of, 144.
Raids for wives, 60.
Rain, frog hymn for, 36, 37; priests help Indra to bring, 84; Buriat horse sacrifice to obtain, 91; drum and trumpet to bring, 92, 317; souls turned into by the moon, 117.
Rajah, as a divine Pharaoh, 74 n.
Räjăsúyă (imperial sacrifice) held by Yudhishthira, 228 et seq.; Duryodhana desires to perform, 261.
Räk´shăsăs, Agni slayer of, 22; in Agni hymn, 24; "enemies of man", the "night prowlers", 66; Yakshas sometimes like, 68; rational explanation of criticized, 71; none in world's first age, 107; the rishi Pulastya a slayer of, 154; Bhima weds a woman of, 202 et seq.; Bhima's Rakshasa son, 206; Bhima slays Hidimva, 202-205; Jara as a household fairy who is worshipped, 229; Rama and Lakshmana wage war against, 379-381; unable to break Shiva's bow, 382; Rama battles against alone, 402, 403; apes battle against in Ceylon, 419 et seq.; Kumbha-Karna, the sleeper, 419, 420; rout of in Ceylon war, 424.
Rämă of Rámáyana, xlvi, xlvii, xlviii; an avatara of Vishnu, 125; in cult of Vishnu, 139; story of, 374 et seq.; birth of and childhood, 378; goes to forest with Vishwamitra, 378; slays Rakshasa woman, 380; celestial weapons and spirits of, 381; scatters demons, 381; breaks Shiva's bow, 382; wins Sita, 383; honeymoon of, 383, 384; selected as heir apparent, 384; hunchback's plot and Kaikeyi's commands, 385, 386; sent into exile, 389-393; Sita refuses to desert, 391-392; dying father calls for, 396; Bharata faithful to, 397; refuses to return until exile is ended, 398; reproaches Javali, 399; wanderings of with Sita and Laksmana, 400; wooed by Surpanakha, 400, 401; battle with Rakshasas, 402; demon as a golden deer, 403; rape of Sita by demon king of Ceylon, 404, 405, 406, 407; search for Sita, 408; vulture king's revelation, 409; conflict with demon, 410; apes become allies of, 410, 411; lamentations for Sita, 411, 412; Hanuman discovers Sita in captivity, 413-416; King of Ocean's advice, 417; "Rama's bridge" constructed, 418; invasion of Ceylon, 419; battles with Rakshasas, 420-423; Ravana slain, 423; Sita's ordeal by fire, 424, 425; return to kingdom and coronation, 425; Sita's second exile, 426; meets his sons, 426; Sita vanishes with earth goddess, 427; ascends to heaven, 428.
"Rama's bridge", green apes construct, 418.
"Rama with the axe" (Parasu-rama), an incarnation of Vishnu, 136.
Ramayana (räm-ay´ăn-ă or rä-my´ăn-ă), the, Aryan tribes in, xxxix; traditions of "easterners" in, xlvi; heroes and heroines of, xlvii; demon's grief in, xlviii; Ravana the Typhon of, 65; Rakshasas are great demons in, 66; purpose of horse sacrifices in, 92; early myths in, 124; hero of, an
avatara of Vishnu, 125; history of Brahmanism enshrined in, 138; its religious significance, 139; the "churning of the ocean" in, 142; story of, 374 et seq.
"Ram feast" of Devon, xlii; Indian and other parallels, xlii, xliii.
Räm´mon, 3; Shiva compared with, 146.
Rän, Teutonic sea goddess and Agni's mothers, 21.
Rat, the, Ganesa as, 151.
Rä´trï, goddess of night, 34; hymn to, 35, 148.
Ravana (rä´váná), a demon, 125; demon king of Ceylon, power of derived from Brahma, 377; plot to abduct Sita, 403; disguised as Brahman, 405; carries Sita away, 406, 407; Rama hears of, 409, 410; apes tell of, 411; in peril if he injures Sita, 412; Bibhishana deserts, 4,7; the Rama war, 418 et seq.; lamentation of for son's death, 421; seeks to slay Sita, 421, 422; sister curses and Rama slays, 423.
Razors, used in Vedic period, 77.
Red Age, the Treta Yuga, 108, 109; in Greek mythology, 109, 110; in Celtic mythology, 110 et seq.
Red demons, 71.
Red hair, dislike of, 208.
Religion and caste, 79; distinction between mythology and, 135.
Rhode, Erwin, 118 n.
Rib´hus, divine artisans, in Vedic creation myth, 10; like Khnumu of Egypt and elves of Europe, 11, 12; rivalry with Twashtri, 11, 12.
Ridgeway, Professor, on cremation custom, xxxv.
"Riding the marches", an ancient ceremony, xliii.
Rigve´da, belief regarding soul in the, xliii; cosmology of, 10; Soma book of, 35; gods Asuras in, then Suras, 61; forest nymph of, 74; horse sacrifice in, 91; meaning of Yuga in, 104; only Veda in Krita Yuga (First and Perfect Age), 108; germs of transmigration theory, 116; Vishnu in, 122.
Rim´mon, Naaman's worship of, 3.
Ripley, W. Z., xxii; on language and race, xxiii; views on Mediterranean race, xxvii; view on cremation custom, xxxv; Kurds as descendants of Aryan raiders, xxxviii, xxxix.
Rishis, gods derive powers from, 7; Indra's hammer made from bones of, 7, 8; Danavas conspire to destroy, 9; associated with gods, 14; poets and priests, 33; story of the childless, who is not admitted to heaven, 59; ascends to sun in Tapati love story, 74; as swans, 75; composers of "new songs", 79, 80.
Rishis, the celestial, mind-born sons of Brahma, 102; Manu as one of, 140; in story of the Deluge, 141 et seq.; the various royal and celestial, 153 n, 154, 155. See Deva-rishi.
Risley, views on India's races, xxv et seq.; his Scythian theory, xxvii; on infanticide, 60.
Ritualism of sacrifice, 80, 81 et seq.; growth of in Samavedic hymns, 83.
Ritupăr´nă, Rajah of Ayodhya, Nala takes service with, 342; Nala drives to sham swayamvara of Damayantí, 360 et seq.; gives Nala secret of dice, 362.
River, the boiling, in Hades, 326.
River goddesses, 148.
Rivers, worship of, xl; Shiva the source of five, 146.
Rivers of India, all female except two, 152.
Roads constructed in Vedic period, 78.
Röer, Dr. E., 100 n.
Roman age in Britain, xxxviii.
Romans as Aryans, xxiv; horse sacrifice of, 92, 93.
Rüd´ră, storm god, as "wild huntsman" and Shiva, 26; appealed to against Varuna, 28; Shiva a development of, 123, 148; the goddess Amvika and, 150; as Mahadeva, 146; Shiva called, 147.
Rudras, the, Maruts as, 26.
Rük´mini, Krishna's capture of, 233; an incarnation of Lakshmi, 234 n.
Rürü, story of life sacrifice of, 43, 44.
Rydberg, on Aryan origins, xxi.
Sacrifice, Buriats offer horse to dead, xxxiv; of lambs in England, India., &c., xlii; cake offerings and first fruits, 14; the priests' fee for, 15; of life for a woman, 43, 44; ritualism of, 80; the human (purusha-medha) and the horse (aswa-medha), 88 et seq.; the
human in recent times, 89; creation the result of, 89; the horse among Mongolian Buriats, 91; epic ceremonies, 92 et seq.; trees and, 93; chaos horse myth, 94 et seq.; symbolism of human sacrifice, 95, 96; Isaiah and Buddha oppose, 132; Sati (Suttee) offers herself on pyre, 150; the imperial (Rajasúya) held by Yudhishthira, 228 et seq.
Sages, long-lived, in Indian and Irish legend, 112 et seq.
Săhădevă, son of Queen Madri and twin Aswins, 176; temporary death of, 263 et seq.; journey of towards paradise, 324 et seq.
Säkas, the, allies of the Kauravas, 287; identified with Scythians, 287 n.
Saliva, as moisture of life, 37.
Salvation, release is, 82; by knowledge, doctrine of in Bhagavad-gita, 126 et seq.
Salya (säl´yă), Rajah of Madra, overcome by Bhima at Draupadi's swayamvara, 218, 219; in the great war, 289 et seq.; as leader of Kauravas and fall of, 305.
Salzburg, Austria, ancient cremation rites at, xxxvi.
Săm´ănă, "the leveller", Yama is, 42.
Säm´avedă, Soma hymns of, 83.
Săm´ăvurti, "the impartial judge ", Yama is, 42.
Săm´pati, brother of vulture king, 413, 414.
Săm´üdră, the sea, origin of name, 83, 84.
Sămvăr´nä, King, story of his love for sun maiden, 71 et seq.
Sănjäy´ä, as ambassador to the Pandavas, 274, 275; relates incidents of great war to Dhritarashtra, 287.
Sanskrit, xix; Lithuanian language and, xx; compared with Persian language, 62; alphabet has Semitic basis, 78; influence of Brahmanic scholarship upon, 82.
Sanskrit poets, heroes and heroines of, xlvii; feeling of for nature, xlvii.
Săn´vă, Rajah of, rejects Princess Amba after capture of by Bhishma, 170, 171.
Saranyu (sărăn´yoo), mother of Ribhus, 11; bride of the sun god and divine artisan, 149.
Saraswati (săräs´wătee), a river goddess, xl; her rival Gayatri, 44 n.; probably same as Bharati, 148; becomes wife of Brahma, 149; as "mother of the Vedas" and female form of Purusha, 149.
Sästï, feline goddess of maternity, 152, 153.
Satanava (sătän´ăvă), name of Bhishma, 166.
Satapatha Brahmana (sätăpät´ha), 15, 84; transmigration doctrine in, 116.
Sătï (suttee), in Europe, xxxvii; the goddess, ideal wife, 150, 151, 312.
Satrughna (săt-rüg´hnă), brother of Rama, 378; desires to slay hunchback, 397.
Saturn, Indra like, 13; the planet of in Ganesa myth, 151.
Satyaki (săt´yăkee), at meeting of Pandava allies, 270 et seq.; death of, 322, 323.
Satyavan (sat´yä-vän), "the truthful", in Savitri story, 45 et seq.
Satyavati (săt´yă-vätee), the fisherman's daughter, story of King Shantanu's wooing of, 166 et seq.; the mother of Vyasa, 167.
Savitri (săvit´ri), assists Indra as world artisan, to; the "stimulator", as a sun god, 32; mantra still addressed to, 33.
Savitri (shävit´ree), the heroine, xlvii; a perfect woman, xlviii; Sita, a perfect woman, xlviii; story of, 44 et seq.
Scandinavians, "prehistoric romance" regarding, xxiii; as Aryans, xxiv; late period of culture, xlv.
Scandinavian thunder giant, 2.
Scef, Agni as, 21.
Scholars, the hermits as, 81, 82.
Scotland, erring wives burned in, xxxvii; Highlanders of cattle lifters like Gauls and Ayro-Indians, 15; black and white fairies of, 70; giant theory does not apply to, 71; spirits as birds in, 75; Ayro-Indians had clans like Highlanders of, 77; the "upwardly man" in, 79; metrical charms of, 85, 86 n, 87; hatred of pork in, 136: hags of and the Indian, 380 n.
Scott, Sir Walter, on the "speech of spirits", 75.
Scottish goddess, compared with Egyptian and Indian deities, xli.
Scottish "thunder ball", the, 2; Finn as a thunder giant, 3.
Scyld, Agni as, 21, 22.
Scythians, Indian traces of, xxvii; horse sacrificed by the, 93; Sakas as, 287 n.
Sea, the, unknown to early Ayro-Indians, 76; origin of name for, 83, 84; trade in Age of Solomon, 84; in horse-sacrifice creation myth, 94; in Manu story, 140 et seq.; Surasa hag of the, 414; Sinhika dragon of, 414; king of the, 417, 418.
Sea of Milk, Vishnu in, 123; the churning of, 143 et seq.; Indra visits Vishnu in, 377.
Seed, the creation, becomes a golden egg, 101.
Seers, priests as, 80.
Sek´het, Egyptian goddess, compared with Indian and Scottish deities, xli; Käli like, 150.
Self, the universal, 98. See World Soul.
Sergi on Mediterranean race, xxviii.
Serpent, the World, Vishnu's sleep on and birth of Brahma, 124.
Serpent demons or demigods, 65.
Serpent goddess, 152.
Serpent king, in Indian and Egyptian myth, 353 n.
Serpent worship, Aryans adopt, 66.
Serpents, in the Garuda myth, 145; associated with Shiva, 147.
Set, xliv; boar demon of Egypt, 136; red like Indian Rakshasas, 208 n.
Shakuni (shă-koo´nee), plots to overthrow Pandavas, 199; plots against Pandavas, 269; prince of Gandhara, plots to overthrow Pandavas, 237; plays dice with and cheats Yudhishthira, 240 et seq.; in great war, 287; death of, 305.
Shakuntala (shă-koon´ta-läh), reference to reincarnation in story of, 13; the hermit maiden, story of in the Mahábhárata, 157 et seq.; in Kalidasa's drama, 163 n, 164 n.
Shä´mash, Babylonian sun god, Mitra as, 29.
Shän´tănu, King, 164; wooing of Ganga, 164 et seq.; wooing of the fishermaid, 166 et seq.; king, wooing of the fisherman's daughter, Satyavati, 167 et seq.
Sheep, early Aryans had, 76; charms to protect, 86.
Shepherd, the divine, Mitra as, 41.
She´shă, king of serpents (Nagas), 65, 66; as world serpent, Vishnu's sleep on, 124; Balarama an incarnation of, 128, 143.
Shitala (she´tăla), goddess of smallpox, 153.
Shivă, in Brahmanical revival age, xl; restrains avenging goddess like Ra of Egypt, xli; identified with Rudra, 26; the Destroyer in the trinity, 119; the cult of, 122; evidence of Greek ambassador Megasthenes regarding, 122; Vedic prototype, 123; cult of, 124; worshipper of plots to slay Krishna, 128; as Brahmā, 134; in epic narratives, 139; how he became the "blue throated", 144; as a mountain god, 146; as "lord of all creatures", 146; compared with the Irish Balor, 146; in form of Vishnu, 147; weapons of, 147; as destroyer of disease, 148; the brides of, 149 et seq.; stops goddess slaughtering enemies, 150; trident of made by goddess, 149; in myth regarding origin of goddesses, 151; destroys the love god, 151; Ganesa and Kartikeya, sons of, 151, 152; in Draupadi story, 222; Sishupala, Rajah of Chedi, slain by Krishna, an incarnation of, 234; Arjuna wrestles with for weapons, 255, 256; Aswatthaman and on "night of slaughter", 308; at Dasaratha's horse sacrifice, 376, 377; bow of, Rama breaks the, 382, 383.
Siberia, burial customs in, xxxiv; horse sacrifice in, 90.
Sid´dhăs, spirits of ancestors, at horse sacrifice, 376.
Siegfried (seeg´freed), the Indian, 66, 67; bird spirits and, 75.
Sikhandin (sikhăn´din), Drupada's daughter who became a man, 295; incarnation of Princess Amba, 295 n; fall of Bhishma, 295.
Sikhs (sheeks), number of in India, xviii.
Silver age (white age) in Indian, Greek, and Celtic mythologies, 107 et seq.
Sin, creation horse-sacrifice removes, 94, 95.
Sin-cleansing smoke, at horse sacrifice, 318.
Sin´dre, Twashtri and, 11.
Sin´hika, sea dragon, 414.
Sishupala (sish-oo-päh´la), Rajah of Chedi, at Yudhishthira's imperial sacrifice, 232; slain by Krishna, 233, 234; as an incarnation of Shiva, 234 n.
Sita (seétä), the heroine, xlvii; as an
incarnation of Vishnu's wife, 149; story of Rama and, 374 et seq.; Rama wins by breaking Shiva's bow, 382; marriage and honeymoon, 383, 384; refuses to part with exiled husband, 387; departure of to jungle, 393; wanderings of with Rama and Lakshmana, 400 et seq.; the golden deer, 403; rape of by demon king, 404-407; Rama's lamentations for, 411, 412; rejects Ravana, 412, 413; visited by Hanuman, 415, 416; return of to Rama and ordeal of fire, 424, 425; second exile of, 426; vanishes with earth goddess, 427; as Lakshmi in paradise, 428.
Skull shapes, permanence of, xxii.
Sky axe, lightning caused by, 2.
Sky god, Dyaus-pita as, 12. See Dyaus and Vivasvant.
Slavs, as Aryans, xxiv.
Sleep of Brahma, 105.
Sleeping giant, Kumbha-Karna the, 419; slain by Rama, 420.
Sloka metre, invented by Valmiki, 374.
Smallpox, Shitala, goddess of, 153.
Smith, Professor Elliot, his "brown race", xxviii.
Smiths, in Vedic period, 77.
Smoke, sins cleansed by, 93, 318.
Snake goddess, the, 152.
Snakes, in the Garuda myth, 145.
Social grades. See Caste.
"Solar race", eastern Indians as, xxxix; Dasaratha of the Rámáyana is of the, 375.
Solomon, sea trade of with India, 84.
Soma (sō´mă), nectar of gods, 5; cause of Indra's victory, 7; Twashtri's moon bowl for, 12; Indra's fondness for, 15; juice of unknown plant, 35; influence of, 35, 36; identified with Chandra, the moon god, 35, 36; as moon mead, 36; frog hymn to as rain charm, 36, 37; marriage of, 37; the drink of immortality, 41; prepared by Gandharva, 69; drunk by early Ayro-Indians, 77; Sudras did not drink, 79; Samavedic hymns to, 83; gods receive from priests, 84; Tarasun, the Mongolian, 90, 91; in horse sacrifice, 92; as the moon god and ancestor of the Bharatas, 157 et seq.
Son, religious need for a, 59, 60.
Song, the Divine, 125. See Bhagavad-gita.
Soul, as "the man in the eye", 42; of childless man in hell, 59; escape from body of, 85; salvation of through knowledge, 99, 100 (also see Bhagavad-gita); mind as, 101.
Soul in the egg, myth of, 101, 102.
Soul, the World. See World Soul.
Souls, children's' wait for mothers, xliii; bound by Varna, god of death, 42; as birds, 75; reborn as tigers, fish, &c.,117; transmigration of, see Transmigration of souls.
Spaniards, Brahmans resemble, xxviii.
Spartans, horse sacrifice of, 93.
"Speech of spirits", the "language of birds", 75.
Spells, for disease, 85, 87; for love, 86. Spirit, the, the life breath as, 37.
Spirits of the dead, beliefs regarding, 38; of day and night, 70; birds as in Europe, Africa, and Asia, 75; magical formulas to control, 85, 86, 87.
Spirits of weapons, Arjuna beholds, 256; do homage to Rama, 381; Gaelic weapon demons, 381 n.
Spitting customs, significance of, 37.
"Spitting Stones", 37.
Sri (sree), Lakshmi, wife of Vishnu is, 149; Sita as, 427.
Standing stones, ceremonies at for offspring, xliii, xliv.
Stars, myth of Saturn and Ganesa, 151; rishis as "Great Bear" and wives of as Pleiades, 153; Abhimanyu as one of the, 327.
Stars, the Polar, Kas´yapa, the Brahman as, 145.
Steeds of Indra, 4; names of, 5.
Stevenson, Robert Louis, xlviii.
Stone Age, the late, Europe in, xxii; people of Britain of, xlii; "hammer god" of, 2.
Stones, standing, Shiva worshipped at, 147.
Subhadra (soo-bhăd´rä), sister of Krishna and Balarama, worship of; 137; Arjuna's marriage by capture with, 227; Draupadi receives, 228.
Sudäs, a Vedic king, 154; Vishwamitra's and Vasishtha's connection with, 154; Purus and other tribes oppose, 155.
Sudeva (soo-day´vü), the Brahman, discovers Damayantí, 356, 357, 358; visits Nala, 359, 360.
Sudhanvan (sud-hăn´văn), Indra as, 10.
Sudras (sud´răs), the black, xxv. See Caste.
Sugriva (sug´rivă), the ape king, son of Surya, 410; Rama slays his rival Bali, 411; revelries of, 413; silver hue of, 418; in Ceylon war, 419 et seq.
Sumit´rä, wife of Dasaratha, 376; Lakshmana and Satrughna sons of, 378.
Sun, "has nature of Agni", 36; the "man" in the, and death as, 42; Rahu, the devourer of, 64, 144; horse sacrifice to, 92 et seq.; the bride of the, 149.
Sun, god of, Sumero-Babylonian name of Mitra, 29; as offspring of the moon, 29 Narayana as, 114; Vishnu as a phase of, 122, 123.
Sun egg, in Indian and Egyptian mythologies, 101.
Sun maiden, marriage of with moon god, 37; Tapati the, loved by a king, 71 et seq.
Sunset, Kushna fiery demon of, 66.
Sura (soorä), an early Ayro-Indian ale or mead, 77.
Surăs, the Indian gods called, 61.
Suräsă, sea hag, 414.
Surpă´-năkhä, the rape of Sita, 403 et seq.; curses Ravana, 423.
Surya (soor´yă), sun god, Savitri and, so; in rival group of deities, 32; Aryan steeds of, 32; as eye of Varuna-Mitra, 32; daughter of loved by a king, 71 et seq.; Saranyu the bride of, 149; as grandsire of Queen Madri's sons, 176; shines on Karna at the tournament, 191; gifts food pot to Pandavas, 249; his warning to Karna, 262; Sugriva, ape king, son of, 411.
Suttee (sătï) in Europe, xxxvii. See Sati.
Swan maidens, 75.
Swans, Irish gods and Indian rishis as, 75, 153; the gold winged, in story of Nala, 329, 330.
Swăr´gă, 4; Kauravas and Pandavas in, 327. See Heaven of Indra.
Swăyăm´vără, Bhishma captures King of Kasi's daughters at, 169, 160; Draupadi's, 211, 212.
Swine, religious treatment of in India, Egypt, and Europe, 136; Rakshasas ride in battle, 419.