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The Philosophy of Natural Magic, by Henry Cornelius Agrippa, L. W. de Laurence ed. [1913], at

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What Things Are Under the Signs, the Fixed Stars, and Their Images.

The like consideration is to be had in all things concerning the Figures of the Fixed Stars: Therefore they will have the terrestrial ram to be under the rule of the celestial Aries, and the terrestrial bull and ox to be under the celestial Taurus. So also that Cancer should rule over crabs, and Leo over lions; Virgo over virgins, and Scorpio over scorpions; Capricornus over goats, Sagittarius over horses, and Pisces over fishes. Also the celestial Ursa over bears, the Hydra over serpents, and the Dog Star over dogs, and so of the rest. Now, Apuleius distributes certain and peculiar herbs to the Signs and Planets, viz: To Aries, the herb sage; to Taurus, the vervain that grows straight; to Gemini, the vervain that grows bending; to Cancer, comfrey; to Leo, sow-bread; to Virgo, calamint; to Libra, mug-wort; to Scorpio, scorpion-grass; to Sagittarius, pimpernel; to Capricornus, the dock; to Aquarius, dragon's wort; to Pisces, hart-wort. And to the Planets these, viz.: To Saturn, sengreen; to Jupiter, agrimony; to Mars, sulphur-wort; to the Sun, mari-gold; to Venus, wound-wort; to Mercury, mullein; to the Moon, peony. But Hermes, whom Albertus follows, distributes to the Planets these, viz.: To Saturn, the daffodil; to Jupiter, henbane; to Mars, rib-wort; to the Sun, knot-grass; to Venus, vervain; to Mercury, cinque-foil; to the Moon, goose-foot. We also know by experience that asparagus is under Aries, and garden basil under Scorpio; for of the shavings of ram's-horn, sowed, comes forth asparagus; and garden basil, rubbed betwixt two stones, produceth scorpions. Moreover, I will, according to the doctrine of Hermes, and of Thebit,

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reckon up some of the more eminent Stars, whereof the first is called the Head of Algol, and, amongst stones, rules over the diamond; amongst plants, black hellebore and mug-wort. The second are the Pleiades, or Seven Stars, which, amongst stones, rule over crystal and the stone diodocus; amongst plants, the herb diacedon, and frankincense and fennel; and amongst metals, quicksilver. The third is the star Aldeboran, which hath under it, amongst stones, the carbuncle and ruby; amongst plants, the milky thistle and matry-silva. The fourth is called the Goat Star, which rules, amongst stones, the sapphire; amongst plants, horehound, mint, mug-wort and mandrake. The fifth is called the great Dog Star, which, amongst stones, rules over the beryl; amongst plants, savin, mug-wort and dragon's-wort; and, amongst animals, the forked tongue of a snake. The sixth is called the lesser Dog Star, and, amongst stones, rules over achate or agate; amongst plants, the flowers of marigold and pennyroyal. The seventh is called the Heart of the Lyon, which, amongst stones, rules over the granate or garnet; amongst plants, sallendine, mug-wort and mastic. The eighth is the Taile of the lesser Bear, which, amongst stones, rules over the loadstone; amongst herbs, over succory or chicory, whose leaves and flowers turn towards the north; also mug-wort and the flowers of periwinkle; and, amongst animals, the tooth of a wolf. The ninth is called the Wing of the Crow, under which, amongst stones, are such stones as are of the color of the black onyx stone; amongst plants, the bur, quadraginus, henbane and comfrey; and, amongst animals, the tongue of a frog. The tenth is called Spica, which hath under it, amongst stones, the emerald; amongst plants, sage, trifoil, periwinkle, mug-wort and mandrake. The eleventh is called Alchamech, which, amongst stones, rules over the jasper; amongst plants, the

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plantain. The twelfth is called Elpheia; under this, amongst stones, is the topaz; amongst plants, rosemary, trifoil and ivy. The thirteenth is called the Heart of the Scorpion, under which, amongst stones, is the sardonius and amethyst; amongst plants, long aristolochy and saffron. The fourteenth is the Falling Vultur, under which, amongst stones, is the chrysolite; amongst plants, succory and fumitory. The fifteenth is the Taile of Capricorn, under which, amongst stones, is chalcedony; amongst plants, marjoram, mug-wort, and catnip, and the root of mandrake.

Moreover, this we must know, that every stone or plant or animal, or any other thing, is not governed by one star alone, but many of them receive influence, not separated, but conjoined, from many stars. So amongst stones, the chalcedon is under Saturn and Mercury, together with the Taile of Scorpion, and Capricorn. The sapphire, under Jupiter, Saturn and the star Alhajoth; tutia is under Jupiter and the Sun and Moon; the emerald, under Jupiter, Venus and Mercury and the star Spica. The amethyst, as saith Hermes, is under Mars, Jupiter and the Heart of the Scorpion. The jasper, which is of divers kinds, is under Mars, Jupiter and the star Alchamech. The chrysolite is under the Sun, Venus and Mercury, as also under the star which is called the Falling Vultur. The topaz, under the Sun and the star Elpheia; the diamond, under Mars and the Head of Algol. In like manner, amongst vegetables, the herb dragon is under Saturn and the celestial Dragon; mastic and mint are under Jupiter and the Sun, but mastic is also under the Heart of the Lyon, and mint, under the Goat Star. Hellebore is dedicated to Mars and the Head of Algol; moss and sanders to the Sun and Venus; coriander to Venus and Saturn. Amongst animals, the sea calf is under the Sun and Jupiter; the fox

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and ape, under Saturn and Mercury; and domestical dogs under Mercury and the Moon. And thus we have shewed more things in these inferiors by their superiors. *


114:* Agrippa's historian, Mr. Henry Morley, says: "Here ends the detail of the theory of Nature, upon which were based, so far as concerned natural things, the arts of sorcery and divination. From theory to practice, therefore, the young student passes."—"Life of Cornelius Agrippa," Vol. I., p. 136.

Next: Chapter XXXIII. Of the Seals and Characters of Natural Things