Letter LXVI. To Pammachius.
Pammachius a Roman senator, had lost his wife Paulina one of Paulas daughters, while she was still in the flower of her youth. It was not till two years had elapsed that Jerome ventured to write to him; and when he did so he dwelt but little on the life and virtues of Paulina. Probably there was but little to tell. The greater part of the letter is taken up with commendation of Pammachius himself who, in spite of his high rank and position, had become a monk and was now living a life of severe self-denial. Jerome speaks approvingly of the Hospice for Strangers which, in conjunction with Fabiola, Pammachius had set up at Portus, and describes his own somewhat similar institutions at Bethlehem. He also mentions Paula, Eustochium, and the dead Blæsilla, all in terms of the highest praise. The date of the letter is 397 a.d.
1. Supposing a wound to be healed and a scar to have been formed upon the skin, any course of treatment designed to remove the p. 135 mark must in its effort to improve the appearance renew the smart of the original wound. After two years of inopportune silence my condolence now comes rather late; yet even so I am afraid that my present speech may be still more inopportune. I fear lest in touching the sore spot in your heart I may by my words inflame afresh a wound which time and reflection have availed to cure. For who can have ears so dull or hearts so flinty as to hear the name of your Paulina without weeping? Even though reared on the milk of Hyrcanian tigresses 1917 they must still shed tears. Who can with dry eyes see thus untimely cut down and withered an opening rose, an undeveloped bud, 1918 which has not yet formed itself into a cup nor spread forth the proud display of its crimson petals? In her a most priceless pearl is broken. In her a vivid emerald is shattered. Sickness alone shews us the blessedness of health. We realize better what we have had when we cease to have it.
2. The good ground of which we read in the parable brought forth fruit, some an hundred-fold, some sixtyfold, and some thirtyfold. 1919 In this threefold yield I recognize an emblem of the three different rewards of Christ which have fallen to three women 1920 closely united in blood and moral excellence. Eustochium culls the flowers of virginity. Paula sweeps the toilsome threshing floor of widowhood. Paulina keeps the bed undefiled of marriage. A mother with such daughters wins for herself on earth all that Christ has promised to give in heaven. Then to complete the team—if I may so call it—of four saints turned out by a single family, and to match the womens virtues by those of a man, the three have a fit companion in Pammachius who is a cherub such as Ezekiel describes, 1921 brother-in-law to the first, son-in-law to the second, husband to the third. Husband did I say? Nay, rather a most devoted brother; for the language of marriage is inadequate to describe the holy bonds of the Spirit. Of this team Jesus holds the reins, and it is of steeds like these that Habakkuk sings: “ride upon thy horses and let thy riding be salvation.” 1922 With like resolve if with unlike speed they strain after the victors palm. Their colours are different; their object is the same. They are harnessed in one yoke, they obey one driver, not waiting for the lash but answering the call of his voice with fresh efforts.
3. Let me use for a moment the language of philosophy. According to the Stoics there are four virtues so closely related and mutually coherent that he who lacks one lacks all. They are prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. 1923 While all of you possess the four, yet each is remarkable for one. You have prudence, your mother has justice, your virgin sister has fortitude, your wedded wife has temperance. I speak of you as wise, for who can be wiser than one who, despising the folly of the world, has followed Christ “the power of God and the wisdom of God”? 1924 Or what better instance can there be of justice than your mother, who having divided her substance among her offspring has taught them by her own contempt of riches the true object on which to fix their affections? Who has set a better example of courage than Eustochium, who by resolving to be a virgin has breached the gates of the nobility and broken down the pride of a consular house? The first of Roman ladies, she has brought under the yoke the first of Roman families. Has there ever been temperance greater than that of Paulina, who, reading the words of the apostle: “marriage is honourable in all and the bed undefiled,” 1925 and not presuming to aspire to the happiness of her virgin sister or the continence of her widowed mother, has preferred to keep to the safe track of a lower path rather than treading on air to lose herself in the clouds? When once she had entered upon the married state, her one thought day and night was that, as soon as her union should be blessed with offspring, she would live thenceforth in the second degree of chastity, 1926 and
Though woman, foremost in the high emprise, 1927
would induce her husband to follow a like course. She would not forsake him but looked for the day when he would become a companion in salvation. Finding by several miscarriages that her womb was not barren, she could not give up all hope of having children and had to allow her own reluctance to give way to the eagerness of her mother-in-law and the chagrin of her husband. Thus she suffered much as Rachel suffered, 1928 although instead of bringing forth like her a son of pangs and of the right hand, 1929 the heir she had longed for was no other than her husband. I have learned on good authority that her wish in submitting herself to her husband was not to take advantage of Gods primitive command “Be faithful and multiply and replenish the earth” 1930 but that she only desired children that she might bring forth virgins to Christ.
4. We read that the wife of Phinehas the priest, on hearing that the ark of the Lord p. 136 had been taken, was seized suddenly with the pains of travail and that she brought forth a son Ichabod and died a mother in the hands of the women who nursed her. 1931 Rachels son is called Benjamin, that is son of excellence or of the right hand; but the son of the other, afterwards to be a distinguished priest of God, derives his name from the ark. 1932 The same thing has come to pass in our own day, for since Paulina fell asleep the Church has posthumously borne the monk Pammachius, a patrician by his parentage and marriage, rich in alms, and lofty in lowliness. The apostle writes to the Corinthians, “Ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men, not many noble are called.” 1933 The conditions of the nascent church required this to be so that the grain of mustard seed might grow up little by little into a tree, 1934 and that the leaven of the gospel might gradually raise more and more the whole lump of the church. 1935 In our day Rome possesses what the world in days gone by knew not of. Then few of the wise or mighty or noble were Christians; now many wise powerful and noble are not Christians only but even monks. And among them all my Pammachius is the wisest, the mightiest, and the noblest; great among the great, a leader among leaders, he is the commander in chief of all monks. He and others like him are the offspring which Paulina desired to have in her life time and which she has given us in her death. “Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear; break forth into singing and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail with child”; 1936 for in a moment thou hast brought forth as many sons as there are poor men in Rome.
5. The glowing gems which in old days adorned the neck and face of Paulina now purchase food for the needy. Her silk dresses and gold brocades are exchanged for soft woollen garments intended to keep out the cold and not to expose the body to vain admiration. All that formerly ministered to luxury is now at the service of virtue. That blind man holding out his hand, and often crying aloud when there is none to hear, is the heir of Paulina, is co-heir with Pammachius. That poor cripple who can scarcely drag himself along, owes his support to the help of a tender girl. Those doors which of old poured forth crowds of visitors, are now beset only by the wretched. One suffers from a dropsy, big with death; another mute and without the means of begging, begs the more appealingly because he cannot beg; another maimed from his childhood implores an alms which he may not himself enjoy. Still another has his limbs rotted with jaundice and lives on after his body has become a corpse. To use the language of Virgil:
Had I a hundred tongues, a hundred lips,
I could not tell mens countless sufferings. 1937
Such is the bodyguard which accompanies Pammachius wherever he walks; in the persons of such he ministers to Christ Himself; and their squalor serves to whiten his soul. Thus he speeds on his way to heaven, beneficent as a giver of games to the poor, and kind as a provider of shows for the needy. Other husbands scatter on the graves of their wives violets, roses, lilies, and purple flowers; and assuage the grief of their hearts by fulfilling this tender duty. Our dear Pammachius also waters the holy ashes and the revered bones of Paulina, but it is with the balm of almsgiving. These are the confections and the perfumes with which he cherishes the dead embers of his wife knowing that it is written: “Water will quench a flaming fire; and alms maketh an atonement for sins.” 1938 What great power compassion has and what high rewards it is destined to win, the blessed Cyprian sets forth in an extensive work. 1939 It is proved also by the counsel of Daniel who desired the most impious of kings—had he been willing to hear him—to be saved by shewing mercy to the poor. 1940 Paulinas mother may well be glad of Paulinas heir. She cannot regret that her daughters wealth has passed into new hands when she sees it still spent upon the objects she had at heart. Nay, rather she must congratulate herself that without any exertion of her own her wishes are being carried out. The sum available for distribution is the same as before: only the distributor is changed.
6. Who can credit the fact that one, who is the glory of the Furian stock and whose grandfathers and great grandfathers have been consuls, moves amid the senators in their purple clothed in sombre garb, and that, so far from blushing when he meets the eyes of his companions, he actually derides those who deride him! “There is a shame that leadeth to death and there is a shame that leadeth to life.” 1941 It is a monks first virtue to despise the judgments of men and always to remember the apostles words:—“If I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ.” 1942 In the same sense the Lord says to the prophets that He has made their face a brazen city and p. 137 a stone of adamant and an iron pillar, 1943 to the end that they shall not be afraid of the insults of the people but shall by the sternness of their looks discompose the effrontery of those who sneered at them. A finely strung mind is more readily overcome by contumely than by terror. And men whom no tortures can overawe are sometimes prevailed over by the fear of shame. Surely it is no small thing for a man of birth, eloquence, and wealth to avoid the company of the powerful in the streets, to mingle with the crowd, to cleave to the poor, to associate on equal terms with the untaught, to cease to be a leader and to become one of the people. The more he humbles himself, the more he is exalted. 1944
7. A pearl will shine in the midst of squalor and a gem of the first water will sparkle in the mire. This is what the Lord promised when He said: “Them that honour me I will honour.” 1945 Others may understand this of the future when sorrow shall be turned into joy and when, although the world shall pass away, the saints shall receive a crown which shall never pass. But I for my part see that the promises made to the saints are fulfilled even in this present life. Before he began to serve Christ with his whole heart, Pammachius was a well known person in the senate. Still there were many other senators who wore the badges of proconsular rank. The whole world is filled with similar decorations. He was in the first rank it is true, but there were others in it besides him. Whilst he took precedence of some, others took precedence of him. The most distinguished privilege loses its prestige when lavished on a crowd, and dignities themselves become less dignified in the eyes of good men when held by persons who have no dignity. Thus Tully finely says of Cæsar, when he wished to advance some of his adherents, “he did not so much honour them as dishonour the honourable positions in which he placed them.” 1946 To-day all the churches of Christ are talking of Pammachius. The whole world admires as a poor man one whom heretofore it ignored as rich. Can anything be more splendid than the consulate? Yet the honour lasts only for a year and when another has succeeded to the post its former occupant gives way. Each mans laurels are lost in the crowd and sometimes triumphs themselves are marred by the shortcomings of those who celebrate them. An office which was once handed down from patrician to patrician, which only men of noble birth could hold, of which the consul Marius—victor though he was over Numidia and the Teutons and the Cimbri—was held unworthy on account of the obscurity of his family, and which Scipio won before his time as the reward of valour,—this great office is now obtained by merely belonging to the army; and the shining robe of victory 1947 now envelops men who a little while ago were country boors. Thus we have received more than we have given. The things we have renounced are small; the things we possess are great. All that Christ promises is duly performed and for what we have given up we have received an hundredfold. 1948 This was the ground in which Isaac sowed his seed, 1949 Isaac who in his readiness to die 1950 bore the cross of the Gospel before the Gospel came.
8. “If thou wilt be perfect,” the Lord says, “go and sell that thou hast and give to the poor.…and come and follow me.” 1951 If thou wilt be perfect. Great enterprises are always left to the free choice of those who hear of them. Thus the apostle refrains from making virginity a positive duty, because the Lord in speaking of eunuchs who had made themselves such for the kingdom of heavens sake finally said: “He that is able to receive it, let him receive it.” 1952 For, to quote the apostle, “it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.” 1953 If thou wilt be perfect. There is no compulsion laid upon you: if you are to win the prize it must be by the exercise of your own free will. If therefore you will to be perfect and desire to be as the prophets, as the apostles, as Christ Himself, sell not a part of your substance (lest the fear of want become an occasion of unfaithfulness, and so you perish with Ananias and Sapphira 1954 ) but all that you have. And when you have sold all, give the proceeds not to the wealthy or to the high-minded but to the poor. Give each man enough for his immediate need but do not give money to swell what a man has already. “Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treadeth out the corn,” 1955 and “the labourer is worthy of his reward.” 1956 Again “they which wait at the altar are partakers with the altar.” 1957 Remember also these words: “having food and raiment let us be therewith content.” 1958 Where you see smoking dishes, steaming pheasants, massive silver plate, spirited nags, long-haired boy-slaves, expensive clothing, and embroidered hangings, give nothing there. For he to whom you would give is richer than you the giver. It is moreover a kind of sacrilege to give what belongs to the poor to those who are not poor. Yet to be a p. 138 perfect and complete Christian it is not enough to despise wealth or to squander and fling away ones money, a thing which can be lost and found in a single moment. Crates the Theban 1959 did this, so did Antisthenes and several others, whose lives shew them to have had many faults. The disciple of Christ must do more for the attainment of spiritual glory than the philosopher of the world, than the venal slave of flying rumours and of the peoples breath. It is not enough for you to despise wealth unless you follow Christ as well. And only he follows Christ who forsakes his sins and walks hand in hand with virtue. We know that Christ is wisdom. He is the treasure which in the scriptures a man finds in his field. 1960 He is the peerless gem which is bought by selling many pearls. 1961 But if you love a captive woman, that is, worldly wisdom, and if no beauty but hers attracts you, make her bald and cut off her alluring hair, that is to say, the graces of style, and pare away her dead nails. 1962 Wash her with the nitre of which the prophet speaks, 1963 and then take your ease with her and say “Her left hand is under my head, and her right hand doth embrace me.” 1964 Then shall the captive bring to you many children; from a Moabitess 1965 she shall become an Israelitish woman. Christ is that sanctification without which no man shall see the face of God. Christ is our redemption, for He is at once our Redeemer and our Ransom. 1966 Christ is all, that he who has left all for Christ may find One in place of all, and may be able to proclaim freely, “The Lord is my portion.” 1967
9. I see clearly that you have a warm affection for divine learning and that far from trying—like some rash persons—to teach that of which you are yourself ignorant you make it your first object to learn what you are going to teach. Your letters in their simplicity are redolent of the prophets and savour strongly of the apostles. You do not affect a stilted eloquence, nor boylike balance shallow sentences in clauses neatly-turned. The quickly frothing foam disappears with equal quickness; and a tumour though it enlarges the size of the body is injurious to health. It is moreover a shrewd maxim, this of Cato, “Fast enough if well enough.” Long ago it is true in the days of our youth we laughed outright at this dictum when the finished orator 1968 used it in his exordium. I fancy you remember the mistake 1969 shared by the speaker in our Athenæum and how the whole room resounded with the cry taken up by the students “Fast enough if well enough.” According to Fabius 1970 crafts would be sure to prosper if none but craftsmen were allowed to criticise them. No man can adequately estimate a poet unless he is competent himself to write verse. No man can comprehend philosophers, unless he is acquainted with the various theories that they have held. Material and visible products are best appraised by those who make them. To what a cruel lot we men of letters are exposed you may gather from the fact that we are forced to rely on the judgment of the public; and many a man is in company a formidable opponent who would certainly be despised could he be seen alone. I have touched on this in passing to make you content, if possible, with the ear of the learned. Disregard the remarks which uneducated persons make concerning your ability; but day by day imbibe the marrow of the prophets, that you may know the mystery of Christ and share this mystery with the patriarchs.
10. Whether you read or write, whether you wake or sleep, let the herdsmans horn of Amos 1971 always ring in your ears. Let the sound of the clarion arouse your soul, let the divine love carry you out of yourself; and then seek upon your bed him whom your soul loveth, 1972 and boldly say: “I sleep, but my heart waketh.” 1973 And when you have found him and taken hold of him, let him not go. And if you fall asleep for a moment and He escapes from your hands, do not forthwith despair. Go out into the streets and charge the daughters of Jerusalem: then shall you find him lying down in the noontide weary and drunk with passion, or wet with the dew of night by the flocks of his companions, or fragrant with many kinds of spices, amid the apples of the garden. 1974 There give to him your breasts, let him suck your learned bosom, let him rest in the midst of his heritage, 1975 his feathers as those of a dove overlaid with silver and his inward parts with the brightness of gold. This young child, this mere boy, who is fed on butter and honey, 1976 and who is reared among curdled mountains, 1977 quickly grows up to manhood, speedily spoils all 1978 that is opposed to him in you, and when the time is ripe plunders [the spiritual] Damascus and puts in chains the king of [the spiritual] Assyria.
11. I hear that you have erected a hospice for strangers at Portus and that you have planted a twig from the tree of Abraham 1979 p. 139 upon the Ausonian shore. Like Æneas you are tracing the outlines of a new encampment; only that, whereas he, when he reached the waters of the Tiber, under pressure of want had to eat the square flat cakes which formed the tables spoken of by the oracle, 1980 you are able to build a house of bread to rival this little village of Bethlehem 1981 wherein I am staying; and here after their long privations you propose to satisfy travellers with sudden plenty. Well done. You have surpassed my poor beginning. 1982 You have reached the highest point. You have made your way from the root to the top of the tree. You are the first of monks in the first city of the world: you do right therefore to follow the first of the patriarchs. Let Lot, whose name means one who turns aside choose the plain 1983 and let him follow the left and easy branch of the famous letter of Pythagoras. 1984 But do you make ready for yourself a monument like Sarahs 1985 on steep and rocky heights. Let the City of Books be near; 1986 and when you have destroyed the giants, the sons of Anak, 1987 make over your heritage to joy and merriment. 1988 Abraham was rich in gold and silver and cattle, in substance and in raiment: his household was so large that on an emergency he could bring a picked body of young men into the field, and could pursue as far as Dan and then slay four kings who had already put five kings to flight. 1989 Frequently exercising hospitality and never turning any man away from his door, he was accounted worthy at last to entertain God himself. He was not satisfied with giving orders to his servants and hand-maids to attend to his guests, nor did he lessen the favour he conferred by leaving others to care for them; but as though he had found a prize, he and Sarah his wife gave themselves to the duties of hospitality. With his own hands he washed the feet of his guests, upon his own shoulders he brought home a fat calf from the herd. While the strangers dined he stood by to serve them, and set before them the dishes cooked by Sarahs hands—though meaning to fast himself.
12. The regard which I feel for you, my dear brother, makes me remind you of these things; for you must offer to Christ not only your money but yourself, to be a “living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service,” 1990 and you must imitate the son of man who “came not to be ministered unto but to minister.” 1991 What the patriarch did for strangers that our Lord and Master did for His servants and disciples. “Skin for skin, yea, all that a man hath will he give for his life. But,” says the devil, “touch his flesh and he will curse thee to thy face.” 1992 The old enemy knows that the battle with impurity is a harder one than that with covetousness. It is easy to cast off what clings to us from without, but a war within our borders involves far greater peril. We have to unfasten things joined together, we have to sunder things firmly united. Zacchæus was rich while the apostles were poor. He restored fourfold all that he had taken and gave to the poor the half of his remaining substance. He welcomed Christ as his guest, and salvation came unto his house. 1993 And yet because he was little of stature and could not reach the apostolic standard of height, he was not numbered with the twelve apostles. Now as regards wealth the apostles gave up nothing at all, but as regards will they one and all gave up the whole world. If we offer to Christ our souls as well as our riches, he will gladly receive our offering. But if we give to God only those things which are without while we give to the devil those things which are within, the division is not fair, and the divine voice says: “Hast thou not sinned in offering aright, and yet not dividing aright?” 1994
13. That you, the leader of the patrician order, first set the example of turning monk should not be to you an occasion of boasting but rather one of humility, knowing as you do that the Son of God became the Son of man. However low you may abase yourself, you cannot be more lowly than Christ. Even supposing that you walk barefooted, that you dress in sombre garb, that you rank yourself with the poor, that you condescend to enter the tenements of the needy, that you are eyes to the blind, hands to the weak, feet to the lame, that you carry water and hew wood and make fires—even supposing that you do all this, where are the chains, the buffets, the spittings, the scourgings, the gibbet, the death which the Lord endured? And even when you have done all the things I have mentioned, you are still surpassed by your sister Eustochium as well as by Paula: for considering the weakness of their sex they have done more work relatively if less absolutely, than you. I myself was not at Rome but in the desert—would that I had continued there—at the time when your father-in-law Toxotius was still alive and his daughters were still given up to the world. But I have heard that they were too dainty to walk in the muddy streets, that p. 140 they were carried about in the arms of eunuchs, that they disliked crossing uneven ground, that they found a silk dress a burthen and felt sunshine too scorching. But now, squalid and sombre in their dress, they are positive heroines in comparison with what they used to be. They trim lamps, light fires, sweep floors, clean vegetables, put heads of cabbage in the pot to boil, lay tables, hand cups, help dishes and run to and fro to wait on others. And yet there is no lack of virgins under the same roof with them. Is it then that they have no servants upon whom they can lay these duties? Surely not. They are unwilling that others should surpass them in physical toil whom they themselves surpass in rigour of mind. I say all this not because I doubt your mental ardour but that I may quicken the pace at which you are running, and in the heat of battle may add warmth to your warmth.
14. I for my part am building in this province a monastery and a hospice close by; so that, if Joseph and Mary chance to come to Bethlehem, they may not fail to find shelter and welcome. Indeed, the number of monks who flock here from all quarters of the world is so overwhelming that I can neither desist from my enterprise nor bear so great a burthen. The warning of the gospel has been all but fulfilled in me, for I did not sufficiently count the cost of the tower I was about to build; 1995 accordingly I have been constrained to send my brother Paulinian 1996 to Italy to sell some ruinous villas which have escaped the hands of the barbarians, and also the property inherited from our common parents. For I am loth, now that I have begun it, to give up ministering to the saints, lest I incur the ridicule of carping and envious persons.
15. Now that I have come to the conclusion of my letter I recall my metaphor of the four-horse team, and recollect that Blæsilla would have made a fifth had she been spared to share your resolve. I had almost forgotten to mention her, the first of you all to go to meet the Lord. You who once were five I now see to be two and three. Blæsilla and her sister Paulina rest in sweet sleep: you with the two others on either side of you will fly upward to Christ more easily.
Virgil, Æn. iv. 367.135:1918
Quoted from a poet in the Latin Anthology.135:1919
Matt. xiii. 8.135:1920
Paula and her two daughters, Paulina and Eustochium.135:1921
Ezek. x. 8-22.135:1922
Hab. iii. 8, LXX.135:1923
Cf. Wisdom viii. 7.135:1924
1 Cor. i. 24.135:1925
Heb. xiii. 4.135:1926
i.e., continence in marriage.135:1927
Virg. A. i. 494.135:1928
Gen. xxxv. 16.135:1929
The respective meanings of Benoni and Benjamin.135:1930
Gen. i. 28.136:1931
1 Sam. iv. 19-22.136:1932
Ichabod means there is no glory; glory being (apparently) a synonym for the ark.136:1933
1 Cor. i. 26.136:1934
Matt. xiii. 31.136:1935
Matt. xiii. 33.136:1936
Isa. liv. 1.136:1937
Virg. A. vi. 625, 627.136:1938
Viz. the treatise entitled Of Work and Alms.136:1940
Dan. iv. 27.136:1941
Ecclesiasticus 4.25. Est confusio adducens peccatum: et est confusio adducens gloriam et gratiam, Vulg. Jerome probably quotes from memory. A.V. follows the Greek and the Vulg.136:1942
Gal. i. 10.137:1943
Cf. Jer. 1:18, Ezek. 3:8, 9.137:1944
Cf. Luke xiv. 11.137:1945
1 Sam. ii. 30.137:1946
Cf. the remark of Æneas Silvius that “men should be given to places not places, to men.”137:1947
Palma, i.e. tunica palmata.137:1948
Cf. Matt. xix. 29.137:1949
Gen. xxvi. 12.137:1950
Matt. xix. 21.137:1952
Matt. xix. 12.137:1953
Rom. ix. 16.137:1954
1 Cor. ix. 9.137:1956
1 Tim. v. 18.137:1957
1 Cor. ix. 13.137:1958
1 Tim. vi. 8.138:1959
Cf. Letter LVIII. § 2.138:1960
Matt. xiii. 44.138:1961
Matt. xiii. 45.138:1962
Cf. Deut. 21:11, 12.138:1963
Jer. ii. 22.138:1964
Song of Sol. 2.6. A.V. his for her.138:1965
Jerome is thinking of Ruth.138:1966
1 Cor. 1:30, Heb. 12:14.138:1967
Ps. lxxiii. 26.138:1968
What was the mistake? Did the orator say, “Well enough if fast enough”? The text seems obscure.138:1970
Cf. Letter XLVI. § 12.138:1972
Song of Sol. 3.1.138:1973
Song of Sol. 5.2.138:1974
Cf. Cant. 1:7, Cant. 2:5, Cant. 5:2.138:1975
Ps. lxviii. 13.138:1976
Isa. 7:14, 15.138:1977
Ps. lxviii. 14, Vulg. (acc. to some mss.). Intermedios cleros—the lot or inheritance—with an allusion perhaps to the word clergy formed from clerus.138:1978
Perhaps an allusion to Isa. viii. 1. Mahershalal-hash-baz, Spoil speedeth, prey hasteth.138:1979
i.e. the oak of Mamre under which he entertained the three angels (Gen. xviii. 1-8).139:1980
Virg. Æn. vii. 112–129.139:1981
Beth-lehem means house of bread.139:1982
v. § 14 below.139:1983
Gen. xiii. 5-11.139:1984
The letter Υ. Cf. Pers. iii. 56, 57 and Coningtons note.139:1985
Gen. xxiii. 19.139:1986
i.e. Kirjathsepher close to Hebron (Josh. xv. 13-15) where Sarah was buried.139:1987
Cf. Jos. xv. 14.139:1988
An allusion to the name of Abrahams heir, Isaac or laughter (Gen. 21:3, 6).139:1989
Gen. xiv. 13-16.139:1990
Rom. xii. 1.139:1991
Matt. xx. 28.139:1992
Job 2:4, 5.139:1993
Luke xix. 2-9.139:1994
Gen. iv. 7, LXX.140:1995
Luke xiv. 28.140:1996
See Letter LXI. § 31.