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Myths and Legends of China, by Edward T.C. Werner, [1922], at

p. 424 p. 425

Glossary & Index

The Pronunciation of Chinese Words

During the course of Chinese history the restriction of intercourse due to mountain-chains or other natural obstacles between various tribes or divisions of the Chinese people led to the birth of a number of families of languages, which again became the parents of numerous local dialects. These dialects have in most cases restricted ranges, so that that of one district may be partially or wholly unintelligible to the natives of another situated at a distance of only a hundred miles or less.

The Court or Government language is that spoken in Peking and the metropolitan district, and is the language of official communication throughout the country. Though neither the oldest nor the purest Chinese dialect, it seems destined more than any other to come into universal use in China. The natives of each province or district will of course continue to speak to each other in their own particular dialect, and foreign missionaries or merchants, for example, whose special duties or transactions are connected with special districts will naturally learn and use the dialects of those districts; but as a means of intercommunication generally between natives of different provinces, or between natives and foreigners, the Court language seems likely to continue in use and to spread more and more over the whole country. It is to this that the following remarks apply.

The essentials of correct pronunciation of Chinese are accuracy of sound, tone, and rhythm.


Vowels and Diphthongs

a as in father.

ai as in Italian amái.

ao. Italian ao in Aosta: sometimes á-oo, the au in cauto.

e in eh, en, as in yet, lens.

ei. Nearly ey in grey, but more as in Italian lei, contei.

ê. The vowel-sound in lurk.

êi. The foregoing ê followed enclitically by y. Money without the n = mêi.

êrh. The urr in purr.

i. As a single or final syllable the vowel-sound in ease, tree; in ih, in, ing, as in chick, thing.

ia generally as in the Italian Maria.

iai. The iai in the Italian vecchiaia.

iao as in ia and ao, with the terminal peculiarity of the latter.

ie as in the Italian siesta.

io. The French io in pioche. p. 426

iu as a final, longer than the English ew. In liu, niu, almost leyew, neyew. In chiung, hsiung, iung, is eeyong (ō in roll).

o. Between vowel-sound in awe and that in roll.

ou. Really êō; ou in round.

ü. The vowel-sound in the French tu, eût.

üa. Only in üan, which in some tones is üen. The ū as above; the an as in antic.

üe. The vowel-sounds in the French tu es.

üo. A disputed sound, used, if at all, interchangeably with io in certain syllables.

u. The oo in too; in un and ung as in the Italian punto.

ua. Nearly ooa, in many instances contracting to wa.

uai as in the Italian guai.

uei. The vowel-sounds in the French jouer.

uê. Only in final uên = ú-ŭn; frequently wên or wun.

ui. The vowel-sounds in screwy; in some tones uei.

uo. The Italian uo in fuori; often wo, and at times nearly ŏō.

ŭ. Between the i in bit and the u in shut.


ch as in chair; but before ih softened to dj.

ch’. A strong breathing. Much-harm without the italicized letters = ch’a.

f as in farm.

h as ch in Scotch loch.

hs. A slight aspirate preceding and modifying the sibilant, which is, however, the stronger of the two consonants; e.g. hsing = hissing without the first i,

j. Nearly the French j in jaune; the English s in fusion.

k. c in car, k in king; but when following other sounds often softened to g in go, gate.

k’. The aspirate as in ch’. Kick-hard without the italicized letters = k’a; and kick-her == k’ê.

l as in English.

m as in English.

n as in English.

ng. The italicized letters in the French mon galant = nga; mon gaillard = ngai; son gosier = ngo.

p as in English.

p’ The Irish pronunciation of party, parliament. Slap-hard without the italicized letters = p’a.

s as in English.

sh as in English.

ss. Only in ssŭ. The object of employing ss is to fix attention on the peculiar vowel-sound ŭ (see above).

t as in English.

t’ The Irish t in torment. Hit-hard without the italicized letters = t’a.

ts as in jetsam; after another word softened to ds in gladsome.

ts’. The aspirate intervening, as in ch’, etc. Bets-hard without the italicized letters = ts’a. p. 427

tz. Employed to mark the peculiarity of the final ŭ; hardly of greater power than ts.

tz’ like ts’. This, tz, and ss used only before ŭ.

w as in English; but very faint, or even non-existent, before ü.

y as in English; but very faint before i or ü.


The correct pronunciation of the sound (yin) is not sufficient to make a Chinese spoken word intelligible. Unless the tone (shêng), or musical note, is simultaneously correctly given, either the wrong meaning or no meaning at all will be conveyed. The tone is the key in which the voice is pitched. Accent is a ‘song added to,’ and tone is emphasized accent. The number of these tones differs in the different dialects. In Pekingese there are now four. They are best indicated in transliteration by numbers added to the sound, thus:

pa (1) pa (2) pa (3) pa (4)

To say, for example, pa (3) instead of pa (1) would be as great a mistake as to say ‘grasp’ instead of ‘trumpet.’ Correctness of tone cannot be learnt except by oral instruction.


What tone is to the individual sound rhythm is to the sentence. This also, together with proper appreciation of the mutual modifications of tone and rhythm, can be correctly acquired only by oral instruction.


A Zie. In Miao legend of the creation, 407408

Absolute. Of Lieh Tzŭ, 9091

Accessory Institutions, 3738; education, 3738

Address, Forms of, 42

Administration. General, 28 sq.; in Feudal Period, 2829; in Monarchical Period, 29; in Republican Period, 30

Æsthetic Products, 59

Age for Marriage, 23

Agents. The Three, 125; the Three Great Emperor Agents, 125; the Three Supreme Agents, 125

Agnosticism. Confucius and, 8889

Agriculture, 49 sq.; Ministry of, 50

Agriculturists. Nung; the second class of the people, 28

Air. Sovereign of the Eastern, 136137; sovereign of the Western, 137

Akkadia. Supposed origin of the Chinese in, 13, 15, 17

All Souls’ Day. Festival of (Mid-autumn Festival), 35, 4445

Alligator, The Spiritual, 223224

Amita, Amida. O-mi-t’o Fo; Buddha, 119, 120 p. 428

Amitabha. See Amita

An-kung. God of Sailors, 165

Ancestor-worship. The origin of Chinese religion, 52; by rulers, 94; ordinary, 100; and Buddhism, 118

Ao. A sea-monster; raises the scholar K’uei on its back, 106

Ao Ch’in. A Dragon-king; and the Eight Immortals, 214 sq.

Ao Ping. Third son of Lung Wang, 308309

Aquila. Star; legend regarding Vega and, 189 sq.

Archer, The Divine, 180 sq.

Armless People. Legend of the, 388

Artisans. Kung; the third class of the people, 28

Arts, 49

Astrological Superstitions, 176

Asuras. Buddhist demons; enemies of Dêvas, 198

August. The Pure August One; Yü Huang, 130


Barge of Mercy, Taoist, 160

Beards. Little worn, 47

Beginning. Of Form, 90; of Pneuma, 90; the Great, 90; of Substance, 90

Bell, Casting of the Great. Legend of, 394 sq.

Bezoar. See Niu Huang

Bible. Parallelisms of, with Chinese religious and mythological beliefs, 79 n.

“Biographies of the Gods.” Shên hsien chuan, by Ko Hung, 79

Bird. Of Dawn, 186187; the one-legged, 206

Birth of the Soul, 93

Blackwater River, Demons of. In the Hsi yu chi, 352

Blank, The Great, 90

Blower. See Ch’ên Ch’i

Blue Dragon. Ch’ing Lung; spirit of the Blue Dragon Star; guardian of Taoist temple gates, 146 sq.

Blue River. Hsüan Chuang exposed in, as an infant, 337

“Book of Ceremonial.” Li chi, 103

“Book of History,” 84

Brothers, The Three Musical, 151

Buddha. Ju Lai, 78; and the Law and the Priesthood, 119; Tathagata, 119; Fo Pao, one of the San Pao, 119; Shâkyamuni, 119; Yüeh-shih Fo, the Master-Physician, 120; Miao Shan (Kuan Yin) becomes a, 271; his jumping competition with Sun Hou-tzŭ, 332333

Buddhism. As a Chinese religion, 53; effect on mythology, 6263; one of the three religions, 100; brought to China, 118; Mahayanistic form of, 118; origin in ancestor-worship, 118; and Taoism, 118; and Confucianism, 118; Buddha, the Law, and the Priesthood, 119

Buddhist-s. Account of P’an Ku, 77; guardians of temple gates, 146; evil dragons, 208; number of dragons, 209; saviour of the Buddhists in Slow-carts Country, 353 sq.

Buffalo. Of T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu, 133134

Burial, Methods of, 39 sq.

Bushel Mother. See Tou Mu

Butterfly. Chuang Tzŭ and the, 91 and n., 148149


“Canon of Changes.” See I Ching

Capture, Marriage By, 22

Carp. Ch’ên Kuang-jui and the released, 336, 339340

Cart, Land of the Flying, 391

Cask of Pearls. Wang Tan and the, 131132

Cause-s. First, Yüan-shih T’ien-tsun, 127; Superior, Medium, and Inferior, 126; the Three, 125 sq.

Celestial Ministries, 9899, 164

Cemeteries, Chinese, 41

Ceremonial Institutions. Changes in marriage ceremonial, 2425; exacting nature of funeral rites, 41; codes of ceremonial, 42 p. 429

Ch’an-yü. Daughter of Têng Chiu-kung; helps her father, 147; marries T’u Hsing-sun, 147

Chang Fei. Chang I Tê, the meat-seller; and Kuan Yü, 114 sq.

Chang Hsien. The patron of child-bearing women, 177 sq.; shoots the Heavenly Dog, 177178; spirit of the star Chang, 178179; origin of worship of, 178

Chang I Tê. See Chang Fei

Chang Kuei-fang. Defeated by No-cha, 153154

Chang Kuo. One of the Eight Immortals, 288, 303; legend of, 294295

Chang Lao. The old priest who rescued the infant son of Ch’ên Kuang-jui, 337338

Ch’ang Ô, or Hêng Ô. Called T’ai-yin Huang-chün and Yüeh-fu Ch’ang Ô; the younger sister of the Spirit of the Waters, 179 sq.; Shên I marries, 182; eats pill of immortality, 184185; flies to the moon, 185; and the white rabbit, 185; changed to a toad, 176, 188

Chang Shao. His fight with Nan-chi Hsien-wêng, 158159; defeated by White Crane Youth, 159

Chang Tao-ling. The first Taiost pope, 138 sq.; finds ancient writings, 138139; founder of modern Taoism, 139; and pills of immortality, 139, 140; and talismans, 139; a ‘rice-thief,’ 139; his disciple, Wang Ch’ang, 140, 141, 216; Chao Shêng plucks the peaches for, 140141; the Heavenly Teacher, 141; Vicegerent of Pearly Emperor, 141; Commander-in-Chief of the hosts of Taoism, 141; his descendants, 142; and the dragon, 216217; and the Spirits of the Well, 216217; and the hunter, 217

Chang T’ien-shih. Master of the Taoists; Emperor Li Shih-min and, 243 sq.; causes death of the five graduates, 244; gives magic objects to graduates, 245

Chang Ya. The God of Tzŭ T’ung 104 sq.

Change, The Great, 90

“Changes, The Canon of.” See I Ching

Chao Chên. Minister to Miao Chuang, 253, 257, 277, 279280, 283; becomes Emperor, 285

Chao K’uei. Marries Miao Ch’ing, 258; conspires against Miao Chuang, 277 sq.

Chao Kung-ming. See Ts’ai Shên

Chao Shêng. Plucks the peaches, 140141

Ch’ao Tu. A watchman; Li T’ieh-kuai and, 291

Chao Yen. His connexion with Shou Hsing, 172

Chaos. Evolution of, and i tu, 9091

Characteristics. Emotional, intellectual, and physical, of the Chinese, 2122

Charms. Use of, prevalent, 54

Ch’ê. And the fox, 379 sq.

Ch’ên. The Officials; the first class of the people, 28

Ch’ên. A Buddhist nun; collects subscriptions for casting an image of Buddha; and the maniac’s mite, 401402

Chên, Mr. A fox; and Chia Tzŭ-lung, 381 sq.

Ch’ên Kuang-jui. A graduate of Hai Chou, 336; appointed Governor of Chiang Chou, 336; and the released carp, 336, 339340; murder of, by Liu Hung, 337; his infant son exposed on the Blue River, 337; his murderer executed, 339; saved by Lung Wang, 339340; is reunited with his family, 340. See also Hsüan Chuang

Ch’ên Ch’i, or Ha. The Blower, 145; his battle with the Snorter, 145146; speared by Huang Fei-hu, 146; canonized, 146; appointed guardian of Buddhist temple gates, 146; overthrows Têng Chiu-kung, 148

Chên-jên. The Perfect Man, or Hero, 125, 135136

Chên-shui T’a. See Yü Ch’üan Shan T’a p. 430

Chêng Chêng-ch’ang. Choir-mistress in Nunnery of the White Bird, 261, 263264

Chêng Lung, or Hêng. The Snorter, 145; instructed by Tu Ô, 145; his battle with the Blower, 145146; killed by Chin Ta-shêng, 146; canonized, 146; appointed guardian of the Buddhist temple gates, 146

Ch’êng Tsung. Emperor; and the San Yüan, 127; and Yü Huang, 130131; and the casket of pearls, 131132

Ch’êng-huang, God of the City, 165166, 402 sq.

Ch’i. Pneuma, 90; Primary Matter, 86; Chu Tzŭ and, 87; tao and, 88

Chi Chou. The early seat of Chinese sovereignty, 82

Chia Tzŭ-lung. And Mr Chên, a fox, 381 sq.

Chiang Chou. Ch’ên Kuang-jui appointed Governor of, 336

Chiang Shang. See Chiang Tzŭ-ya

Chiang Tzŭ-ya. His name Chiang Shang, but known as Lü Shang, famous generalissimo, 122, 152 sq.; canonizes Hêng and Ha, 146; and Têng Chiu-kung, 147148; and Chü Liu-sun, 147; and Yin Ch’êng-hsiu, 148; and battle of Mu Yeh, 152153; transfers services to Chou, 152; and Wu Wang, 153, 154; and No-cha, 153154; goes to K’un-lun, 154; receives List of Promotions to Immortals from Yüan-shih, 154; disobeys Yüan-shih’s commands, 155; tempted by Shên Kung-pao, 155; compact with Shên Kung-pao, 155; assisted by Ancient Immortal of the South Pole against Shên Kung-pao, 156157; intercedes for Shên Kung-pao, 157; builds the Fêng Shên T’ai, 157; in battle with Wên Chung, 158 sq.; wounds Wên Chung, 160; his encounter with Ch’ien-li Yen and Shun-fêng Êrh, 162 sq.; causes death of Chao Kung-ming, 170171; confers appanage of the twenty-eight constellations on T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu and his followers, 191192; and T’ai Sui, 196; and Lei Tsu, 199; and Lü Yüeh, 241

Chieh-yin Tao-jên. Fights with T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu, 321

Ch’ien-li Yen, or Kao Ming. Thousand-li Eye, 161 sq.; general of tyrant Chou, 161162; encounters with No-cha, Yang Chien, Chiang Tzŭ-ya, Li Ching, and Lei Chên-tzŭ, 162 sq.; defeated, 163164; searches for heir to Miao Chuang, 254255

Ch’ien-t’ang. Chief God of Rivers, 218219

Chih. See Substance

Ch’ih Ching-tzŭ. Seeks Yüan-shih T’ien-wang, 129; defeats Wên Chung, 161; an alleged discoverer of fire, 199; fights Wên Chung, 199; personification of fire, 237

Ch’ih Sung-tzŭ. See Yü Shih

Ch’ih Ti. See Chu Jung

Ch’ih-chiang Tzŭ-yü. Visits Ô-mei Shan, 179; on the steep summit, 180; instructed in the doctrine of immortality, 186; a skilful archer, 180 sq.; named Shên I; his adventures as Shên I—see Shên I

Children. Position of, in China, 2526

Ch’in. The feudal state which subjugated the other states and established the monarchy, 27

Chin Chia. ‘Mr Golden Cuirass’; protector of scholars, 112113

Chin Hung. God of T’ai Shan; and Yüan-shih T’ien-wang, 128129

Chin Mu. Shên I builds a palace for, 183184; gives Shên I pill of immortality, 184

Ch’in Shih Huang-ti. The First Emperor; and the dragon, 212 sq.

Ch’in Shu-pao. A Door-god, 173174. See Mên Shên

Chin Ta-shêng. ‘Golden Big Pint,’ an ox-spirit; kills the Snorter, 146; and niu huang, or bezoar, 146

Chin-cha. See Li Chin-cha

Chin-kang. The Four Diamond Kings of Heaven; governors of the four continents surrounding p. 431 Mount Sumêru, 120 sq.; reflected in Taoist Kings of Heaven, 142

China. Extent in early times, 17, 18; physical features of, 1819; Manchu conquest of, 18, 28; vegetable products of, 1920; animals of, 20; Mongol rule over, 21; intercourse with other countries, 21; origin of name, 27; conquered by the Tartars, 2728; government of, 28 sq.; Republican, 30, 3132, 36; laws of, 30 sq.; local government of, 32; military and naval system of, 32 sq.; ecclesiastical institutions, 34 sq.; professional institutions, 36; accessory institutions, 37; industrial institutions, 47 sq.; agriculture in, 49 sq.; gods of, 93 sq.; Buddhism brought to, 118; prevalence of smallpox in, 246247

Chinese. Theories of origin of, 13 sq.; problem of sources of civilization of, 17; district occupied by early, 17, 18; cause of difference between, of North and South, 17; physical, emotional, and intellectual characteristics, 2122; domestic institutions, 22 sq., 4748; expansion of Empire, 2728; mutilations practised by, 3839; funeral rites of, 39 sq.; laws of intercourse, 42; habits and customs, 43; sports and games, 45; arts, 49; sentiments and moral ideas, 5152; religious ideas, 5253; superstitions, 5354; knowledge, 54 sq.; language, 5657; achievements, 57 sq.; intellect and mythology, 61; rigidity of their mythology, 61, 6364; character of mythology of, 67; sources of mythology of, 69 sq.; religion, 97; myths of—see Mythology

Ching Tê. In legend of Yü Huang, 132133

Chisel-tooth. A strange man of the South; a criminal, 184; killed by Shên I, 184

Ch’iung Hsiao. A goddess; assists the house of Chou with magic weapons, 158

Chou. Colonies of early Chinese established among the aborigines, 27

Chou Dynasty. No-cha and, 146; helped by Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 152 sq.

Chou Hsin. The Ch’êng-huang of Hangchou, 166

Chou Tun-i. See Chou Tzŭ

Chou Tzŭ, or Chou Tun-i. Philosopher; author of T’ai chi t’u shu, 86, 87

Chou Wang. Tyrant king of Yin; his battles with Wu Wang, 133134

Chou-pien. In legend of Ch’un-yü Fên, 413414, 415416, 419

Ch’u Chieh. General of Miao Chuang, 253

Chu Fu Tzŭ. See Chu Tzŭ

Chu Hsi. See Chu Tzŭ

Chu I. ‘Mr Redcoat’; purveyor of official posts, 110 sq.

Chu Jung. The Red (Fire) Emperor, Ch’ih Ti; a minister of Huang Ti, 81; victorious over Kung Kung, 81; legend of, 237 sq.; becomes emperor, 238; defeats Hui Lu, 239

Chü Liu-sun. A magic-master; and Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 147

Chu Pa-chieh. The Pig Fairy in the Hsi yu chi, 326; half man, half pig, 335; Mao Êrh-chieh and, 335; Kuan Yin and, 335; is made a priest and receives religious name of Chu Wu-nêng, 335; journeys with the Master, 341 sq.; and the widow and her daughters, 342 sq.; carried away to the Lotus Cave, 345 sq.; his reward, 368

Chu Tzŭ, Chu Hsi, or Chu Fu Tzŭ. Historian and Confucian commentator, 85, 8687; monistic philosophy of, 8687

Ch’u Wang-sun. Chuang Chou as, 149150

Chu Wu-nêng. See Chu Pa-chieh

Ch’ü Yüan. Statesman-poet; drowns himself in Mi-lo River, 152

Chu-ti, Prince. Founder of Peking, 228 sq.; son of Emperor Hung Wu, 228; and the sealed packet, 228, 229 sq.; begins to build city, 230; and the dragons, 232 sq. p. 432

Chuang Chou. See Chuang Tzŭ

Chuang Tzŭ, Chuang Chou, or Chuang Shêng. His cosmogony, 80; his super-tao, 91; his dream, 91 and n., 148149; philosophical critic, 148149; apotheosized, 148; reincarnation of, 149; and the young widow fanning the grave, 149; and his wife, 149150; as Ch’u Wang-sun, 149150; and Fêng Hou, 150; and Hsüan Nü, 150; receives from Shang Ti the planet Jupiter, 150

Chun T’i. A gifted warrior; his battles with T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu, 133134, 321 sq.; and K’ung Hsüan, the one-eyed peacock, 320321; and Wu Yün, 323324; and the golden-bearded turtle, 324; and P’i-lu Hsien, 324

Ch’un-yü Fên. And the dream of the south branch, 410 sq.; in the kingdom of Huai-an, 411 sq.; marries the King’s daughter, 412 sq.; takes office under the King, 414 sq.; his greatness, 416; meets with disasters, 416417; the prophecies, 417; returns home, 418; the prophecies come true, 419

Ch’ung Chêng. Emperor; and the cursed temple, 398 sq.

Chung K’uei, or K’uei. As God of literature, 106 sq.; as God of Exorcism, 248; and Hsü Hao, 249250; canonized, 250

Chung Yang Festival, 45

Chung-li Ch’üan, or Han Chung-li. One of the Eight Immortals, 288, 289, 297298, 301, 303; legends of, 291292

Circle, The Magic, 357358

City. God of the, 165; shaving a whole city, 365366

City-god of Yen Ch’êng. Legend of the, 402 sq.

Classes. The four classes of the people, 28

Classics. See Book of Ceremonial, Book of History, I Ching

Climate. Nature of Chinese, 19

Clothing. Nature of, 58

Clubs. See Accessory Institutions

Codes. Ceremonial, 42; legal—see Laws

Coins. Kinds in use, 49

Concubinage, 2223, 24

Confucius. Social and ethical philosopher; his cosmogony, 80; and agnosticism, 8889; not a god, 102 sq.; titles conferred on, 103

Confucianism. The State religion, 52, 99100; effect on mythology, 6162; Ju Chiao, religion of the learned, 102; scope of, 102; and Buddhism, 118

Constellations. Worship of the, 191; the twenty-eight, 191192; propitious and unpropitious, 191; abodes of gods, 191192; Tzŭ-wei and Po I-k’ao, 192 sq.

Corea. Dependency of China, 27; annexed by Japan, 27

Corpse. Feeding of, 40

Cosmetics. Use of, 47

Cosmogony. Myth of P’an Ku, 76 sq., 8081; of the I ching, 80; of Lao Tzŭ, 80; of Confucius, 80; of Kuan Tzŭ, 80; of Mencius, 80; of Chuang Tzŭ, 80; Chinese and Babylonian, 80; Nü Kua and, 8182; Wen Ch’ang’s attendants and, 82; dualistic nature of early, 83; how the Chinese obtained a, 84 sq.; tao and, 88; popular, 9192; and the T’ai chi t’u, 92; non-mythological, 92; and constructive imagination, 92. See also Creation

Creation. Mo Tzŭ and, 8990; Miao legends of the, 406 sq.

Crops. Kinds raised, 50; Gods of the, 165

Cursed Temple. Legend of the, 398 sq.

Cycle-gods, 177


Dawn, The Bird of, 186187

Death. Idea of, 3940; of the gods, 99

Deification. Origin of, 93

Demon-s. Kuei general name for, 103; of pestilence, subdued by the three musical brothers, 151; p. 433 Maruta, 198; Asuras, 198; exorcism of, 249250; Hsü Hao a, 249250; of the Lotus Cave, 345 sq.; Red Child Demon, 350 sq.; of Blackwater River, 352; defeat of the Ox-demon, 359 sq.

Dependencies of China, 27

Dêva. General designation of the gods of Brahmanism, 120, 198

Dharma. Fa Pao, the Law, in Buddhism, 119. See Vairotchana

Diamond Kings of Heaven, The Four. See Chin-kang

Dipper. See Great Bear

Distribution. Internal, 48; external, 4849

Divine Archer. Shên I, or Ch’ih-chiang Tzŭ-yü, 180 sq.

Divine Husbandman. See Shên Nung

Divorce. Reasons for, 23

Dog-s. Jung tribe with heads of, 20; shooting the Heavenly, 177178; legend of Jung tribe, 419 sq.

Domestic Institutions. Marital, 22 sq.; filial, 2526; domestic customs and habits, 4647

Door-gods. See Mên Shên

Dragon-s. Symbol of, on Manchu flag, 28; P’an Ku with head of, 78; Blue—see Blue Dragon; Fêng Po, God of the Wind, 204, 205; are spirits of the waters, 208; generally beneficent, 208; essence of yang principle; evil dragons are Buddhist, 208; nagas, mountain dragons, 208; chief of the scaly reptiles, 208; description and properties of, 208 sq.; Buddhist, 209210; fêng-shui and, 209; legend of the foolish, 211212; spirits in charge of Salt Waters, 212; spirits in charge of Sweet Waters, 212; spirits in charge of Secondary Waters, 212; legend of Ch’in Shih Huang-ti and the, 212 sq.; Chang Tao-ling and the, 216217; Hsü Chên-chün and the, 222 sq.; a spiritual alligator, 223224; and drought in Peking, 232 sq.

Dragon-boat Festival. Origin and nature of, 44, 152

Dragon-king-s. The Sea-dragon Kings, the Chinese Neptunes; three daughters of, mothers of the San Kuan, 126; description of, 210211, 212; Ao Ch’in and the Eight Immortals, 214 sq.; legend of Dragon-king’s daughter, 217 sq.; and Li No-cha, 307 sq.

Dragon-tiger Mountain. Abode of family of Chang Tao-ling, 142

“Dream of the South Branch.” Nan k’o mêng, 410; story of, 410 sq.

Dualism. In early cosmogony, 83; I ching and, 84; yin-yang system of, 85; illustrated by pantheon, 93

Du Bose. Cited, 9899

Duke of Thunder. See Lei Kung


Earlier Spirit Festival, 44

Earth. Gods of the, 46; the Earth-mother, 82, 109110, 165. See also Soil and Ti

Earth-dumb. Ti-ya, or Ti-mu, the Earth-mother; one of the attendants of Wên Ch’ang, 82, 109110

Earth-mother. Ti-ya, Ti-mu, or Hou-t’u, 82, 109110, 165. See also Earth-dumb

Eastern Air, Sovereign of The, 136137

Eastern Palace. Residence of T’ai I, star-spirit, 143

Ecclesiastical Institutions, 34 sq.

Education. Stereotyped at an early age, 37; restricted to study of the classics, 37; competitive examination system of, 37, 38; modern, 38

Eight Immortals. See Pa Hsien

Eight Trigrams. See Pa Kua and Trigrams

Eighteen Provinces. China Proper, 27

Elam. Probable origin of Chinese in, 15, 17

Elephant, White, 283, 284, 285286

Emperor-s. Yü Huang, the Jade Emperor, 130, and see Yü Huang; ‘Throne of the Five,’ 176 p. 434

Emptiness and Devastation. Hsü Hao, a demon; exorcism of, 249250

Environments of the Chinese. Inorganic, 1819; organic, 1920; sociological, 2021

Epidemics. Gods of, 240 sq.; myths of, 240 sq.; Ministry of Seasonal, 240241; God of Epidemics afflicts Miao Chuang, 274

Equinoxes. Festivals of the, 44

Êrh-lang. Helps to capture Sun Hou-tzŭ, 331

Examinations. Literary, as means of appointment to office, 29

Exchange. By barter, 49; coins, 49; weights and measures, 49

Exorcism-ists. The wu, 34; Ministry of, 248; gods of, 248249; of ‘Emptiness and Devastation,’ 249

Expectant Wife. Legend of the, 391392

Extinguisher. Sun Hou-tzŭ and the, 364365


Fa Pao. Dharma, the Law, one of the San Pao of Buddhism, 119

Fan-s. Use of, 47; the Fire-quenching, 359 sq.

Fanning the Grave. Story of Chuang Chou and the widow, 149

Favourable-wind Ear. See Shun-fêng Êrh

Feast. Of Lanterns, 4344; of Peaches, P’an-t’ao Hui, 137138. See also Festival-s

Feathered People. Legend of, 390

Fei, Lady. Concubine of Mêng Ch’ang, 178. See Hua-jui Fu-jên

Fei Lien. See Fêng Po

Fêng Hou. And Chuang Chou, 150

Fêng Lin. Vanquished by No-cha, 153

Fêng Po. God of the Wind; and Shên I, 181, 204205; legend of, 204205; a stellar divinity, 204; a dragon, Fei Lien, 181, 204205

Fêng Shên T’ai. Chiang Tzŭ-ya builds, for List of Promotions to Immortals, 154, 157

“Fêng Shên Yen I.” Legends in, 192 sq., 242, 320 sq.

Fêng-shan. Sacrifices offered on T’ai Shan by Ch’êng Tsung, 127

Fêng-shui, Doctrine of, 54; dragons connected with, 209

Festival-s, 43 sq.; Mid-autumn (All Souls’ Day), 35, 4445; New Year, 43; of Lanterns, 4344; of the four seasons and their equinoxes and solstices, 44; Earlier Spirit, 44; of the Tombs, 44; Middle Spirit, 44; Later Spirit, 44; Dragon-boat, 44, 152; Chung Yang (kite-flying), 45; New Year’s Eve, 45

Feudal Period. Duration of, 18; administrative system in, 2829; ecclesiastical institutions in, 34 sq.; professional institutions in, 36; accessory institutions in, 37

Feudal States. Subjugated by Ch’in, 27

Finger-nails. Worn long by literary and leisured classes, 47

Fire. Ch’ih Ching-tzŭ an alleged discoverer of, 199; myths of, 236 sq.; Ministry of, 236; God of, burns Hsi Ch’i, 236237; Ch’ih Ching-tzŭ a personification of, 237; Ch’ih Ti, the Red Emperor, 237238; Hui Lu, 238239; Shên Nung, 239; the Fire-quenching Fan, 359 sq.

Fire-quenching Fan, The Magic, 359 sq.

First Cause. Sung philosophers and, 8586; Mencius and, 90

Five Elements (wu hsing), 84

Five Graduates. Legend of the, 242 sq.; gain favour of the Emperor, 243; and Chang T’ien-shih, 244245; killed, 244; their spirits appear at the palace, 244245; canonized, 246

Flag. Republican, 28; dragon-symbol on Manchu, 28

Flood, Legend of the Great, 224225

Flowers. Chinese love for, 51

Flying Cart, Land of the, 391

Fo Pao. Buddha, one of the San Pao of Buddhism, 119

Food. Kinds of, 58

Foot-binding. Origin of, 39; abolition of, 39 p. 435

Form. See Hsing

Formosa. A Chinese possession, 27; annexed by Japan, 27

Foxes. Legends of, 370 sq.; generally of ill omen, 370; powers of, 370; transformations of, 370

Fu Hsi, or T’ien Huang Shih. Mythical sovereign; brother of Nü Kua, 81, 82; creator of human beings, 239, 247248; a God of Medicine, 247248

Fu Shên, Yang Ch’êng, or Yang Hsi-chi. The God of Happiness, 165, 169170; origin of, 169; other Gods of Happiness, 170

Fu-sang Tree. One which grows at the place where the sun rises, 186187

Funeral Rites, 39 sq.; the idea of death, 39; recalling the soul, 3940; feeding the corpse, 40; the soul-tablet, 40; signs of mourning, 40; exacting nature of ceremonial, 41; cemeteries, 41


Games, 4546

Gardens, 47, 51

Garuda. See Lei Kung

Gems, Lake Of. Yao Ch’ih, 137

Generalissimo-s. Canonized, 150 sq.; the three musical brothers, T’ien Chih-piao, T’ien Yüan-shuai, and T’ien Hung-i, 151; Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 152 sq.

Genii. Hsi Wang Mu head of the, on K’un-lun Mountains, 137

Gentry. Shên Shih; a social division, 28

Geological Features, 19

Giants. Legends of, 387

God-s. Of China, 93 sq.; amuse themselves, 99; marry, 99; sin, 99; punishment of the, 99; die, 99; super-triad of, 100101; Confucius not a, 102 sq.; shên general name for, 103; stellar deities, 176 sq., 242; constellations, planets, and stars abodes of, 192; dragons, 208 sq.; battle of the, 320 sq.; of Agriculture, 165; of the City, 165; of the Cycles, 177; of the Door, 165, 172 sq.; of Epidemics, 240 sq., 274; of Exorcism, 248 sq.; of Fire, 236 sq.; the ‘Five Mountains,’ 242; of Grasshoppers, 165; of Hades, 120; of Happiness, 165, 169170, 177; of the Immortals, 136; of the Kitchen, 45, 128, 165, 166 sq.; of Literature, 104 sq., 177, 299; local, t’u-ti, 165; of Longevity, 165, 171172, 177; of Longevity and the Eight Immortals, 214 sq.; of Medicine, 247248; chief God of Rivers, 218219; River-god, marriage of the, 225 sq.; of Sailors, 165; of Serpents, 165; of Smallpox, 175; of the Soil and Crops, 165; of Thunder, 128, 198 sq.; of Time, 194 sq.; of War, 113 sq.; of the Waters, 208 sq.; of Wealth, 165, 170171; of the Wind, 204205; of the Year, 194; names of numerous, 174175

Goddess-es. Earth-mother, 82, 109110, 165; of Lightning, 203; of Mercy, 251 sq., and see also Kuan Yin; of Mulberry-trees and Silkworms, 168169; of the North Star, 144145; of Sailors, 165; Old Mother of the Waters, 220 sq.; names of various, 174175

Golden Big Pint. See Chin Ta-shêng

Golden Cuirass, Mr. See Chin Chia

Golden Mother of the Tortoise, 136

Golden-bearded Turtle. And Chun T’i, 324

Gourd, The Magic, 347

Government. General, 29 sq.; local, small scope of, 32

Graduates. Legend of the five, 242 sq.

Grand Terminus, or Great Ultimate, 85

Grasshoppers, God of, 165

Grave, Fanning the. Story of Chuang Chou and the widow, 149

Great Bear. Constellation; Wên Ch’ang and the, 105 sq.; the residence of the Fates, 176

Great Bell, Casting of the. Legend of the, 394 sq.

Great Ultimate, or Grand Terminus, 85 p. 436

Green Lion. In Kuan Yin legend, 283284, 285286

Guardian-s. Of Buddhist temple gates, 145146; of Taoist temple gates, 146 sq.; of Gate of Heaven, 305 sq.

Guardianship. Of the young, 26


Ha. The Blower. See Ch’ên Ch’i

Habitations. In early times, 57; development of, 5758

Habits and Customs. Festivals and holidays, 4344; domestic, 4647

Hades. The God of, 120

Han. Early monarchical dynasty, 27

Han Chih-hsien. Fights for Wên Chung, 159160

Han Hsiang Tzŭ. One of the Eight Immortals, 215, 303; legend of, 299300

Han Yü, Statesman, philosopher, and poet; and Han Hsiang Tzŭ, 299300

Happiness. The term ‘Eight Immortals’ figuratively used for, 288; Gods of—see Fu Shên, Kuo Tzŭ-i, and Li Kuei-tsu

Hare in Moon, 176, 179

Head-splitting Helmet, 325326, 368369

Headless People. Legend of, 387388

Heaven-s. Repair of the, 72, 8182, 224225; Temple of, 95; Taoist Kings of, 142; Mother of, 150; Guardian of the Gate of, 305 sq.

Heaven-deaf. T’ien-lung, or Hsüan T’ung-tzŭ, one of the attendants of Wên Ch’ang, 82, 109110

Heavenly Dog. Tien Kou; legend of Chang Hsien and the, 177178; and Sun Hou-tzŭ, 331

Heavenly Peach-garden, 329330

Heavenly Stables, 329

Heavenly Teacher. See Chang Tao-ling

Hell-s. Kings of, 120, 267268

Hêng. The Snorter. See Chêng Lung

Hêng Ô. See Ch’ang Ô

Herdsman. Legend of the Weaver-girl and the, 189 sq.

Heroes. See Chên-jên

“Hill and River Classic.” See Shan Hai Ching

Hindu Kush Mountains. K’un-lun Mountains identified with, 16

History. Summary of political, of China, 2728; mythology and, 63

Ho Fêng. Marries Miao Yin, 258; conspires against Miao Chuang, 277 sq.

Ho Hsien-ku. One of the Eight Immortals; and T’ai Sui 195; legend of, 296297; mentioned, 293, 303

Ho Li. Conspires against Miao Chuang, 278279

Ho Po. The Spirit of the Waters; Hêng Ô his younger sister, 182

Holidays. Observed at certain seasons, 43

Horse, The White, 340341

Hou-t’u, Ti-ya, or Ti-mu. Earth-mother, 82, 109110, 165

Hsi Ch’i. Town and mountain; Têng Chiu-kung and battle at, 147; burned by Fire-god, 236237; Lü Yüeh in battle at, 241

Hsi Wang Mu. Golden Mother of the Tortoise; her story first mentioned, 72; her names, 136; sovereign of the Western Air, 137; head of the genii dwelling on the K’un-lun Mountains, 137; and Feast of Peaches (P’an-t’ao Hui), 137138; her palace, 137; her birthdays, 138; and Li T’ieh-kuai, 289

Hsi Yü. Miao Chuang kinglet of, 253

“Hsi Yu Chi.” Record of a journey to the Western Paradise; a dramatization of the introduction of Buddhism into China, 325326, 341

Hsi-mên Pao. Magistrate of Yeh Hsien; and marriage of the River-god, 226227

Hsiang Shan. Monastery inhabited by Immortals; Miao Shan goes to, 266 sq.

Hsien, or Hsien-jên. Immortals, 125, 135; yin and yang and, 135 p. 437

Hsien Tung. ‘The Immortal Youth’; servant to Mu Kung, 136

Hsien Wêng. See Shou Hsing

Hsien-yüan Huang-ti. Mythical emperor; Chu Jung his minister, 81, 238, 239; T’ai I his medical preceptor, 143; and the Door-gods, 173; instructed in doctrine of immortality, 179180; God of Medicine, 247; mentioned, 167

Hsing. Form; beginning of, 90

Hsing Lin. Kingdom of Miao Chuang, 253, 280, 282

“Hsiu Hsiang Pa Hsien Tung Yu Chi,” 289

Hsü Chên-chün, or Hsü Sun. The dragon-slayer, 222 sq.

Hsü Hao. A demon; exorcism of, 249250

Hsü Sun. See Hsü Chên-chün

Hsü-mi Shan. See Sumêru

Hsüan Chuang. Also called Yüan Chuang and T’ang Sêng; the pilgrim of the Hsi yu chi, 325; Sha Ho-shang his baggage-coolie, 334335; history of, 336 sq.; his father murdered by Liu Hung, 336337; exposed on Blue River, 337; Chang Lao rescues him, 337338; named Chiang Liu, ‘Waif of the River,’ 337; finds his grandmother, 338339; murderer of his father executed, 339; becomes the Emperor’s favourite priest, 340; journeys to the Western Paradise, 340, 341 sq.; and the White Horse, 340341; is rescued by Ju Lai, 358359; his return home, 367 sq.; canonized, 368. See also Ch’ên Kuang-jui

Hsüan Nü, or T’ien Mu. The Mother of Heaven; and Chuang Chou, 150

Hsüan Tsung. Emperor; and Chang Kuo, 294295

Hsüan T’ung-tzŭ. ‘Sombre Youth.’ See Heaven-deaf

Hsüan-hsüan Shang-jên. Relates history of Yüan-shih T’ien-wang, 129130

Hu Ching-tê. A Door-god, 173174. See Mên Shên

Hu Pi-li. Chief of the guard of Miao Chuang; sent to burn Nunnery of the White Bird, 264265; at the execution of Miao Shan, 266267

Hua Shan. A sacred mountain in the west, 253

Hua-hu Tiao. The white rat of Mo-li Shou, 121; devours Yang Chien, 122123

Hua-jui Fu-jên, or Lady Fei. And Chang Hsien, 178

Hua-kuo Shan. A mountain in the kingdom of Ao-lai; Sun Hou-tzŭ born on, 326327

Huai-an. Kingdom; Ch’un-yü Fên in, 411 sq.

Huai-nan Tzŭ. A philosopher; apotheosized, 148; and the Eight Immortals, 148

Huang Fei-hu. Yellow Flying Tiger, 122, 146; spears the Blower, 146; and Spirit of the Blue Dragon Star, 147; father of Huang T’ien-hua, 241

Huang Lao. A genie; seeks Yüan-shih T’ien-wang, 129

Huang Ti. See Hsien-yüan Huang-ti

Huang T’ien-hua. Son of Huang Fei-hu; in battle with the Chin-kang, 123; attacks Wên Chung, 159; in battle with Lü Yüeh, 241

Hui Lu, or Huo-shih Chih T’u. God of Fire, 238239

Hui Tsung. Emperor, 132

Hun Tun. See Chaos

Hung Wu. Emperor; greatness of, 227; father of Chu-ti, 228. See also Chu-ti, Prince

Hung-chün Lao-tsu. Master of T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu, 133134

Huo Ti. See Shên Nung

Huo-tê Hsing-chün. See Lo Hsüan


“I Ching.” The Book or Canon of Changes or Permutations; first, but not the oldest, of the classics, 80, 84, 85; reputed origin of, 84; Fu Hsi and, 84; contains no cosmogony proper, 84, 92

I Tu. The Solitary Indeterminate; makes evolution of Chaos possible, 9091; tao and, 9091 p. 438

I Yu. Superior of Nunnery of the White Bird, 261262, 263

Ideograms, Ancient Chinese, 14

Immaterial Principle. See LI

Immortal-s. Hsien, or Hsien-jên, 125, 135; God of the, 136; the Eight—see Pa Hsien; the Eight, and the God of Longevity, 214. See also Hsien

Immortality, Pills of. See Pills

Imperfect Mountain. Kung Kung strikes his head against the, 81

Implements. Great variety of Chinese, 59

Indo-China. Supposed origin of Chinese in, 14; language of, 14; early tribes in, 15

Indra. The God of Heaven; and Yü Huang, 133

Industrial Institutions, 47


Jade. Symbol of purity; the Jade Emperor, 130

Jade Palace of Abstraction, 154, 155

Jan-têng Fo, or Jan Têng. Light-lamp Buddha, 120; and Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 158; revives Wu Wang, 159; and T’ai Sui, 196; mentioned, 161

Jan-têng Tao-jên. Fights with T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu, 134

Jên Huang. The nine Human Sovereigns, 144, 145

Jên Tsung. Emperor; and worship of Chang Hsien, 178

“Jih Chi So Chih,” 422 n.

Jointed Snake. Legend of the, 393

Ju Chiao. See Confucianism

Ju-i. ‘As you wish’; precious stone, 134

Ju-lai Fo. Chinese translation of Tathagata, the highest epithet of a Buddha, literally ‘thus come’: “bringing human nature as it really is, with perfect knowledge and high intelligence, he comes and manifests himself”; in the myth of P’an Ku, 78; and Miao Shan (Kuan Yin), 269270; rescues Hsüan Chuang, 358359

Jung. Tribe with heads of dogs, 20; legend of, 419 sq.

Jupiter. Yü Huang the Chinese, 130; given as a kingdom to Chuang Chou by Shang Ti, 150; and T’ai Sui, 194


Kalpa. A period during which a physical universe is formed and destroyed, 128

K’ang Hsi. Emperor; and Wang Tan, 131132

Kao Chio. See Shun-fêng Êrh

Kao Ming. See Ch’ien-li Yen

Khotan. Supposed origin of the Chinese in, 13, 15, 17

King-s. Multiple character of kingship, 28; the king the source of legislation and the administrator of justice, 29; king as high priest, 3435; King of Hell, 120; the Four, of Heaven, 142; Four, of the Salt Waters, 212; Four, of the Sweet Waters, 212; as Gods of Medicine, 247248; the Dragon-kings, see Dragon-king-s

Kingdom, The Women’s, 390391

Kitchen-god. See Tsao Chün

Kite-flying. Season of, 45

Knowledge, 54 sq.

Ko Hung. Author of Shên hsien chuan; inventor of P’an Ku legend, 79, 80

Ko-ai. Daughter of Kuan Yu; and the casting of the great bell of Peking, 396 sq.

Ku, Mr. And the fox-girl, 376 sq.

Kua. Brother of Nü; at foot of K’un-lun Mountains, 82

Kuan Chung. And Pao Shu, the Chinese types of friendship, 383 and n.

Kuan Lo. His connexion with Shou Hsing, 172

Kuan Ti, or Wu Ti. Title of the God of War, 117

Kuan Tzŭ. A renowned statesman and sage of the Feudal Period; his cosmogony, 80

Kuan Yin, or Kuan Shih Yin. The Buddhist Goddess of Mercy; Tou Mu the equivalent of, in p. 439 Taoism, 144; and Shui-mu Niang-niang, 221222; attributes, etc., 251 sq.; throne of, on Pootoo (P’u T’o) Isle, 252; the Buddhist Saviour, 252253; and Sun Hou-tzŭ, 333; and Sha Ho-shang, 334; and Chu Pa-chieh, 335; and the White Horse, 340341; and the Red Child Demon, 350 sq. See also Miao Shan

Kuan Yü. God of War, 113 sq.; and Chang Fei, 114 sq.; and Liu Pei, 114 sq.; deified, 117

Kuan Yu. A mandarin; and the casting of the great bell at Peking, 394 sq.

Kuang Ch’êng-tzŭ. Mythical being who taught the attainment of immortality, also said to be an incarnation of Lao Tzŭ; battle with To-pao Tao-jên, 133; fights against Wên Chung, 161

Kuei. Name for demons, 103

K’uei. A star; palace of the God of Literature, 106 sq.

K’uei, or Chung K’uei. As God of Literature, 106 sq.; as God of Exorcism, 248, 249250

K’uei Hsing. Distributor of literary degrees, 109, 110, 112

K’uei Niu. A monster resembling a buffalo, 133

K’un-lun Mountains. Supposed origin of the Chinese in, 13, 16; Nü and Kua at foot of, 82; Hsi Wang Mu and, 137; Yü Shih resides in, 206

Kung. The Artisans; the third class of the people, 28

K’ung Hsüan. The one-eyed peacock; and Chun T’i, 320321

Kung Kung. A feudatory prince; defeated by Chu Jung, 81; strikes his head against the Imperfect Mountain, 8182

Kuo P’o. Magician, 223

Kuo Tzŭ-i. A God of Happiness, 170


La Mei. A flower; the three musical brothers and, 151

Labour. Division of, 4748

Lake. Of Gems, 137; legend of the origin of a, 405406

Lan Ts’ai-ho. One of the Eight Immortals, 214, 303; legend of, 293

Land. System of tenure of, 48; greater portion under cultivation, 4950

Lang Ling. Disciple of Li T’ieh-kuai, 289, 290

Language, Chinese, 14; nature of, 5657; written, 57

Lanterns, Feast of, 4344

Lao Chün. See Lao Tzŭ

Lao Tzŭ. Called also Lao Chün, T’ai-shang Lao-chün, and Shên Pao; teacher, founder of Taoist system of philosophy; and monism, 87; his Tao-tê ching, 87; and tao, the ‘Way,’ 8788; third person of Taoist triad, 125; and Yü Huang, 132; battles with T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu, 133, 321322; and Chuang Tzŭ, 148149; fights with Ch’iung Hsiao, 158; and Li T’ieh-kuai, 289, 290; Sun Hou-tzŭ steals pills of immortality from, 330; helps to capture Sun Hou-tzŭ, 331332; distils Sun Hou-tzŭ in his furnace, 331332

Later Spirit Festival, 44

Law, The. In Buddhism, 149

Laws. Character of early, 30; lex talionis, 30; legal codes, 3031

Legend-s. Mythology and, 7475; of the One-legged Bird, 206207; of the Great Flood, 224225; of the building of Peking, 227 sq.; fox, 370 sq.; of the Unnatural People, 386 sq.; of the Pygmies, 386387; of the Giants, 387; of the Headless People, 387388; of the Armless People, 388; of the Long-armed People, 388389; of the Long-legged People, 389; of the One-eyed People, 389; of the One-armed People, 389, 391; of the One-legged People, 389; of the One-sided People, 389; of the Long-eared People, 389; of the Six-toed People, 389; of the Feathered People, 390; of the People of the Punctured Bodies, 390; of the Women’s Kingdom, 390391; of the Flying Cart, p. 440 391; of the Expectant Wife, 391392; of the Wild Men, 392393; of the Jointed Snake, 393; of the great bell of Peking, 394 sq.; of the Cursed Temple, 398 sq.; of the Maniac’s Mite, 401402; of the City-god of Yen Ch’êng, 402 sq.; of the origin of a lake, 405406; of creation, among Miao tribes, 406 sq.; of the South Branch, 410 sq.; of Jung tribe with heads of dogs, 419 sq.

Lei Chên-tzŭ. One of Wu Wang’s marshals; attacks Ch’ien-li Yen and Shun-fêng Êrh, 164; kills unicorn of Wên Chung, 199; legend of, 202203; a Son of Thunder, 202; called Wên Yü, 202; and Yün Chung-tzŭ, 202203

Lei Kung. Duke of Thunder, 198, 199200; and Garuda, 200; and Vajrâpani, 200; caught in the cleft of a tree, 200201; and the mysterious bottle, 202

Lei Tsu, or Wên Chung. God of Thunder; agent to Yüan-shih T’ien-tsun, 128; President of the Ministry of Thunder, 198199; description of, 198; origin of, 198199; and Ch’ih Ching-tzŭ, 199; and Yün Chung-tzŭ, 199; and Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 199; confused with the Spirit of Thunder, 199

Li. The Immaterial Principle; Chu Hsi and, 8687; Chou Tzŭ and, 87

“Li Chi.” The classical Book of Ceremonial, 103

Li Chin-cha. Eldest son of Li Ching, 305

Li Ching, or Li T’ien-wang. The Pagoda-bearer; his encounter with Ch’ien-li Yen and Shun-fêng Êrh, 162 sq.; kills Lo Hsüan, 237; legend of, 305 sq.; receives golden pagoda, 319; is made Guardian of the Gate of Heaven, 319. See also Li T’ien-wang

Li Kuei-tsu. Known as Tsêng-fu Hsiang-kung; a God of Happiness, 170

Li Lao-chün. And Shui-mu Niang-niang, 221

Li Mu-cha. Second son of Li Ching, 305, 317; duel with Lü Yüen, 241

Li No-cha. Third son of Li Ching; defends the Chou, 146; and Têng Chiu-kung, 147; vanquishes Fêng Lin, 153; defeats Chang Kuei-fang, 153154; and Chiang Tsŭ-ya, 154; fights and slays Ts’ai-yün Hsien-tzŭ, 159160; fights with Ch’ien-li Yen and Shun-fêng Êrh, 162; and Peking, 229; legend of, 305 sq.; frequently mentioned in Chinese romance, 305; an avatar of the Intelligent Pearl, 306; and Lung Wang, 307 sq.; and Ao Ping, 308309; discharges a magic arrow, 312; and Shih-chi Niang-niang, 312313; commits hara-kiri, 313314; temple built to, 314; his statue destroyed by his father, 315; consults his master, 316; is transformed, 316317; battles with his father, 317 sq.; is reconciled to his father, 318319

Li P’ing. Sixth officer of the Ministry of Epidemics, 242

Li Shao-chün. And Tsao Chün, 166167

Li Shih-min, Emperor; and legend of the five graduates, 243 sq.; and Chang T’ien-shih, 243 sq.; visited by spirits of the graduates, 245246; canonizes the graduates, 246

Li T’ieh-kuai. One of the Eight Immortals, 214, 303; legends of, 289 sq.

Li T’ien-wang. And Sun Hou-tzŭ, 331. See also Li Ching

“Liao Chai Chih I.” Seventeenth-century work; and fox-legends, 370371

Libraries. See Accessory Institutions

Lieh Tzŭ, or Lieh Yü-k’ou. A philosopher, by some regarded as fictitious; Chinese mythology and, 72; his Absolute, 9091; apotheosized, 148

Lieh Yü-k’ou. See Lieh Tzŭ

Lightning. Mother of, 203; and the yin and the yang, 203204; myths of, 203204; Spirit of, 203204

Ling Chên-tzŭ. Gives the Bird of Dawn to Shên I, 187

Ling Hsü. Dragon-king, 218219 p. 441

Ling-pao T’ien-tsun, or Tao Chûn. Second person of Taoist triad, 124

Lion, The Green, 283, 284, 285286

List of Promotions to Immortals. Given to Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 154; Tzŭ-ya builds Fêng Shên T’ai for, 154, 157

Literary Degrees. K’uei Hsing distributor of, 110

Literary Examinations. Means of appointment to office, 29

Literature. Gods of, 104 sq., 299; Wên Ch’ang and the Great Bear, 105 sq.; palace of God of, 106; God of War as God of, 113 sq.; Chinese, 408 sq.

Liu Ch’in. Minister of Miao Chuang, 277, 279280, 282

Liu Hsüan Te. See Liu Pei

Liu Hung. Murderer of Ch’en Kuang-jui, 336337

Liu I. And the Dragon-king’s daughter, 217 sq.

Liu Pei, Liu Hsüan Tê, or Hsien Chu. Hawker of straw shoes, and founder of the Shu Han dynasty; and Kuan Yü, 114 sq.

Liu Po-wên. Taoist priest; and Chu-ti, 228 sq.

Living, Worship of the, 101

Lo Ching Hsin. See Yüan-shih T’ien-tsun

Lo Hsüan, or Huo-tê Hsing-chün. Originally Yen-chung Hsien; President of the Ministry of Fire, 236237; description of, 236; burns Hsi Ch’i, 236237

Lo Yü. First name of P’o Chia (Miao Chuang), 253

Long-armed People. Legend of, 388389

Long-eared People. Legend of, 389

Long-legged People. Legend of, 389

Longevity, God of. See Shou Hsing

Lotus Cave, The, 345 sq.

Lu Ch’i. Legend of, and Princess T’ai Yin, 110111; appointed Minister of the Empire, 111

Lü Shang. See Chiang Tzü-ya

Lü Tung-pin, or Lü Yen. One of the Eight Immortals, 288, 292,296, 300, 301, 303; legends of, 297 sq.

Lu Tung-shih. Follower of Ch’in Shih Huang-ti; draws portrait of the God of the Sea, 213; results of his offence, 214

Lü Yüeh. President of the Ministry of Epidemics, 241; legend of, 241242; in battle at Hsi Ch’i 241; his duel with Mu-cha, 241; in battle with Huang T’ien-hua 241; Chiang Tzŭ-ya and, 241; and the magic umbrellas, 241242; Yang Chien and, 242; Yang Jên and, 242

Lü Yen. See Lü Tung-pin

Lung Chi. Princess; saves city of Hsi Ch’i from fire, 237

Lung Nü. Becomes pupil of Miao Shan, 274; canonized, 287

Lung Wang. Dragon-king of the Eastern Sea; his son saved by Miao Shan, 273274; and No-cha, 307 sq.; and Sun Hou-tzŭ, 328329; saves Ch’Sn Kuang-jui, 339340


Ma T’ien-jung. His fox-friend and his marriage, 372 sq.

Ma Yüan-shuai. Generalissimo Ma, a three-eyed monster, 207

Ma-t’ou Niang. ‘Lady with the Horse’s Head,’ See Ts’an Nü

Magic. Gourd, 347; rope, 348; circle, 357358; Fire-quenching Fan, 359 sq.

Magicians. T’u Hsing-sun, 147; Chü Liu-sun, 147; Kuo P’o, 223; Yang Jên, 242; Yeh Fa-shan, 294295

Mahayanistic Buddhism, 118

Maitrêya. Mi-lo Fo; the successor of Shâkyamuni, 120

Manchu-s. Extent of China at time of conquest by, 18; conquer China, 28; symbol of dragon on flag, 28

Manchuria. As part of China, 27

Maniac’s Mite. Legend of the, 401402

Mao Êrh-chieh. Chu Pa-chieh and, 335

Maritchi. See Tou Mu p. 442

Marriage, 22 sq.; concubinage, 2223; age for, 23; matchmaker or go-between, 23; divorce, 23; remarriage, 2324; changes in ceremonial of, 2425; object of, 24; of the gods, 99; of the River-god, 225 sq.

Maruta. Vedic storm-demons, 198

Measures, Weights and, 49

Medicine. Primitive knowledge of, 5556; Ministry of, 246247; Gods of, 247248

Mên Shên. Gods of the Door, 165, 172 sq.; legend of, 172 sq.; Shên Shu and Yû Lû as, 173; Ch’in Shu-pao and Hu Ching-tê as, 173174; Wei Chêng and, 174

Mencius, Mêng K’o, or Mêng Tzŭ. Teacher and philosopher; his cosmogony, 80; and the First Cause, 90

Mêng K’o. See Mencius

Mêng Tzŭ. See Mencius

Merchants. Shang; the fourth class of the people, 28

Mercy, Goddess of. See Kuan Yin and Miao Shan

Mi-lo. A river; Ch’ü Yüan drowns himself in, 152

Mi-lo Fo. Maitrêya; the successor of Shâkyamuni, 120

Miao. Creation legends of the, 406 sq.; legend of the tailed tribes, 422 n.

Miao Chi. A Taoist priest; and T’ai I, 142143

Miao Ch’ing. Daughter of Miao Chuang, 257; marries Chao K’uei, 258; canonized, 286

Miao Chuang, or P’o Chia. First name Lo Yü; kinglet of Hsi Yü, 253; Hsing Lin kingdom of, 253; Chao Chên minister to, 253; Ch’u Chieh general to, 253; Pao Tê (Po Ya) Queen of, 253; prays for a son, 253254; birth of daughters to, 256257; exiles Miao Shan, 260; orders destruction of the Nunnery of the White Bird, 264; orders death of Miao Shan, 265 sq.; is punished for burning the nunnery, 274 sq.; is healed by Miao Shan, 276 sq.; conspiracy against, 277 sq.; goes to Hsiang Shan, 283; his repentance, 284 sq.; canonized, 287

Miao Shan, Daughter of Miao Chuang, 257; her ambition, 257258; her renunciation, 258 sq.; at the Nunnery of the White Bird, 261 sq.; worships Buddha, 262; receives spiritual aid, 262263; saves the nunnery, 264; her execution ordered, 265 sq.; visits the infernal regions, 267268; makes Hell a paradise, 268; her virtue is tested, 269; and Ju Lai, 269270; attains to perfection, 271; becomes a Buddha, 271, 286; and Shan Ts’ai, 271 sq.; tests Shan Ts’ai’s fidelity, 272273; sends help to son of Lung Wang, 273274; disguises herself as a priest-doctor, 275 sq.; suffers in order that her father may be cured, 277, 279 sq.; defeats conspiracy of the King’s sons-in-law, 278279. See also Kuan Yin

Miao Yin. Daughter of Miao Chuang, 257; marries Ho Fêng, 258; canonized, 286

Mid-autumn Festival (All Souls’-Day), 35, 4445

Middle Kingdom. A term for the Chinese Empire, 29

Middle Spirit Festival, 44

Military System. In primitive times, 3233; in relation to the ruler, 33; weapons, 33; standing armies, 33; changes in, 3334

Ministry-ies. Of Agriculture, 5051; celestial, 164, 198199; of Epidemics, 240241; of Exorcism, 248; of Fire, 236; of Medicine, 246247; of Smallpox, 246247; of Thunder and Storms, 198; of Time, 194; of Waters, 212

Ming Huang. Emperor; and Hsü Hao, 249250

Mo Ti. See Mo Tzŭ

Mo Tzŭ, Mu Tzŭ, or Mo Ti A philosopher; and creation, 8990; apotheosized, 148

Mo-li. The Four Diamond Kings of Heaven, 120 sq.

Mohammedans. Represented in Chinese Republican flag, 28

Monarchical Period. Duration of, 18; marriage in, 24; establishment of, 27; administrative system in, 29; appointment to p. 443 office in, 29; funeral rites in, 4041

Mongolia. A dependency of China, 27

Mongols. Their rule over China, 21

Monism. Transition to, from dualism, 8586; Chu Hsi and, 8687; Lao Tzŭ and, 8788

Monkey. Becomes a god, 325 sq.

Monogamy. In China, 2223

Moon. P’an Ku and the, 7778; influences terrestrial events, 176; symbol of the, 176; hare in the, 176, 179; worship of the, 176; Shên I visits the, 187188

Moon-queen. See Ch’ang Ô

Mother. The Earth-mother, 82, 109110, 165; Golden, of the Tortoise, 136; Bushel—see Tou Mu; of Heaven, 150; Old, of the Waters, 220 sq.

Mountain-s. Sacrifices offered on T’ai Shan, 127; ‘the Five,’ Wu Yüeh, 242; Hua Shan, sacred, 253; monkey under the, 345346

Mourning. Methods of, 40

Mu Kung, Tung Wang Kung, or Tung-hua Ti-chün. God of the Immortals, 136; how formed, 136; and yang principle, 136; sovereign of the Eastern Air, 136137; his servants, Hsien T’ung and Yü Nü, 136; and Shên I, 185186. See also Tung Wang Kung

Mu Tzŭ. See Mo Tzŭ

Mu Yeh. Battle of, 152153

Mu-cha. See Li Mu-cha

Mulberry-trees. Goddess of, 169

Mutilations. Practised by the Chinese, 3839

Mythology, 60 sq.; definition of, 60; Chinese rigidity and, 61, 6364; intellect and, 61; effect of Confucianism on, 6162; influence of religion on, 6263; effect of Buddhism on, 6263; history and, 63; character of Chinese, 6768, 423; sources of Chinese, 69 sq.; doubt and, 7374; legend and, 7475; parallelisms between Chinese and Hebrew, 79 n.; cosmogony and, 92

Myth-s. Prerequisites to, 64 sq.; periods fertile in, 6869; phases of, 71 sq.; Sung philosophers and, 73; a nature myth, 133; myths of the stars, 176 sq.; of time, 194 sq.; of thunder, 198 sq.; of lightning, 203204; of wind, 204205; of rain, 205 sq.; of the waters, 208; of fire, 236 sq.; of epidemics, medicine, exorcism, etc., 240 sq.; effect of philosophy on, 423


Nagas. Mountain dragons, 208

Nails. See Finger-nails

Nameless. Universe originated from, 91

“Nan K’o Mêng.” Dream of the South Branch; story of, 410 sq.

Nan-chi Hsien-wêng. Ancient Immortal of the South Pole, 154; helps Chiang Tzŭ-ya against Shên Kung-pao, 156157; orders White Crane Youth to seize Shên Kung-pao’s head, 156; has it restored, 157; reproves Shên Kung-pao, 157; fights with Chang Shao, 158159

Nature Myth. Yü Huang and a, 133

Navy. Modern Chinese, 34

Neptune, The Chinese. See Dragon-king-s

New Territory. See Sinkiang

New Year. Festival of, 43

New Year’s Eve. Festival of, 45

Niang-tzŭ. And the origin of the Liang-ti Lake, 405406

Niu Huang. Ox-yellow, or bezoar, 146

No-cha. See Li No-cha

North Star. Goddess of the—see Tou Mu

Nü. First woman, 82

Nü Hsi. See Nü Kua

Nü Kua Shih, Nü Hsi, or Nü Wa. A mythical sovereign, one of the alleged progenitors of the Chinese race; sister and successor of Fu Hsi, 16, 8182; repairer of the heavens, 72, 8182, 224225; description of, 81; Nü and Kua legend, 82

Nü Wa. See Nü Kua

Nung. The Agriculturists; the second class of the people, 28 p. 444


Ô-Mei Shan. Mountain in Saŭ-ch’uan, 171, 179, 180

O-mi-t’o Fo. Amida, Amita, Buddha; the guide who conducts to the Western Paradise, 120

Oath in the Peach-orchard, The, 114 sq.

Officers. Shih; the first class of the people in early times, 28

Officials. Ch’ên; a social division, 28

One, The Great. First of the celestial spirits, 142143

One-armed People, 389, 391

One-eyed People, 389

One-legged Bird, 206

One-legged People, 389

One-sided People, 389

Organic Environment, 1920

Origin-s. Of the Chinese race, 13 sq.; of name China, 27; of worship, 93; of deification, 93; of T’ien, 94; the Three Origins, 125, and see also San Yüan, Shun, Yao, and Yü; legend of origin of a lake, 405406; origin of dog-worship of Jung tribe, 422

Other Self. Idea of the, 93, 97 sq. See also Second Self

Otherworld. Parallel to this world, 9394; populous, 93

Ox-yellow. See Niu Huang

Ox-head, King. Father of the Red Child Demon; Sun Hou-tzŭ and, 351, 358 sq.


Pa Hsien. The Eight Immortals venerated by the Taoist sect; and the Dragon-king Ao Ch’in, 214 sq.; and Ao Ch’in’s son, 215; favourite subjects of romance and frequently represented, 288; term used figuratively for happiness, 288; legend of, probably belongs to Yüan dynasty, 288; Li T’ieh-kuai, 289 sq.; Chung-li Ch’üan, 291292, 297298; Lan Ts’ai-ho, 293; Chang Kuo, 294295; Ho Hsien-ku, 296297; Lü Tung-pin, 297 sq.; Han Hsiang Tzŭ, 299300; Ts’ao Kuo-chiu, 300 sq.; legend of the Eight Immortals crossing the sea, 303304

Pa Kua. The Eight Trigrams; Wên Wang uses, to divine the flesh of his son, 193; discovered by Fu Hsi, 247248

Pa-ch’a. God of Grasshoppers, 165

Pagoda-bearer, The. Li Ching, 237, 305 sq.

Pai Ma. The White Horse of the Hsi yu chi; Sun Hou-tzŭ and, 340; son of Dragon-king of the Western Sea, 340341; Kuan Yin and, 340341; changed into a horse, 341; journeys with the Master to the Western Paradise, 341 sq.; bearer of the sacred books, 341; Temple of the White Horse, 341; his reward, 368

Palace. Of God of Literature, 106; of Hsi Wang Mu, 137; Shên I builds, for Chin Mu, 183184; of the sun, conferred on Shên I, 185186

P’an Ku. Mythical being, alleged first development out of Chaos and fashioner of the universe, the Chinese Adam; myths of, 76 sq.; creator of the universe, 76 sq.; origin of, 76; meaning of name, 76; representations of, 76; death of, 77; and the sun, 7778; and the moon, 7778; with head of a dragon, 78; with body of a serpent, 78; Ymer and, 79; a late creation, 7980; date of legend of, 92; Yüan-shih T’ien-wang an avatar of, 128 sq.; and T’ai Yüan, 129130; a God of Medicine, 247

P’an Kuan. God of Exorcism, 248; administrator of the infernal regions, 248, 268, 274

P’an-t’ao Hui. Feast of Peaches, 137138

Pao Lao-yeh. Imperial Censor; and Ts’ao Ching-chih and Ts’ao Ching-hsiu, 302303

Pao Shu. Kuan Chung and, the Chinese types of friendship, 383 and n.

Pao Tê. Maiden name Po Ya; Queen of Miao Chuang, 253 sq.; canonized, 287 p. 445

Pao Yüeh. In legend of Yü Huang, 132133

Parents and Children, 2526

Pastors. Also called Lord-Lieutenants; the chief of the nobles in a province, 29

Patriarch-s. Of Buddhism, 120; T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu, 133, 191

Peaches. Feast of, 137138; Chang Tao-ling and the plucking of the, 140141

Peach-orchard, The Oath in the, 114 sq.

Pearl, The Intelligent. See Li No-cha

Pearly Emperor. Yü Huang; Chang Tao-ling Vicegerent of, 141

Peking. Capital of China; Shun-t’ien Fu, originally Yu Chou; Pei-p’ing Fu in T’ang dynasty; legend of the building of, 227 sq.; Prince Chu-ti and, 228 sq.; Liu Po-wên and the founding of, 228 sq.; to be called No-cha Ch’êng, 229; description of, 230231; prosperity of, 231232; the dragons and the drought in, 232 sq.

People, Four Classes of the, 28

Perfect Man. See Chên-jên

Period of the Warring States. Mythology in, 72

“Permutations, Book of.” See I Ching

Pestilence. Demons of, subdued by the three musical brothers, 151

Pets. Kinds kept, 47

Philosophers. Of the Sung Period, and mythology, 73; apotheosized, 148

Philosophy. Effect of Chinese, on mythology, 423

Pi Fang. Mysterious bird belonging to Hui Lu, 239

Pi Hsiang-yang. Attacks Han Chih-hsien, 159

Pi Hsiao. Sister of Ch’iung Hsiao; killed by Yüan-shih, 158

P’i-lu Fo. See P’i-lu Hsien and Vairotchana

P’i-lu Hsien, or P’i-lu Fo. An Immortal; and Chun T’i, 324; becomes a Buddha, 324

Piao. See Shao

Pig Fairy of the “Hsi Yu Chi,” 326 sq.

Pills of Immortality. And vital force, 135; Chang Tao-ling and, 139, 140; Shên I and, 184185; Hêng Ô and, 184185

Pitch-pot. A game, 45

Planet-s. Influence terrestrial events, 176; abodes of stellar divinities, 192; Jupiter and T’ai Sui, 194

Pneuma. Ch’i; one of the elements of creation, 90

P’o Chia. Name of King Miao Chuang, 253

Po I-k’ao. Stellar deity of Tzŭ-wei constellation, 192; eldest son of Wên Wang, 192; and Ta Chi, 192193; canonized, 194

Po Shih. And legend of Ch’in Shin Huang-ti’s visit to the Spirit of the Sea, 212 sq.

Po Ya. Maiden name of Pao Tê, 253

Pole, Pivot of the. Tou Shu; a palace, 144

Political History. Summary of, 2728

Polyandry, 23

Polydemonism. Great extent of, 93

Polytheism. Great extent of, 9394, 174175

Pootoo Island. See P’u T’o Island

Population. In early times, 27; in Manchu Period, 28

Presents. Ceremonial governing giving of, 42

Priest-s. Wu, or exorcists, 3435; first, 34; king as high, 34; held in low esteem, 36

Priesthood. In Buddhism, 119

Primary Matter. See Ch’i

Princes of States, 29

Princess of the Golden Stem. Ch’un-yü Fên marries, 412 sq.

Products. Processes of production, 48; habitations, 5758; food, 58; clothing, 58; land-works, 5859; implements and weapons, 59; æsthetic products, 59

Professional Institutions, 36

Prostitution, 24

Provinces. Administrative divisions of the country, 2829

P’u-t’i Tsu-shih. Immortal; becomes master of Sun Hou-tzŭ, 327 p. 446

P’u T’o Island, or Pootoo. Throne of Kuan Yin on, 252; Miao Shan goes to, 270

Punctured Bodies. Legend of People of the, 390

Punishments. Nature of legal, 30; lex talionis, 30; codes of, 30 sq.; changes made by Provisional Criminal Code, 3132; of the gods, 99

Pygmies. Legend of, 386387


Queue, 39, 58


Rain. Myths of, 205 sq.; the Master of, 205206 Red Child Demon. In Hsi yu chi, 350 sq., 359

Red Country. See Ssŭ Ha Li Kuo

Red Sand Battle, 158 sq.

Redcoat, Mr. Purveyor of official posts; companion of Wên Ch’ang, 110 sq.

Reincarnation. Of Chuang Chou, 149

Religious Ideas. Nature of Chinese,52; Confucianism, 52, 53; State religion, 52; Taoism, 5253; Buddhism, 53; influence of, on mythology, 6263; Chinese religion not a monotheism, 97; the Three Religions, 99 sq.; of the learned, 102

Republic. Races represented in flag of, 28

Republican Period. Marriage in, 2425; administrative system in, 30

Revenue. Whence derived, 29

River-s. Ch’ien-t’ang, chief God of, 218219; marriage of River-god, 225 sq.

Rope, The Magic, 348


Sacrifice-s. To Shang Ti, 95; to T’ai Sui, 194. See also Fêng-shan

Saint-s. See Shêng-jên

S’âkyamuni, See Shâkyamuni

Samgha. Sêng Pao; the Priesthood in Buddhism, 119

San Ch’ing. The three Heavens of Taoism, 124125

San Kuan. The Three Agents,125; San Kuan Ta Ti, 125; T’ai Shang San Kuan, 125; sons of Dragon-king’s daughters, 126

“San Kuo Chih,” The Story of the Three Kingdoms; an historical romance, 117 sq.

San Pao. The Three Precious Things, or Treasures—Buddha, the Law, and the Priesthood, 119

San Yüan. The Three Origins,125; and the divisions of the year, 126; ‘the Three True Sovereigns, Guests of the Kingdom of Wu,’ 127

Scholars. Shih; the first class of the people, 28

Schools. See Accessory Institutions

Sciences, Little cultivated until modern times, 54 sq.

Sea. Dragon-kings of the, 210211, 212; Yang Hou, Spirit of the, 212 sq.; legend of the Eight Immortals crossing the, 303304

Seasons. Festivals of the, 44

Second Self. And worship of the living, 101, See also Other Self

Sêng Pao. Samgha; the Priesthood or Church, one of the San Pao of Buddhism, 119

Sentiments, Æsthetic and Moral, 5152

Sha Ho-shang, or Sha Wu-ching. A priest in the Hsi yu chi, 326; and Kuan Yin, 3341 baggage coolie to Hsian Chuang, 334335; journeys with the Master, 341 sq.; his reward, 368

Sha Wu-ching. See Sha Ho-shang

Shakya, or S’âkya. Same as S’âkyamuni Buddha, Shih-chia Fo, Gautama, 119. See Shâkyamuni

Shâkyamuni, S’âkyamuni, or Shih-chia Fo. The name used in Chinese literature for Gautama Buddha, 119; and Kuan Yin, 251 p. 447

“Shan Hai Ching.” The Hill and River Classic, 386

Shan Ts’ai. And Miao Shan, 271 sq.; his fidelity tested, 272 sq.; transformation of, 273; canonized, 287

Shang. The Merchants; the fourth class of the people, 28

Shang Ti. The Supreme Ruler, 94; and Ti, 94; worship of, 9495; sacrifices to, 95; confused with T’ien, 9697; confers on Chuang Chou the kingdom of Jupiter, 150

Shang Yang. Legend of the, 206207

Shao, or Piao. Part of the constellation of the Great Bear, 106

Shê-chi. Gods of the Soil and Crops, 165

Shê-mo Wang. Gods of Serpents, 165

Shên. Name for gods, 103

Shên Chên-jên. And T’ai Sui, 195

“Shên Hsien Chuan.” Biographies of the Gods, by Ko Hung, 79

Shên I. The Divine Archer Ch’ih-chiang Tzŭ-yü, 180181 and the Emperor Yao, 180 sq. and Fei Lien, 181, 204205; shoots the nine false suns, 181182; marries the sister of the Water-spirit, 182; canonized, 183; builds a palace for Chin Mu, 183184; and the pill of immortality, 184185; kills Chisel-tooth, 184; receives the sun-palace, 185186; and the Bird of Dawn, 186187; visits the moon, 187188

Shên Kung-pao. Meets Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 155; tempts Chiang Tzŭ-ya to desert Chou, 155; his power to separate his head from his body, 155; discards his head, 156; his head taken by Ancient Immortal of the South Pole, 156157; obtains his head again, 157

Shên Lang. Hsü Chên-chün and, 223224

Shên Nung, or Ti Huang Shih. A legendary emperor, 81, 247; and T’ai I, 143; as God of Agriculture, 143, 165, 239; as God of Fire (Huo Ti, Yen Ti), 239; as God of Medicine, 247

Shên Pao, or Lao Tzŭ. Third person of Taoist triad, 125

Shên Shih. The Gentry; a social division, 28

Shên Shu. A Door-god, 173. See Mên Shên

Shêng-jên. Superhuman beings, saints, 125, 136

Shih. Officers, later Scholars; the first class of the people, 28

Shih Chin. Second son of Shih Ch’in-ch’ang, 255

Shih Ch’in-ch’ang. Father of the sons reborn as daughters of Queen Po Ya, 255

Shih Shan. Third son of Shih Ch’in-ch’ang, 255

Shih Wên. Eldest son of Shih Ch’in-ch’ang, 255

Shih-chi Niang-niang. And No-cha, 312313

Shih-chia Fo. See Shâkyamuni

Shou Hsing, or Hsien Wêng. The God of Longevity, 165, 171172; at first a stellar deity, 171172; as an old man, 172; legend of, 172; and the Eight Immortals, 214; and Chu Jung, 238

Shu Yü. See Mên Shên

Shui. Water; and deliverance from evil, 125126

Shui Kuan. Ruler of the Watery Elements, 216

Shui-mu Niang-niang. Old Mother of the Waters; legend of, 220 sq.; and Sun Hou-tzŭ, 221222; and Kuan Yin, 221222

Shun. Successor of the great Emperor Yao; with Yao and Yü as the Three Origins, 126127

Shun-fêng Êrh, or Kao Chio. Favourable-wind Ear, 161 sq.; general of tyrant Chou, 161162; encounters with No-cha, Yang Chien, Chiang Tzŭ-ya, Li Ching, and Lei Chên-tzŭ, 162 sq.; defeat of, 163164; searches for heir to Miao Chuang, 254255

Silkworms, Goddess of, 169

Sin. By the gods, 99

Sinkiang. The New Territory, or Eastern Turkestan; a dependency of China, 27

Six-toed People, 389 p. 448

Slavery. Unknown in early times, recognized in Monarchical Period, 48

Slow-carts Country. In Hsi yu chi, 352 sq.

Smallpox. God of, 175; Ministry of, 246247; prevalence of, in China, 246247

Snake, The Jointed. Legend of, 393

Snuff. Use of, 47

Snorter. See Chêng Lung

Social Intercourse, Laws of. Ceremonial observances, 4243; ranks, how distinguished, 42; visits, 42; forms of address, 42; presents, 42; a source of misunderstanding between East and West, 4243

Sociological Environment, 2021

Soil, Gods of the, 165

Solitary Indeterminate. See I Tu

Solstices. Festivals of the, 44

Sombre Youth. See Heaven-deaf

Soul. Recalling the, 3940; birth of the, 93

Soul-tablet, 40

“South Branch, Dream of the.” Nan k’o mêng; story of, 410 sq.

Sovereign-s. The Three True— see San Yüan; of the Eastern Air, 136137; of the Western Air, 137; the nine Human—see Jên Huang

Spiders. Sun Hou-tzŭ and the, 364

Spine, Deformed in infancy to produce a scholarly stoop, 37

Spirit-s. Festivals, 44; T’ien the abode of the, 9596; the Great One, the Great Unity, 142143; an ox-spirit, 146; Spirit of the Blue Dragon Star, 146; of the White Tiger Star, 148; Spirit-boat, 151; of Ô-mei Shan—see T’ai-i Huang-jên; Spirit of the Waters, 182, and see Ho Po; Spirit of Lightning, 203204; dragons regarded as spirits of the waters, 208; Spirit of the Sea, 212 sq.; of the Well, 217; of the North Star, 262263, 270; of the South Pole Star, 329, 337

Sports and Games, 4546

Ssŭ Ha Li Kuo. The Red Country, 359

Ssŭ Ta T’ian-wang. The Four Kings of Heaven; Taoist reflection of Chin-kang, 142

Ssŭ Tu. The Four Kings of the Sweet Water Department, 212

Ssŭ-ma Chêng. Author of Historical Records; his account of Nü Kua, 8182

Star-s. Myths of the, 176 sq.; star-worship, 188189; star-ruler, 189; effects of worship of, 189

Star-god-s. The Great Bear, 106 sq.; the God of Literature a star-god, 106 sq.; T’ai I, 144; Bushel Mother, 144145; Blue Dragon, 146; White Tiger, 148; Ts’an Nü, 169; the God of Happiness, 169170; the God of Longevity, 171172; Leo, ‘Throne of the Five Emperors’ in, 176; the Cycle-gods, 177; Chang Hsien, 177 sq.; the Heavenly Dog, 177178; Po I-k’ao, 192 sq.; God of the Wind, 204; ‘the Five Mountains,’ 242243

Starting, The Great. T’ai ch’u, 90

States. Parts of provinces in early times, 29; power of princes of, 29

Storms, Ministry of, 198

“Story of the Three Kingdoms,” See San Kuo Chih

Substance. Chih; one of the elements of creation, 90

Sumêru. The central mountain or axis of the universe in Hindu mythology, 16; called Hsü-mi Shan in Chinese, 142

Su Ta. Assassin, 278, 279

Sun-s. P’an Ku and the, 7778; influences terrestrial events, 176; symbol of the, 176; worship of, 176177, 179; the nine false, 181182; palace of the, conferred on Shên I, 186

Sun Hou-tzŭ. See Sun Wu-k’ung

Sun Wu-k’ung, or Sun Hou-tzŭ. The Monkey Fairy in the Hsi yu chi; and Shui-mu Niang-niang,221–222; represents human nature, 325; various names of, 326; born on Hua-kuo Shan, 326327; Yü Huang and, 327 sq.; his rod of iron, 328; Grand Master of the Heavenly Stables, 329; Grand Superintendent of p. 449 the Heavenly Peach-garden, 329330; acquires double immortality, 330; and T’ien Kou, 331; distilled in Lao Chün’s furnace, 331332; in jumping competition with Buddha, 332333; and Kuan Yin, 333; journeys to the Western Paradise with the Master, 341 sq.; and the Demons of the Lotus Gave, 345 sq.; saves the Master, 345 sq., 352, 358 sq., 363364, 365366; and the Red Child Demon, 350 sq.; and the Demons of Blackwater River, 352; in Slow-carts Country, 352 sq.; in the Buddhist temple, 364365; returns home, 367 sq.; canonized, 368

Sun-king. T’ai-yang Ti-chün, or Jih-kung Ch’ih-chiang; 179; and legend of Ch’ih-chiang Tzŭ-yü, 179 sq.; legend of the—see Ch’ih-chiang Tzŭ-yü and Shên I

Sung Dynasty. Philosophers of, and mythology, 73

Super-tao. Chuang Tzŭ’s, 91

Super-triad of Gods, 100101

Superstition-s, 5354; fêng-shui, 54, 209; astrological, 176

Supreme Ruler. See Shang Ti


Ta Chi. The barbarous concubine of Chou Hsin, the last ruler of the Shang dynasty; and Po I-k’ao, 192193; and Wên Wang, 193; and T’ai Sui, 195196

Ta Yü. See

Tai. A rich family murdered by Wang Chê, 255

T’ai Chi. The Grand Terminus; the producer of the two elementary forms, 85

T’ai Chi T’u. The Plan of the Grand Terminus; explanation of, 86; and Chinese cosmogony, 92. See also Chou Tzŭ

T’ai Ch’u. The Great Starting, 90

T’ai I. The Great Change, 90; the Great One, Great Unity, the first of the celestial spirits, 142 sq.; and Shên Nung, 143; Hsien Yüan’s medical preceptor, 143; Spirit of the Pole Star, 144. See also T’ai-i Chên-jên

T’ai Shan. Sacred mountain; Fêng-shan sacrifices offered on, 127

T’ai Shih. The Great Beginning, 90

T’ai Su. The Great Blank; one of the stages in creation, 90

T’ai Sui. Called Yin Chiao; the celestial year-spirit, 194 sq.; sacrifices to, 194; corresponds to the planet Jupiter, 194; legend of, 195196; son of tyrant Chou, 195; and Ho Hsien-ku, 195; and Ta Chi, 195196; canonized by Yü Ti, 196; and Jan Têng, 196; canonized by Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 196; worship of, 196197; divination of locality of, 197

T’ai Tsung. Emperor; and the Door-gods, 173174

T’ai Yin. Princess; and Lu Ch’i, 110111

T’ai-i Chên-jên. Taoist priest, 144, 305 sq.; appears in a dream to Yin Shih, 305; visits Li No-cha, 306; Li No-cha visits, 310311, 316

T’ai-i Huang-jên. The spirit of Ô-mei Shan, 179180

T’ai-po Chin-hsing. Spirit of the South Pole Star, 329, 337

T’ai-shang Lao-chün, or Lao Tzü. Third person of the Taoist triad, 125

T’ai-wu Fu-jên. Daughter of Hsi Wang Mu, 183

T’ai-yüan Shêng-mu. An hermaphrodite, mother of Yüan-shih T’ien-wang; and P’an Ku, 129130

Talismans. Chang Tao-ling and, 139

Tao. The ‘Way,’ 8788; the Solitary Indeterminate, 90; the super-tao, 91

“Tao-tê Ching.” The Canon of Reason and Virtue, first called Lao Tzŭ, 87

Taoism. The doctrine of the Way; as a religion, 5253; one of the three religions, 99 sq.; the three Heavens of, 124125; the Three Pure Ones of, 124125; Yü Huang and, 124; the first p. 450 pope of, 138; Chang Tao-ling, founder of modern, 139; the Kings of Heaven of, 142; the Kuan Yin of—see Tou Mu; guardians of Taoist temple gates, 146

Tarim Valley. Supposed origin of the Chinese in, 13, 15

Tartars. Conquer Northern China, 2728; conquer the whole of China, 28, 400

Tathagata. Ju-lai Fo, Shâkyamuni, or Buddha, 119

Temple-s, Of Heaven, 95; to God of Literature, 109; guardians of gates of Buddhist, 146; guardians of gates of Taoist, 146; legend of the cursed, 398 sq.

Têng Chiu-kung. Spirit of the Blue Dragon Star, 146; and No-cha, 147; and Huang Fei-hu, 147; and Yang Chien, 147; overthrown by Ch’ên Ch’i, 148; kingdom of the Blue Dragon Star conferred on, 148

Thousand-li Eye. See Ch’ien-li Yen

Three Causes. Worship of the, 125 sq.

Three Faces, People with the, 390

Three Heavens. See San Ch’ing

Three Musical Brothers. And the la mei flower, 151; cure the Emperor Hsüan Tsung, 151; and the Spirit-boat, 151; subdue the demons of pestilence, 151. See also T’ien Chih-piao, T’ien Hung-i, and T’ien Yüan-shuai

Three Pure Ones. See Taoism

Three Religions, The, 99 sq.

Three-body People, 390, 391

Three-heads, 390

Throne of the Five Emperors. Wu Ti Tso, a celestial palace, 176

Thunder. Myths of, 198 sq.; Ministry of, 198; Duke of—see Lei Kung; Son of, 199, 202203, and see Lei Chên-tzŭ

Ti. The earth; and forgiveness of sins, 125126

Ti Chih. The twelve terrestrial branches, 197

Ti-mu, Ti-ya, or Hou-t’u. ‘Earth-dumb,’ the Earth-mother; one of the attendants of Wên Ch’ang, 82, 109110, 165

Ti-tsang Wang. The God of Hades, 120

Ti-ya. See Ti-mu

Tibet. A dependency of China, 27

Tien Mu. Mother of Lightning, 203

T’ien. Heaven; worship of, 94, 9596; abode of the spirits, 9596; confused with Shang Ti, 9697; one of the sources of happiness, 125126

T’ien Chih-piao. Third of the three musical brothers, 151

T’ien Fei. Heavenly Concubine; helps Yin Chiao, 196

T’ien Huang Shih, or Fu Hsi. As God of Medicine, 247248

T’ien Hung-i. Second of the three musical brothers, 151

T’ien Kan. The ten celestial tree-trunks, 197

T’ien Kou. The Heavenly Dog; and Chang Hsien, 178; and Sun Hou-tzŭ, 331

T’ien Mu, or Hsüan Nŭ. Mother of Heaven; and Chuang Chou, 150

T’ien Yüan-shuai. Eldest of the three musical brothers, 151

T’ien-hou. Goddess of Sailors, 165

T’ien-lung. ‘Heaven-deaf’; one of the attendants of Wên Ch’ang, 82, 109110

Tiger. Yellow Flying, 146; White—see White Tiger

Time. Myths of, 194 sq.; Ministry of, 194

To-pao Tao-jên. Disciple of T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu, 133; fights with Kuang Ch’êng-tzŭ, 133

Tobacco. Use of, 47

Tombs, Festival of the, 44

Tones. In Chinese speech, 56

Tortoise, Golden Mother of the, 136

Tou. A measure; name of a constellation, 106

Tou Mu. Bushel Mother, Goddess of the North Star; the Indian Maritchi, 144; mother of the nine Jên Huang, 144, 145; the Kuan Yin of Taoism, 144; her palace, Tou Shu, the Pivot of the Pole, 144; description of, 144145 p. 451

Tou Shu. The Pivot of the Pole, palace of Tou Mu, 144

Trade. Foreign, 21, 4849; home, 4849

Triad. The super-triad, 100101; of gods, 101; Taoist, 124125

Transformations. Of the fox, 370

Treasures, The Three. See San Pao

Trigrams. A combination of lines used in divination; the Eight (pa kua), 193, 248

Triratna. The Three Embodiments, 120

Ts’ai Shên. God of Wealth, 165, 170171; Chao Kung-ming prototype of, 170171; legend of, 170171; canonized, 171

Ts’ai-yün Hsien-tzŭ. Fights for Wên Chung, 159160

Ts’an Nü. Also called Ma-t’ou Niang; Goddess of Mulberry-trees and Silkworms, 165, 168169; legend of, 168169; also represented as a stellar divinity, 169

Ts’ao Ching-chih. In legend of Ts’ao Kuo-chiu, 301302

Ts’ao Ching-hsiu. Becomes the Immortal Ts’ao Kuo-chiu, 301 sq.

Tsao Chün. The Kitchen-god, 45, 128, 165, 166 sq.; reports to Supreme Being, 45, 167168; chief of Yüan-shih T’ien-tsun’s secret police, 128; origin of worship of, 166167; Li Shao-chün and, 166167

Ts’ao Kuo-chiu. One of the Eight Immortals, 214, 303; legend of, 300 sq.

Ts’ao Ts’ao. Usurping general in period of the Three Kingdoms; and Kuan Yü, 116

Tso Ch’ih. See Chisel-tooth

Tso-ch’iu Ming. Author of the Tso chuan, commentary on the Annals of Confucius; and Chinese mythology, 72

T’u Hsing-sun. Magician; and Têng Chiu-kung, 147; marries Ch’an-yü, 147

Tu Ô. Taoist magician; teaches the Snorter, 145

T’u-ti. Local gods, 165; report murder of the Tais to Yü Huang, 255256; sent to help Miao Shan in the Nunnery of the White Bird, 263; report the approaching execution of Miao Shan to Yü Huang, 266; carry Miao Shan to P’u T’o Island, 270; find companions for Miao Shan, 271; help Miao Shan, 272

Tung Wang Kung, Mu Kung, or Tung-hua Ti-chün. God of the Immortals; and Shên I, 185 sq.; and the Spirit of Lightning, 203. See Mu Kung

Tung-hua Ti-chün. See Tung Wang Kung

T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu. First of the Patriarchs of the Taoists, 133; and Hung-chün Lao-tsu, 133; battle with Chun T’i, 133134; the buffalo of, 133134; given pill of immortality and taken to Heaven, 134; and the twenty-eight constellations, 191192; and Chun T’i, 321 sq.

Turkestan, Eastern. Supposed origin of the Chinese in, 13. See also Sinkiang

Tzŭ T’ung. Chang Ya at, 104; the God of, 105; Wên Ch’ang and the Spirit of, 108109

Tz’ŭ-hang Ta-shih. Immortal, 216

Tzŭ-hua. In legend of Ch’un-yü Fên, 413, 415416, 419

Tzŭ-wei Hsing. Constellation. See Po I-k’ao


Umbrellas, The Magic, 241242

Unicorn. K’uei niu 133

Unicorn Precipice, The, 154, 155

Unity, The Great. First of the celestial spirits, 142143

Unnatural People, 386 sq.


Vairotchana. Dharma, the highest of the Three Embodiments (Triratna), representing Purity; Chinese P’i-lu Fo, 120 p. 452

Vajrâpani. God of Thunder. See Lei Kung

Vega. Star; legend of Aquila and, 189 sq.

Vihârapâla. See Wei-t’o


Wang Ch’ang. Disciple of Chang Tao-ling, 140, 141, 216

Wang Chê. Brigand chief; begs of Shih family, 255; murders Tai family, 255

Wang Tan. A minister of State; and the cask of pearls, 131132; K’ang Hsi on, 131132

War, God of, 113 sq.

Waters. Shên I marries sister of the Water-spirit, 182; myths of the, 208 sq.; dragons are spirits of the, 208; Ministry of the, 212; Yang Hou, Spirit of the Sea, 212 sq.; Shui Kuan, Ruler of the Watery Elements, 216; Shui-mu Niang-niang, Old Mother of the, 220 sq. See also Ho Po and Shui

Watters, Thomas. Consul-General; on fox-lore, 370

Way. See Tao

Wealth, God of. See Ts’ai Shên

Weapons, 33

Weaver-girl, The Herdsman and the. Legend of, 189 sq.

Wei Chêng. Associated with Door-gods. See Mên Shên

Wei-t’o. Vihârapâla; the Dêva protector of Buddhist temples and of the Law of Buddha, 120

Weights and Measures, 49

Well, Spirits of the, 217

Wên Ch’ang. God of Literature; attendants on, 82, 109110; legends of, 104 sq.; and the Great Bear, 105 sq.; palace of, 106

Wên Chiao. Wife of Ch’ên Kuang-jui, and mother of Hsüan Chuang, 336, 337 sq.

Wên Chung. Famous generalissimo, canonized as God of Thunder; his battle with Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 158 sq.; attacked by Huang T’ien-hua, 159; wounded by Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 160; forced to retreat, 161; fights more battles, 161; drawn up to Heaven, 161; another account of his battles and death, 198199. See also Lei Tsu

Wên Wang. Father of Po I-k’ao; prisoner of Chou Hsin, 192; Ta Chi and, 192193; Lei Chên-tzŭ and, 202203

Wên Yü. See Lei Chên-tzŭ

Wên-chu T’ien-tsun. Fights with No-cha, 317318

Western Air, Sovereign of the, 137

White Bird Nunnery. Miao Shan goes to, 261 sq.; set on fire, 264; saved by Miao Shan, 264

White Crane Youth. Captures Shên Kung-pao’s head, 156; restores the head, 157; kills Ch’iung Hsiao, 158; fights and defeats Chang Shao, 159

White Elephant. In Kuan Yin legend, 283, 284, 285286

White Horse. Of Hsŭan Chuang, 340341

White Tiger. Po Hu; spirit of the White Tiger Star; guardian of Taoist temple gates, 146, 148

Wife. Status of, 2324; legend of the Expectant, 391392

Wild Men. Legend of, 392393

Wind, Spirit of the. Fei Lien; vanquished by Shên I, 181, 204205; myths of the, 204205. See also Fêng Po

Women, The Lovely. In the Hsi yu chi, 362 sq.

Women’s Kingdom. Legend of the, 390391

Worship. Origin of, 93; of Shang Ti, 9495; of T’ien, 94, 9596; of the living, 101; the second self and, 101; of the Kitchen-god, 166167; of the harvest moon, 176; of the sun, 176177, 179; of Chang Hsien, 178; of constellations, 191; of T’ai Sui, 196197; of Wu Yüeh, 242; origin of dog-worship of Jung tribe, 422

Wu. Exorcists, 34

Wu Hsing. The Five Elements, 84

Wu San-kuei. General of Emperor Ch’ung Chêng, 398399

Wu Ti. See Kuan Ti p. 453

Wu Ti Tso. ‘Throne of the Five Emperors’; in the constellation Leo, 176

Wu Wang. First king of the Chou dynasty; his battles with Chou Wang, 133134; and Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 153, 154; killed and revived, 159

Wu Yüeh. ‘Five Mountains’; gods worshipped in cases of fever, etc., 242243; legend of, 243 sq.

Wu Yün. Immortal; and Chun Ti, 323324


Yang. The male principle in nature, 85, 86, 93; its hold on the Chinese mind, 92; Mu Kung and, 136137; united with yin in marriage, 186; conjunction of yin and, 188; and lightning, 203. See also Yin

Yang Ch’êng. See Fu Shên

Yang Chien. Nephew of Yü Huang; and Hua-hu Tiao, 122123; and Ch’an-yü, 147; battles with Ch’ien-li Yen and Shun-fêng Êrh, 162 sq.; and Lü Yüeh, 242

Yang Hou. Spirit of the Sea, 212 sq.

Yang Hsi-chi. See Fu Shên

Yang Jên. Magician; and Lü Yüeh, 242

Yao. 1. Early emperor; with Shun and Yü as the Three Origins, 126127; and Shên I, 180 sq., 204. 2. Tailed Miao Tzŭ tribe; legend of, 422 n.

Yao Ch’ih. Lake of Gems, 137

Yao Wang. God or King of Medicine, 246, 247

Year. Spirit of the, T’ai Sui, 194 sq. See also San Yüan, T’ai Sui, and Time

Yeh Ch’ien-chao. And Lei Kung, 200201

Yeh Fa-shan. Magician; and Chang Kuo, 294295

Yellow Flying Tiger. Huang Fei-hu; spears the Blower, 146

Yellow Turbans. Tribe; Liu Pei, Kuan Yü, and Chang Fei make war on, 116

Yen, District of, 228, 229

Yen Ch’êng. Legend of the City-god of, 402 sq.

Yen Ti. See Shên Nung

Yen Wang. The King of the Hells; and Miao Shan, 267, 268; and Sun Hou-tzŭ, 328329

Yen-chung Hsien. See Lo Hsüan

Yin. The female principle in nature, 85, 86, 93, 216; its hold on the Chinese mind, 92; Hsi Wang Mu and, 137; ancestor of the spirituality of the, 185; united in marriage with yang, 186; conjunction of yang and, 188; yin-yang mirror, 199; and lightning, 203, 204; yin-yang baskets, 232

Yin Ch’êng-hsiu. Spirit of the White Tiger Star, 148; canonized by Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 148

Yin Chiao. See T’ai Sui

Yin K’ai-shan, Father of Wên Chiao, 336, 338339

Yin P’o-pai. Courtier of Chou Wang; father of Yin Ch’êng-hsiu, 148

Yin Shih. Wife of Li Ching, 305 sq.

Ymer. The Scandinavian giant out of whose body the world was made; compared with P’an Ku, 79

Yü, or Ta Yü. The Great Yü, one of the early kings; with Yao and Shun as the Three Origins, 126127

Yu Chou. See Peking

Yü Ch’üan Shan T’a, or Chên-shui T’a. Pagoda near Peking; origin of, 234235 and n.

Yü Huang. Also called Yü-huang Shang-ti; the Pearly Emperor, 124; popular head of Taoist hierarchy, 124; the Jade Emperor, the Pure August One, 130; history of, 130 sq.; the Chinese Jupiter, 130; legend of, 132133; identified with Indra, 133; subject of a nature myth, 133; and Shui-mu Niang-niang, 220221; allows reincarnation of sons of Shih Ch’in-ch’ang, 255256; sends spiritual aid to Miao Shan, 262263; prevents execution of Miao Shan, 266; orders punishment p. 454 of Miao Chuang, 274; canonizes Miao Shan and her family, 286; and Sun Hou-tzŭ, 327 sq.

Yu I. A spirit, 278279

Yü Lü. A Door-god, 173. See Mên Shên

Yü Lung San T’ai-tzŭ. Son of Dragon-king of the Western Sea; and the White Horse, 340341

Yü Nü. The Jade Maiden; servant to Mu Kung, 136; and the Spirit of Lightning, 203

Yü Shih, or Ch’ih Sung-tzŭ. The Master of Rain, 205206; resides in the K’un-lun Mountains, 206; and the shang yang, 206

Yü-huang Shang-ti. See Yü Huang

Yü-ting Chên-jên. Makes plan for defeat of Ch’ien-li Yen and Shun-fêng Êrh, 162163

Yüan Chuang. See Hsüan Chuang

Yüan Hung. Generalissimo; serves Chou Wang, 162, 164

Yüan-shih T’ien-tsun, Lo Ching Hsin, or T’ien Pao. Son of P’an Ku and T’ai-yüan Shêng-mu; first member of Taoist triad, 124; First Cause, Highest in Heaven, 127 sq.; God of Lightning, 128; avatar of P’an Ku, 128 sq.; first named Yüan-shih T’ien-wang, 128; legend of birth of, 128 sq.; fights T’ung-t’ien Chiao-chu, 134, 321, 322323; and Tou Mu, 144; presents List of Promotions to Immortals to Chiang Tzŭ-ya, 154155; kills Pi Hsiao, 158

Yüan-shih T’ien-wang. See Yüan-shih T’ien-tsun

Yüeh-shih Fo. The Master-Physician Buddha, 120

Yün Chung-tzŭ. A hermit; causes the death of Wên Chung, 199; teacher of Lei Chên-tzŭ, 202203

Yün-t’ai Mountain. The peach-plucking on, 140141

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