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Koreshan Application of Geodesy

New Method of Determining Earth's Contour

GEODESY is the application of mechanical and other means for the purpose of determining measurements of the earth's surface, including not only that of its general contour as to whether it is concave, flat, or convex, but also of demonstrating the amount of curvation at any given point and in any given direction.

The Copernican system of astronomy assumes that the earth's surface is convex, and upon this

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assumption the fallacious system has been fabricated. No astronomer has ever yet presented any proof of the Copernican system; and one of the persistent efforts of the modern physicist is to find some irrefragable proof of what every so called astronomical scientist knows to be merely an assumption.

The Koreshan System of Astronomy is in direct opposition to the Copernican system, and unlike the Copernican system it is founded, not upon an assumption, but rather upon a premise so absolutely within the sphere of mechanical demonstration as to place it beyond and out of the uncertainty of mere postulation, which we assert to be the basis of so called, modern science.

Heretofore, the common method of attempting the determination of a straight horizontal line has been by the use of the engineer's level. There are a number of optical factors not taken into consideration by the geodetic surveyor and civil engineer, which render it impossible to extend a horizontal rectiline by the aid of optical instruments. The engineer's level is an instrument used by the surveyor, and includes a level and small telescope usually placed on the top of a tripod. This is more especially employed for the measurement of angles.

It is a fact not generally known, that it is impossible to determine a horizontal rectiline with a leveling instrument, or by the unaided eye, along the apex of successive heights of a given elevation, or along a continuously extended surface. The scientific reason for this impossibility resides in the fact that in the determination of a horizontal or lateral rectiline, an impression made upon the retina of the eye by a picture from one side of a visual direction must be

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counterbalanced by an equal picture on the opposite side; and the geodetic engineer, not being acquainted with this law of obtension in optics, extends a curved line while he believes he is continuing a rectiline.

Two men of different heights cannot, while adjusting the tripod to accommodate the difference, extend a line of the same curvation. A civil engineer six feet tall--adjusting his tripod to conform to his height--will make a curved line, by the aid of his instrument, upward of a given curvation, while the man five feet six inches tall, adjusting his tripod to suit his height, will determine the curvation of a lesser curve proportionably to the difference in height of the adjustment.

The scientific cause of this discrepancy resides in the optical illusion referred to above, namely, that on one side of the visual line there are two factors entering into the formation of a picture on the retina, as follows: The perpendicular post producing the effect of retinal impression is shortened or elongated proportionably to the distance of the object in perspective; and in addition to this, the geolinear foreshortening (the line along the earth's surface) induces a corresponding effect upon the retinal membrane.

We confront, then, two kinds of foreshortening--the one geolinear, the other perpendicular--in all geodetic observations; and an optical phenomenon which should be attributed to the principle of perspective foreshortening is ignorantly attributed to curvation.

To obviate the introduction of optical science and the necessity for the explanation of optical illusions and intricate phenomena incomprehensible to the ordinary mind, we have instituted a simple mechanical

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device by which a rectiline can be determined. (See diagram No. 2, Plate 1.)

The Rectilineator

Perpendicular standards are placed at points where there is a quiet expanse of water large enough in area to extend a line six, seven, or more miles. Across these perpendicular standards the horizontal bar of the Rectilineator is adjusted. From this first adjustment the rectiline is extended in both directions, until the line meets the water at a distance proportionate to the height of the perpendicular standard.

By this operation we extend a chord from the top of the uprights, at right angles to two points at the surface of the water, as in diagram No. 4, Plate 1. The relation of the straight line to the arc determines the concavity of the earth as its true contour.

In diagram No. 3, Plate 1, we have an illustration of the optical effect of an observation made with a leveling instrument, which does not differ in principle from a corresponding observation made with the unaided eye. The straight surface over which the line of observation extends is represented A A A; B B B is the visual direction deviating in a gradual curve away from the straight line A A A. The mind is unconscious of this curvation of vision, hence the curved line appears to be straight as in the dotted line C C C, while the straight line A A A appears to rise gradually as the line D D D.

The point 1 in the line of vision appears to be at the point 2. The vanishing point is where. the extremity of the visual line at 1 seems to meet the line A A A, represented by the line D D D. Beyond this point the straight line A A A, appearing as the line D D D seems to convex away from the apparent line D D D.

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[paragraph continues] This optical phenomenon, which is an illusion, is taken as a demonstration of the convexity of the earth, and made the basis of the illusory system of the Copernican astronomy.

In the observation illustrated by diagram No. 3, Plate 1, we prove that a straight surface curves away from the line of vision, by the identical argument employed to prove the convexity of the earth. We can prove that a straight line bends four different ways, by the same argument used to sustain the convex theory of the earth.

Revolution in Geodetic Surveys

Revolution in astronomy implies revolution in all things. The great Swedish Seer said: "Every dispensation proceeds as from an egg." We reiterate, that a scientific religion which must embrace scientific social organization, will proceed from an astronomical basis, the foundation of which is the Cellular Cosmogony. Life develops in the cell. When the world is forced to accept this proposition, all else follows readily.

In connection with the establishment of the fact, in the public mind, of the concavity of the surface of the earth, and next also in importance is the determination of the amplitude of the arc, or the radius of its curvature. This cannot be determined accurately by any process of surface triangulation, because there are too many factors entering into the process to insure accuracy.

The Rectilineator, extending its line from an given height of a prime vertical, approaches the normal curve of the surface at a proportionate ratio, which may be determined at any given point by two exact methods,--each acting as the verificator of the

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other. Place a perpendicular at the requisite height, about six feet, more or less, and adjust the initial section of the rectilineal bar at right angles.

The points selected should be as nearly level as possible. After the extension of the line three or four miles (even less than this will answer), adjust the geodetic level. This is an instrument having two graduated glass perpendiculars very minutely spaced, with microscopes adjusted to the graduated side of the glass tubes. These two perpendicular graduates are united by a connecting tube twelve or fourteen feet long. (The tube and graduates contain mercury.)

The amount of variation of the mercury in the graduates, with the connecting tube arranged parallel with the rectiline of the section bars at any point, will indicate the degree of curvature. The instrument must be perfect; this accomplished, the determination of the radius of curvation is most simple.

This instrument may be verified by the use of another instrument adjusted to the section bars with a perpendicular rod, to which is adjusted a very slender plumbline. Across the bottom of the rod, which has a flat surface, is a minutely divided scale, to which is, also adjusted a microscope. The scale has a definite number of divisions to the inch. This will determine the amount of variation from the prime vertical; namely, the first perpendicular.

The deviation from the normal will increase either from the prime vertical, as the line extends, or toward it, according to the direction of curvation.

This method of mensuration determines both the direction of the curve and the radius of curvature. Any portion of the surface of the earth can be a thousand-fold more accurately surveyed by this

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method, than by any process ever instituted. We know that the result will compel the world to acknowledge the Koreshan System of Cosmogony.

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