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The Book of Filial Duty, by Ivan Chen, [1908], at

p. 30



The good Emperors of old were not only filial to their parents, but also to the Supreme Father and Mother—that is, Heaven and the Earth. When an Emperor can live in harmony with his elders, there will be harmony throughout his dominion between superiors and inferiors; and when he is filial to the Supreme Father and Mother, he will be blessed by them.

Although the Emperor is the highest of all ranks, yet he still has some one to respect. He has his father and elder brothers.

Why do we offer sacrifices to our ancestors in our family shrine? Because we ought not to forget them. Why must we cultivate our minds and be circumspect in our actions? Because we do not wish to bring disgrace upon the name of our ancestors. If we can show respect to them when we offer them sacrifices in our family shrine, we shall be blessed by the Supreme Father and Mother. Filiality to parents and reverence to elders will be known to the Supreme Being, and will be followed by the people in every part of the world; no place can remain unaffected by their influence. In the Shih Ching it is said that "from east to west and from north to south there is no one who does not submit to rule."

Next: Chapter XVII: Serving the Sovereign