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Acropolis, photo by J.B. Hare, © 2008, All Rights Reserved
Acropolis, photo by J.B. Hare, © 2008, All Rights Reserved

Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers

by Kathleen Freeman


Contents    Start Reading    Page Index    Text [Zipped]

As our soul, being air, holds us together, so do breath and air surround the whole universe.--Anaximenes of Miletus, only surviving fragment (p. 19)

This is a translation of nearly every scrap of the writings of the Greek Pre-Socratic Philosophers, from the nearly legendary Orpheus, through Thales, Pythagoras, Heracleitus, Zeno, and Democritus. Included are translations of all known quotations from each writer, names of lost books they wrote, what other authors said about their beliefs, as well as spurious and dubious quotes. Some of the entries, indeed most, are very short, as we only know the names and a bit of biography for some of these figures. This book is a great reference for this topic, and makes fascinating reading.

Title Page
1. Orpheus
2. Musaeus
3. Epimenides of Crete
4. Hêsiod of Ascra
5. Phôcus of Samos
6. Cleostratus of Tenedos
7. Pherecŷdes of Syros
8. Theagenes of Rhêgium
9. Acusilâus of Argos
10. The Seven Sages
11. Thales of Milêtus
12. Anaximander of Milêtus
13. Anaximenes of Milêtus
14. Pythagoras of Samos
15-20. Older Pythagoreans
21. Xenophanes of Colophôn
22. Hêracleitus of Ephesus
23. Epicharmus of Syracuse
24. Alcmaeôn of Crotôn
25-27. Iccus, Parôn, Ameinias
28. Parmenides of Elea
29. Zênô of Elea
30. Melissus of Samos
31. Empedocles of Acragas
32. Menestôr of Sybaris
33. Xuthus
34. Boïdas
35. Thrasyalces of Thasos
26. Iôn of Chios
37. Damôn of Athens
38. Hippôn of Samos
39. Phaleas of Chalcêdôn and Hippodâmus of Milêtus
40. Polycleitus of Argos
41. Oenopides of Chios
42. Hippocrates of Chios
43. Theodôrus of Cyrênê
44. Philolaus of Tarentum
45. Eurytus of Southern Italy
46. Archippus and Lŷsis of Tarentum; Opsimus of Rhêgium
47. Archŷtas of Tarentum
48. Occelus (or Ocellus) of Lucania
49. Tîmaeus of Italian Locri
50. Hicetas of Syracuse
51. Ecphantus of Syracuse
52. Xenophilus of Chalcidicê
53. Diocles, Echecrates, Polymnastus, Phantôn, Arîôn of Phliûs
54. Prôrus of Cyrene, Amŷclas, Cleinias of Tarentum
55. Damôn and Phintias of Syracuse
56. Sîmus of Poseidônia; Myônides and Euphranôr
57. Lycôn (or Lycus) of Tarentum
58. Pythagorean School
59. Anaxagoras of Clazomenae
60. Archelâus of Athens
61. Mêtrodôrus of Lampsacus
62. Cleidêmus
63. Îdaeus of Hîmera
64. Diogenes of Apollônia
65. Cratylus of Athens
66. Antisthenes of Ephesus
67. Leucippus of Abdêra
68. Dêmocritus of Abdêra
69. Nessas of Chios
70. Mêtrodôrus of Chios
71. Diogenes of Smyrna
72. Anaxarchus of Abdêra
73. Hecataeus of Abdêra
74. Apollodôrus of Cyzicus
75. Nausiphanes of Teos
76. Diotîmus of Tyre
77. Biôn of Abdêra
78. Bôlus of Mendê
79. The Older Sophists: Name and Concept
80. Prôtagoras of Abdêra
81. Xeniades of Corinth
82. Gorgias of Leontîni
83. Lycophrôn 'The Sophist'
84. Prodicus of Ceos
85. Thrasymachus of Chalcêdôn
86. Hippias of Êlis
87. Antiphôn the Sophist
88. Critias of Athens
89. The Anonymous Writer Quoted by Iamblichus
90. Twofold Arguments (Debates)