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Calvin's Commentaries, Vol. 25: Daniel, Part II, tr. by John King, [1847-50], at


With Concise Epitomes Of The Contents Of The Most Important.

1 Jewish Commentators.

Dr. Kennicott first edited a Hebrew interpretation of the Chaldee chapters of Daniel and Ezra from an ancient codex. It was translated and re-edited by J. L. Shulze. Hal., 1782.

Buxtorf edited a Hebrew Commentary on Daniel by Rabbi Saadiah Hag-gaon, who lived in Egypt and died about the middle of the tenth century. Basil., A.D. 1618.

R. Solomon Jarchi’s Commentary on Daniel is exceedingly full and clear in its verbal explanations. The edition of J. F. Breithaupt, Gotham, 1713, is very convenient, and full of most valuable Hebrew criticisms.

R. Isaac Abarbanel, who is frequently refuted by Calvin in the preceding Lectures, has been mentioned in our Ezekiel, vol. 2 p. 403. He entities his comments on Daniel, “The Fountains of Salvation.” They were first published at Naples, A.D. 1497: again in A.D. 1551, without the name of any place, and again at Amsterdam, A.D. 1647.

R. Joseph Teitzak, who lived in the fifteenth century, wrote a Commentary on Daniel, published at Venice, A.D. 1608.

R. Joseph the son of David the son of Joseph Jachia, commonly called Jacchiades, who died A.D. 1539, wrote a

Paraphrase on Daniel, in much repute: published at Amsterdam, A.D. 1633.

R. Moses Alschech, who lived at the close of the sixteenth century, called his Commentary on this Prophet, “The Rose of Sharon:” published at Zaphetae, A.D. 1568, and at Venice, A.D. 1592.

R. Samuel, son of R. Judah Valerius, entitled his comment on this Prophet, “The Vision of the Time Appointed.” Venice, A.D. 1586.

2 Early Fathers.

The Greek Commentary on this Prophet by Hippolytus, Bishop of the harbor of Rome, has been already mentioned. It was first edited at Paris, A.D. 1672, in a general collection of the Greek Fathers, and afterwards Jo. Alb. Fabricius published the whole of his works at Hamburgh, A.D. 1716 and 1718. His explanations of chaps. 7 to 12 are edited from the Chisian codex according to the Septuagint translation, which, as we have formerly stated, was first published at Rome, A.D. 1772.

Ephrem Syrus wrote his Commentary on this Prophet about A.D. 370. It was published at Rome, A.D. 1740, by Peter Benedict, both in Syriac and Latin. See vol. 2 p. 203 and following.

Jerome’s valuable exposition of this Prophet is found in vol. 5 of his works, p. 2. Edit. Vallarsii. Venice, A.D. 1768.

Theodoret’s valuable comments on Daniel are found in vol. 2 pt. 2 p. 1053, of the edition of his works by J. L. Schulze. Hal. Saxon., A.D. 1 768.

3 Early Reformers.

Martini Lutheri Auslegung des Propheten Daniels, consists of three parts, published at different times at Wittemberg, from A.D. 1530 to 1546. See Jo. G. Walch’s preface to Luther’s Works, vol. 6 p. 13, and p. 1422 and following.

Jo. Oecolampadii Commentariorum in Danielem, Libri Duo. Basileae, A.D. 1530, 1543, and 1562: also, Geneva, A.D. 1553, 1567, and 1578. A very valuable exposition, and more in accordance with modern views of Antichrist and the spiritual nature of our Lord’s kingdom, than the Lectures of Calvin.

Philippi Melancthonis Commentarius in Danielem Prophetam. Wittemberg, A.D. 1543: published also in his works, and translated into German by Justus Jonas. P. 2 p. 416. A.D. 1546.

4 Authors quoted by Poole
in his Synopsosis on Daniel.

As Poole merely gives the name of his authors without any hint as to the titles and dates of their works, the following information will be of use. It is confined exclusively to Daniel

Victorini Strigelii, Danielis Prophetae Concio. Lipsiae, A.D. 1565, 1571, 1572. 8vo.

Benedicti Pererii, Com. in Danielem. Romae, A.D. 1586: also Lugduni, A.D. 1588, 1591, 1602: et Antverpiae, 1594

Francisci Juan, Expositio Prophetae Danielis. Heidelberg, A.D. 1593: Geuevae, 1594.

Amandi Polani A Polensdorf in Danielem Prophetam Commentarius. Basil., A.D. 1593, 4to, et 1606, 8vo.

Joannes Maldonati, Commentarii in prophetas quatuor Jeremiam, Ezekiel, Baruch, et Danielem. Moguntiae, A.D. 1611.

The translation is good; the comments short and explanatory of the Hebrew words; and it is to be expected that a Jesuit would occasionally direct his shafts against “Calvinianis.”

Hugone Broughtono, Commentarius in Danielem primum Anglice scriptus. First published in English in London, A.D. 1596 and 1597. Jo. Boreel translated it into Latin at Basil, A.D. 1599. Small 4to.

The Latin translation is materially influenced by Rabbinical comments on the Hebrew and Chaldee text. The work is very valuable as a repository of historical information in the words of the original Greek historians.

Hexapla In Danielem By Andrew Willet. Cambridge, A.D. 1610.

A very valuable collection of the opinions of others, and a good study for those who are interested in the variety of speculations which have been invented concerning the prophecies of this book. The difficult questions “handled” are 536, and the knotty controversies undertaken are 134. In addition to most of the standard writers quoted by Poole, Pintus is introduced, whose work is entitled, Hectoris Pinti, Commentarii in Danielem, Lamentationes, Jeremiae, et Nahum. Conimbrae, A.D. 1582. Venetiis, A.D. 15S3. Colon., A.D. 1587. Antverpiae, A.D. 1595.

Poole also quotes the translations of this Prophet made by Pagninus, Montanus, and Malvenda, who are Roman Catholics; and Munster, Junius and Tremellius, and Castalio, who are Protestants. Their various merits are given by H. Horne, vol. 2, part 2, pp. 62, 64, who states the authorities from which he derives his own information.

5 Foreign Interpreters.

The best of these are German. Their variety is great; a few only can be noticed here; others will be found in abundance in Rosenmuller’s Elenchus Interpretum.

Martini Geieri, Praelectiones Academicae in Danielem. Lipsiae, A.D. 1667, 1684, 1697, 1702: and repeated in vol. it. of his works. Amsterdam, A.D. 1695, folio. “One of the most valuable,” writes H. Horne, “of all Geier’s expository works.”

Prodromus Danielicus auctore Jo. Ger. Kerkherdere. Lovanii, A.D. 1711. 12mo.

A small yet learned volume by the historian to his Catholic Majesty Charles III., containing many criticisms and attempts to reconcile historical difficulties. In many points very illustrative of Calvin’s sentiments.

Herman Venema, Dissertationes ad vaticinia Danielis emblematica, cap. 2, 7, et 8. Leovardiae, A.D. 1745: another vol. contains his exposition of cap. 11:4; 12:3. Leovardiae, A.D. 1752. 4to.

Ch. B. Michaelis, Annotationes philologico-exegeticae in Danielem. Hal., A.D. 1720.

J. D. Michaelis, Epistolae de LXX. Hebdomadibus Danielis. London, A.D. 1773.

H. Havernick’s New Commentary on the Book of Daniel. The original title is, Neue critische untersuchungen uber das buch Daniel. Von Heinrich Havernick. Hamburgh, A.D. 1838. This small volume of the excellent Professor at Rostock is much esteemed.

Emst. Wilm. Hengstenberg. Die Authentic des Daniel und die integritat des Sachariah. Berlin, A.D. 1831.

This work is now accessible to the English reader through the translation of the Revelation B. P. Pratten. Edinburgh, Clark, A.D. 1848.

Its contents are as follow: —

The Genuineness of Daniel.

Chap. 1 — History of attacks on the Book of Daniel.

Chap. 2 — Reply to objections.
Sect. 1 Alleged Greek Words —
2 Impure Hebrew —
3 Silence of Jesus Sirach —
4 Position in the Canon —
5 Depreciatory statements of the Jews —
6 The O. T. referred to as a complete Whole —
7 Aimless profusion of miracles —
8 Historical errors —
9 Irreconcilable contradictions —
10 Improbable and suspicious accounts —
11 Later ideas and usages —
12 Unusual indefiniteness of the prophecies —
13 This definiteness ceases with Antiochus Epiphanes —
14 Other objections —
1. The passage, Daniel 12;
2. Correspondence in ideas and expressions with much later Books;
3. Marks of Jewish national pride;
4. Absence of all higher moral tendency;
5. Passages which speak in praise of Daniel.

Chap. 3 — Arguments for the Genuineness.
Sect. 1 Testimony of the author himself —
2 Reception into the Canon, and general acknowledgment of Canonicity —
3 Testimony of Christ and the Apostles —
4 Traces of the Book in pre-Maceabean times —

1 The passage of Josephus, Arch. 11:8;
2. 1 Macc. 2:0, 1 Macc. 59:0, 1 Macc. 60:0;
3. The LXX. of De 32:8, and Isaiah 30
4; Badness of the Alex. version of Daniel, which was nearly contemporary with the alleged original composition —

5 Character of the language;

1. Use of Hebrew and Aramaean;
2. Correspondence of its Aramaean, with that of Ezra, and deviation from that of the Targums —

6 Exact knowledge of history —

7 Familiar acquaintance with the institutions, manners, and customs of the times of Daniel —

8 Other arguments;

1. The entire peculiarity of prophetic style, and the mode of representation adopted in the Book;
2. Several things at variance with the spirit of the Maccabean times;
3. Exact agreement of the historical part and the prophecies;
4. Immediate conjunction of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes and the Messianic times.

As the Professor refers to many Neologian works for the purpose of refuting their wild extravagancies, the titles of the four following ones are given in full. See their characters delineated in our Preface.

Daniel aus dem Hebraisch-Aramaischen neu ubersetzt und erklart, mit einer vollstandigen Einleitung, und einigen historischen und exegetischen Excursen. Von Leonhard Bertholdt, erste und zweyte Halfte. Erlangen, 1806, 1808, in octon.

G. F. Griesinger’s Neue Ansicht der Aufsatze im Buche Daniel. Stuttg. u. Tubing., 1815, in octon.

Ueber Verfasser und Zweck des Buchs Daniel. Revision der in neuerer Zeit daruber gefuhrten Untersuchungen. Von Friedr. Bleek. In der Theologischen Zeitschrift herausgeg. von Schleiermacher, de Wette, u. Lucke, p. 3. Berlin, 1822, in octon.

Her. God. Kirmss Commentatio historico-critica, exhibens descriptionem et censuram recentium de Danielis libro opinionum. Jenae, 1828, in quat.

A list of other interpretations better known on the Continent than in either Great Britain or America, will be found in Rosenmuller’s “elenchus interpretum.” His own elaborate Scholia in Danielem, Lipsiae, 1832, have proved very serviceable for the illustration of these Lectures.

The title of the following French work is worthy of mention. Daniel le prophete dans une suite de Lecons pour une Ecole du Dimanche. 4 vols. Partridge and Oakey, publishers to the Evangelical Alliance.

6 American Works.

A Critical and Historical Interpretation of the Prophecies of Daniel. By N. S. Folsom. Boston, 12mo, 1842.

A work on the system of Professor Stuart; displaying considerable historical research, and more explanatory of Calvin’s views than some modern British works.

The Prophecies of Daniel, Nos. I. and II. By George Bush, Professor of Hebrew in New York City University. New York, 1844.

The Hebrew and Chaldee originals with several of the ancient versions. The comments are strictly exegetical. Most valuable to the critical reader of this Prophet. See a Sketch of its contents in the American Biblical Repository. October, 1844.

7 British Commentators.

Roberti Rolloci Commentarius in Librum Danielis Prophetae. Edinburgi, 1591, 4to.

The Book of Daniel, explained after the following method, etc. By Dr. Edward Wells. Oxford, 1716.

The Septuagint version is printed in parallel columns with the English version, and useful annotations added.

Observations on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John. By Sir Isaac Newton. London, 1733, 4to.

The Astronomical fame of the author has bestowed great celebrity upon the calculations of this work.

An Essay towards the Interpretation of the Prophecies of Daniel, with occasional remarks upon some of the most celebrated Commentators on them. By Richard Amner. London, 1776, 8vo.

The opinion of Grotius and Le Clerc is followed here, making the times of Antiochus Epiphanes the termination of the events predicted. See British Critic, O. S., vol. 13 p. 290 and following.

Daniel, an Improved Version attempted, with a Preliminary Dissertation and Notes, Critical, Historical, and Explanatory. By Thomas Wintle, B.D. London, 1807, 4to, 1838, 8vo.

The best English version with which the Editor is acquainted. The notes are sufficiently copious and very scholar-like; many references to it have already been made in illustrating these Lectures.

A Dissertation by way of Inquiry into the true import and application of the Vision related, Da 9:20 to the end, usually called Daniel’s Prophecy of Seventy Weeks, etc. By Benjamin Blayney, B.D. Oxford, 1775, 4to.

A Dissertation on Daniel’s Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks. By George Stanley Faber, B.D. London, 1811, 8vo

A Dissertation on the Seventy Weeks of Daniel the Prophet. By the Rev. John Stonard, D.D. London, 1826, 8vo.

Daniel’s Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks. By a Layman. London, 1836, 12mo. A Dissertation concerning the Chronological Numbers recorded in the Prophecies of Daniel. By the Revelation Philip Allwood, B.D. London, 1833, 8vo.

The Times of Daniel, Chronological and Prophetical. By George Duke Of Manchester. London, 1845, 8vo.

A very elaborate and original work, in which the chronology is re-arranged on a basis varying from that commonly received.

The Four Prophetic Empires and the Kingdom of Messiah, being an exposition of the first two visions of Daniel. By the Revelation T. R. Birks, M.A. London, 1845.

The Two Later Visions of Daniel: historically explained. By the Revelation T. R. Birks, M.A. London, 1846.

A very clear and useful historical compendium. The first sixteen chapters are a practical comment on these Lectures. Frequent extracts have already been made.

An Inquiry into the Nature, Progress, and End of Prophecy. By Samuel Lee, D.D. London, 1849.

The Events and Times of the Visions of Daniel and St. John, etc. By Samuel Lee, D.D. London, 1851.

These works of this lamented scholar are quite in the spirit of Calvin’s interpretations. The adherents to Calvin’s views of these prophecies will find much profit from their perusal.

Prophetic Studies, or Lectures on Daniel. By John Cumming, D.D. Sixth thousand. London, 1852.

Remarks on the Prophetic Visions of the Book of Daniel, etc. By S. P. Tregelles, LL.D. 1853.

The works of other authors are enumerated by H. Horne, vol. 2 pt. 11, p. 290, etc., and by Ed Bickersteth in his “Practical Guide to the Prophecies,” p. 401. London, 1839.

Providence, Prophecy, and Popery, as exhibited in the first seven chapters of Daniel. By the Rev. William White, minister of the Original Secession Church, Haddington. 12mo, 1848.

Studies on the Book of Daniel: a Course of Lectures by J. N. Darby. Translated from the French, and revised by the Author, 12mo, 1848.

Lectures on the Prophet Daniel, considered in a Series of Lessons for a Sunday School. By the Rev. L. Gaussen of Geneva. 8vo, 1848.

Lectures, Expository and Practical, on the Book of the Prophet Daniel. By the Rev. Charles Popham Miles. 2 vols 12 mo.

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