126 Or "youngest," or "most vigorous." This is Hesiod's word, which signifies literally," fittest for bearing arms" (for service, as we say).

127 "The majority of those who first formed systems of philosophy, consider those that subsist in a form of matter, to be alone the principle of all things."-Aristotle's Metaphisics, book i. c. iii. p. 13 (Bohn's ed.).

1 Or, "interval."

2 Hippolytus gives the substance of Sextus Empiricus' remarks, omitting, however, a portion of the passage followed. (See Sextus Empiricus' Mathem., v. 44.)

3 Or, "celestial."

4 Or, "Celbes," or "Ademes." The first is the form of the name employed in book v. c, viii.; the second in book x. c. vi.

5 This passage occurs in Sextus Empiricus.

6 Or, "the knowledge of."

7 Horoscope (from wpa skopoj) is the act of observing the aspect of the heavens at the moment of any particular birth. Hereby the astrologer alleged his ability of foretelling the future career of the person so born. The most important part of the sky for the astrologer's consideration was that sign of the Zodiac which rose above the horizon at the moment of parturition. This was the "horoscope ascendant," or "first house." The circuit of the heavens was divided into twelve "houses," or zodiacal signs.

8 Or, "difference."

9 Or," during."

10 apotecewj; some would read apotacewj.

11 The passage is given more explicitly in Sextus Empiricus. (See Adversus Astrol., v. 53.)

12 Sextus uses almost these words.

13 Or "lodgment" (Sextus), or "deposition."

14 Or, "attendants of physicians."

15 Or, "make."

16 Or, "vanishes."

17 Not in Sextus Empiricus.

18 The passage is more clearly given in Sextus.

19 Or, "the cold atmosphere."

20 Or, "manifestation."

21 Or, "manifestation."

22 Or, "reasonable."

23 Or, "but the motion... is whirled on with velocity."

24 This rendering of the passage may be deduced from Sextus Empiricus.

25 The text is corrupt, but the above seems probably the meaning, and agrees with the rendering of Schneidewin and Cruice.

26 Or, "view."

27 The clepsydra, an instrument for measuring duration, was, with the sun-dial, invented by the Egyptians under the Ptolemies. It was employed not only for the measurernent of time, but for making astronomic calculations. Water, as the name imports, was the fluid employed, though mercury has been likewise used. The inherent defect of an instrument of this description is mentioned by Hippolytus.

28 Literally, "twisting, tergiversating."

29 This seems the meaning, as deducible from a comparison of Hippolytus with the corresponding passage in Sextus Empiricus.

30 Omitted by Sextus.

31 The Abbe Cruice observes, in regard of some verbal difference here in the text from that of Sextus, that the MS. of The Refutationwas probably executed by one who heard the extracts from other writers read to him, and frequently mistook the sound. The transcriber of the MS. was one Michael, as we learn from a marginal note at the end.

32 This was the great doctrine of astrology, the forerunner of the science of astronomy. Astrology seems to have arisen first among the Chaldeans, out of the fundamental principle of their religion -the assimilation of the divine nature to light. This tenet introduced another, the worship of the stars, which was developed into astrology. Others suppose astrology to have been of Arabian or Egyptian origin. From some of these sources it reached the Greeks, and through them the Romans, who held the astrologic art in high repute. The art, after having become almost extinct, was revived by the Arabians at the verve of the middle ages. For the history of astrology one must consult the writings of Manilius, Julius Firmicus, and Ptolemy. Its greatest medieval apologist is Cardan, the famous physician of Paris (see his work, De Astron. Judic., lib. vi.-ix. tom. v. of his collected works).

33 Sextus adds, "bright-eyed."

34 Hippolytus here follows Sextus.

35 Aratus, from whom Hippolytus quotes so frequently in this chapter, was a poet and astronomer of antiquity, born at Soli in Cilicia. He afterwards became physician to Gonatus, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, king of Macedon, at whose court he rose high into favour. The work alluded to by Hippolytus is Aratus' Phaenomena,-a versified account of the motions of the stars, and of sidereal influence over men. This work seems to have been a great favourite with scholars, if we are to judge from the many excellent annotated editions of it that have appeared. Two of these deserve notice, viz., Grotius' Leyden edition, 1600, in Greek and Latin; and Buhle's edition, Leipsic, 1803. See also Dionysius Petavius' Uranoiogion. Arbutus must always be famous, from the fact that St. Paul (Acts xiii. 28) quotes the fifth line of the Phaenomena. Cicero considered Aratus a noble poet, and translated the Phaenimena into Latin, a fragment of which has been preserved, and is in Grotius' edition. Aratus has been translated into English verse, with notes by Dr. Lamb, Dean of Bristol (London: J. W. Parker, 1858).

36 The Abbe Cruice suggests "freedom from danger," instead of "cowardice," and translates thus: "whereby kings are slain, by having impunity promised in the predictions of these seers."

37 Sextus makes the number "nine thousand nine hundred and seventy and seven years."

38 The parenthetical words are taken from Sextus Empiricus, as introduced into his text by the Abbe Cruice. Schneidewin alludes to the passage in Sextus as proof of some confusion in Hippolytus' text, which he thinks is signified by the transcriber in the words, "I think there is some deficiency or omissions," which occur in the MS. of The Refutation.

39 As regards astological predictions, see Origen's Comment. on Gen.; Diodorus of Tarsus, De Fato; Photii Biblioth., cod, ccxxiii.; and Bardesanis, De Legibus Nationum, in Cureton's Spicilegium Syriacum.

40 See Plato's Timaeus.

41 Schneidewin, on Roeper's suggestion, amends the passage thus, though I am not sure that I exactly render his almost unintelligible Latin version: "For as many sections as there are of eacb, there are educible from the monad more segments than sections; for example, if," etc. The Abbe Cruice would seemingly adopt the following version: "For whatsoever are sections of each, now there are more segments than sections of a monad, will become; for example, if," etc.

42 Schneidewin, on mathematical authority, discredits the numerical calculations ascribed to Archimedes.

43 This is manifestly erroneous; the total could only be "four myriads!"