The commentary on  THE GREAT PERFECTION: THE NATURE OF MIND, THE EASER OF WEARINESS  
called the Great Chariot


The First Chapter of the commentary on  THE GREAT PERFECTION: THE NATURE OF MIND, THE EASER 
OF WEARINESS  called the Great Chariot

In Sanskrit the title is Mahasandhi citta visranta vritti maharatha nama, In Tibetan Rdzogs pa chen po/ sems 
nyid ngal gso'i/ shing rta chen po/ shes bya ba

I prostrate to glorious Samantabhadra

	From the ocean of the glorious two accumulations come clouds that bear the abundant rain of peace and 
happiness.
	These are the hundreds of qualities of the Nature that constitute the beauties of trikaya.
	The thunder of wisdom and kindness pervading the limits of space, the great drum of Bhrama, sounds.
To the all-knowing Chief of Beings, to the Dharma, and Sangha, the leaders of beings, I bow.

	On an island in the lake of Uddiyana,
	Born within the blossom on a lotus stalk,
	Spontaneous emanation of the victorious ones,
	Blazing with qualities of the major and minor marks,
	Padmasambhava protects the lotus of my mind.

O primordial, spotless, full ocean; you who emanate samsara and nirvana
O non-dual, unborn, full nature; perfect essence of Buddha, you the natural state,
O fullness with no existence or lack of it, views that things are eternal or nothing, coming or going, nor object of 
complex variety.
O fullness with no conception of good or evil, you who neither accept or reject.
I bow to the uncompounded nature of the mind.

	This is the unsurpassable city of joyous liberation.  Here the Victorious Ones of the three times attained 
supreme peace.  So that all beings may go there directly, it embodies the heart of the sutras and tantras.  Here, 
day and night, with unremitting effort, with single-minded devotion, my mind is absorbed in peace.  May this 
Great Chariot of the profound path that liberates from samsara be clearly elucidated.

	Of this explanation of the GREAT PERFECTION, THE NATURE OF MIND, THE EASER OF 
WEARINESS, The single path of all Dharmas and traditions, there are three main sections:

First, the manner of entering on the composition of the treatise and the meaning of the introductory section,
Second, the extensive explanation of the main subject of the text,
Third, the conclusion.

First, the manner of entering on the composition of the treatise and the meaning of the introductory section,

	The divisions are

First, the meaning of the homage
Second, The vow to compose the text.

First, the meaning of the homage

	The Buddha has come into this world.  The excellent speech of his teachings, holy Dharma, by the 
kindness of genuine beings remains in existence.  Here are the details of how the ocean of the sutra and mantra 
vehicles may be practiced by a single individual Now that the freedoms and good favors, so difficult to attain, 
have been attained.  In that way oneself and others may completely cross the ocean of sufferings of samsara.  
How mind,  wearied in samsara, eases its weariness in the land of peace is taught fully and without error.
	This goes from how the beginner enters and begins, up to how the fruition of buddhahood manifests as 
the completed and perfect meaning of all the vehicles.
	Wishing to compose the thirteen chapters of this treatise, the Great Perfection, the Nature of Mind, the 
Easer of Weariness,  first I offer a short homage:

	The primordial lord; the great, full ocean  of buddha qualities;
	Whose natural wisdom and kindness is limitless in its depth,
	Birthplace of the Victorious Ones and all their sons,
	Who emanates heaped up clouds of goodness and benefit,
	I prostrate to the one who is all that is desired.

	Thus I call on him.  This lord is the manifestation of enlightenment, whose place is in the primordial 
ground.  This is the teacher, the Buddha Bhagavat.  Having the nature of the great full ocean of qualities of 
renunciation and realization, he rules the sphere of inexhaustible adornments of body, speech, and mind.  All the 
depth and expanse of supreme understanding and wondrously arisen compassion are just this.  This saying is 
incomprehensible to the mind that sees only the manifestations of the I of "this side."
	By earnestly practicing the Dharma taught here, mind becomes the source of the jewel of the buddhas of 
the three times and their sons.  Then for all the realms of sentient beings, as limitless as the sky, there are 
temporary benefits in accord with the happiness of each.  Gods and human beings alike are brought to happiness.
	The ultimate happiness is being brought to whichever of the three enlightenments of the shravakas, 
pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas is in accord with the good fortune of one's powers.  The holy masters join us 
to supremely ultimate great enlightenment, omniscient buddhahood.  Therefore, I prostrate to glorious 
Samantabhadra and so forth, all the victorious ones and their sons throughout the ten directions and the three 
times.
	As for the ocean of buddha qualities of this primordial lord.  The glorious Net of Illusion says:

	The lord is timeless perfection, known as buddhahood.
	This is the precious ocean of Buddha qualities.

	These precious jewels also arise within the connections of cause and effect.  The Uttaratantra says:

	From the Buddha comes the Dharma; From the Dharma comes the assembly of the Noble Ones.

	Regarding emanation of heaped up clouds of goodness and benefit for sentient beings, the 
Mahayanasutralankara says:

	They have compassionate kindness for every sentient being.
	They have the kind of vision we do not need to seek.
	They have the kind of vision that is inseparable.
	I prostrate to you with the vision of goodness and happiness.

	We should prostrate, because there are such great benefits for both ourselves and others.  Since our 
bodies are of this excellent kind, if we briefly praise the good fortune of words and meaning, we realize that all 
this is holy.  If we undertake this holy activity who stay with it, we cannot but reach the goal.  The Great 
Commentary on the Prajqaparamita in 8000 Lines says:

	Those who have the kindness of benefit for others
	For the sake of living beings, do not relax their powers.
	Though these holy beings bear a heavy burden,
	They never put it down and dwell in discouragement.

	This needs to be attained by others as well.  When the teacher and shastra are understood in the highest 
way, there is devotion.  Nagarjuna says:

	It is never fruitless, when the authors of the treatises
	Express their homage to the teacher and the teaching; 
	Because of doing so they make us feel inspired. 

	As for saying that both kinds of benefit must be attained, by perfecting the accumulations the goal of 
ripening will be accomplished.  The Sutra of Vast Play says:

	The wishes of those with merit will surely be accomplished.

	The Sutra Producing many Buddhas:

	Whoever for the Conqueror as a leader,
	Does even a little bit of activity,
	Having gone to various celestial realms,
	Will attain the level of buddhahood.

Second, the vow to compose the text:

Here why homage is made:

	Luminous dharmakaya, immaculate realm of the conquerors!
	For us who wander here in samsara, by ignorant grasping,
	Amidst this realm of grief of karma and the kleshas,
	Today may our weariness come to rest in the nature of mind.

	The nature of mind is primordial luminosity, the essence of the buddha realm.  It is beyond the four 
extremes of existence, non-existence, eternalism, and nihilism.  It primordially pervades all sentient beings.  The 
Uttaratantra says:

	When by the luminous nature of the mind
	It has been seen that kleshas are essenceless,
	After it has been realized that all beings
	Are completely pure of the four extremes,

	All will dwell within perfect buddhahood,
	Possessing the mind that has no obscuration.
	Beings completely purified will possess
	the limitless vision of the perceiver, wisdom.
	Therefore, to that nature I pay homage.

	Though primordially pure wisdom exists within us, by not recognizing it, we wander here in samsara.  
This karma of ignorance produces ego-grasping.  By that in turn are produced passion, aggression, ignorance, 
pride, and envy.  It is because of these five poisons or kleshas that we are whirling around here in samsara.
	Why so?  As various habitual patterns are superimposed on alaya, we enter into unhappiness.  The least 
result is that by the karma of ignorance we are born as animals.  The intermediate is that by the karma of 
seduction and desire we are born as pretas.  The worst is that by the karma of aggression we are born in Hell.
	Those who have pure merit, but also an equal amount of pride, are born as gods or human beings.  
Those who have equal parts of goodness and jealousy are born as asuras.  Each of these has their own realm of 
existence, with its happiness, sorrow, and the states between them.  They have their own sorts of good and evil 
behavior.  	So it is that we wander helplessly in this plain of the beginningless and endless sufferings of 
samsara, so difficult to cross.  In vanity we grasp at an I or real self, which is like the seeming appearances of a 
dream.  Though if we examine these well, they are non-existent, at this time of our confusion they appear to be 
really and truly existent.  The Samadhiraja Sutra says:

	The life of samsaric beings is like that in a dream.
	Since this is so, no one is ever born or dies.

The Request of Bhrama says:

	The beings of appearance are like those in a dream.
	By their personal karma, they are bound as individuals.
	They wander among samsara's many joys and sorrows.
	Though their nature is suchness that is egoless
	Still these unknowing children fixate I and ego,
	And so samsara's torments are ever on the rise.

	The sentient beings of samsara are held in various kinds of bondage.  Though all dharmas are egoless, 
fixators of ego excluded themselves off from the eye of liberation, and have to be taught their own true essence.
	How?  When they know that this is their path, it is improper for them to concern themselves with the 
goal of peace alone.  As all beings wander here in beginningless samsara, there is not even one has not been our 
father and our mother.  So to reject them and liberate ourselves alone is not the proper way.  The Teacher's Letter 
says:

	Our kinsmen who are carried in the ocean of samsara
	Seem to have tumbled down into a great abyss
	If we have rejected these, who do not know what they are,
	Because of the process of birth and death and transmigration,
	If we produce liberation for ourselves alone,
	They will never be liberated from their karma.

	Thinking about that, and seeing the weariness of sentient beings, exhausted by the burden of their long 
wandering here in samsara, I wanted to compose a treatise giving the instructions of how we can ease this 
weariness by coming to the resting place ornamented by the wondrous wealth of the Victorious Ones, the level of 
great nirvana.  I wanted to illuminate how by immeasurably abundant compassion, we can guide those wandering 
in samsara.  The Avatamsaka Sutra says:

		Kye!  O son of noble family, when we see the realm of sentient beings, all undertakings 
of body, speech, and mind become the immeasurable great compassion.  We work with the 
worldly sciences and those beyond the world that have come from the heads of the noble ones.  
Having been inspired to the good, we perform once more the buddha activity of the former 
Victorious Ones.  Let us offer to the Tathagata.  Let us raise the victory banner of Dharma.  Let 
us introduce the great path of liberation.  O Holy beings!  O precious crest-ornament!

	That was the vow to compose the text.

Second, there is the extensive explanation of the actual subject.

	In general, the extensive explanation of the subject, how the two benefits arise, is in thirteen chapters.

I.  The free and well-favored human body, so difficult to obtain

	There are four sections:

A.  The general explanation of being free and well favored, and how it is so difficult to obtain.
B.  Recognition of being free and well favored.
C.  True analysis of the environment and inhabitants of the phenomenal world.
D.  The dedication of the merit of the situation.

A.  The general explanation of being free and well favored, so difficult to obtain.

	Within the general topic there are 

1.  The summary of the essence 
2.  The extensive explanation of the nature.

1.  The summary of the essence

	Now from the explanation of the real body of the text, first, briefly, the support of establishing 
enlightenment is being "well-favored."  As for the details, here is the praise:

	My friends, this body, the precious essence of freedom and favor,
	Is very hard to gain within the six realms of beings,
	Thus, like a blind man who has found a precious treasure,
	With excellent joy, may good and benefit be accomplished.

	Who has crossed over to enlightenment?  This is the spiritual friend who has established enlightenment.  
The instruction is given to those with the good fortune of bodhicitta, the wish for enlightenment.
	In regard to attaining the holy freedoms and favors, it is wonderful even for those who are not poor to 
attain what is supremely precious, let alone the poor.  If those who are blind and helpless attain it, it is even more 
astonishingly wonderful than that.  As for praise of beings, who attain the free and well favored human body, 
while they are whirled about in the six lokas of samsara, The Sutra Teaching the Freedoms and Favors says:

		It is like this:  Like a blind person who finds a precious jewel among earth and stones, 
sentient beings wandering in samsara, blinded by cataracts of ignorance who find their real 
humanity are supremely joyful.  And so we ought to practice the Dharma, which is always 
excellent.

2.  The extensive explanation of the nature,

	There are eight topics

a)  The extensive explanation of the eighteen freedoms and favors:

	If you ask what are these freedoms and excellent favors,
	We were not born in Hell, nor yet among hungry ghosts.
	We are not beasts, nor long lived gods, nor vicious barbarians,
	We were not reared in wrong views, nor in a time without buddhas,
	Nor have we been born as idiots without speech,
	We are completely free from all these eight non-freedoms.

	We were born in the human realm, and in a central country. 
	Also we sound in all our faculties,
	Not having done inexpiably wrong in deeds and actions, 
	We are properly faithful to the objects of faith.
	Thus the five holy favors regarding oneself are complete.

	The Buddha has appeared and he has taught the Dharma.
	Moreover, at this time the teachings still remain.
	So that they may continue, people still follow them,
	And others are treating us with kindness and concern.
	These five favors are those that exist in regard to others.
	
	Those were the eighteen kinds of being free and well-favored.
	On this auspicious occasion they are complete within us.
	So strive from the heart, that liberation may be accomplished.

	We should take this to heart.  Why?  The life of the king of Brahmins Drvkyi Kyeche says:

	It is hard to find the opposites of the eight non-freedoms.
	It is hard to find attainment of humanity.
	It is hard to find the freedoms in purity and completeness.
	It is hard to find the arising of a buddha.
	It is hard to find true powers that are without defect.
	It is hard to listen to the teachings of a buddha.
	It is hard to find the friendship of any holy beings.
	It is hard to meet with genuine spiritual friends.

	If we are born as Hell beings, pretas, or animals; distracted by suffering, we have no freedom of body.
	The blind, who cannot associate verbal symbols with their meanings, have no freedom of speech.
	Those who are long-lived may never see the practice of Dharma.   Buddhas may be absent, so that they 
arise in a dark kalpa without the appearance of the teachings.  Even if buddhas appear, people may be coarse 
barbarians with no idea of entering.  Even those who want to enter, falling into extremes of exaggeration or 
denigration, may fall into the four wrong views.  Such people have no freedom of mind.
	None of these have an opportunity to practice Dharma.  They have been deprived of it by their own bad 
karma of the eight non-freedoms.  By abandoning those eight, one always has the corresponding freedoms.

	The Commentary on the Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines says:

	Beings in Hell, the pretas, and the animals;
	The long-lived gods and those who are barbarians,
	Those in an age without buddhas and those who have wrong views,
	These and the blind comprise the eight states of non-freedom.

The Spiritual Letter, says:

	Those who grasp wrong views and animals,
	The hungry ghosts and beings born in Hell,
	Those without the word of Victory,
	And those who are born as savage barbarians,
	The blind, the feeble-minded, and the gods;
	These possess the faults of the eight non-freedoms.
	Those who have the freedoms from these eight
	Should strive in eliminating further births.

	As for being well-favored, the Moon in your Heart Sutra says:

	Those for whom the ten qualities are complete
	Are said to be the ones who are well-favored.

What are these ten qualities.  The following have been listed:

	1.  We have left behind the lower realms of life.
	2.  We are not feeble-minded.
	3.  Our senses are not impaired.
	4.  We are born as vessels.
	5.  Our health is good.
	6.  We are not impoverished.
	7.  We are not enslaved.
	8.  We have the power to use words.
	9.  We have come within view of many noble beings. 

	That is many people's view of what they are.  But here they are as in the Sutra of the Twelve Perfections:

	These are the five perfections pertaining to oneself

		1.  We have attained the human condition.
		2.  We are born in a country where there are noble ones.
		3.  Our powers are sound.
		4.  We have not performed extremely evil deeds.
		5.  We have faith in the proper topics of faith.

	These are the five perfections pertaining to others.

		6.  A buddha has come.
		7.  The Dharma has been taught.
		8.  The holy Dharma still remains.
		9.  Others also practice it.
		10. Others show kindness to those who practice the Dharma.

	As for kindness to others, the spiritual friend apprehends us with compassion, and leads us to the 
Dharma.  As for there being twelve perfections, the two bases of distinction are also counted.   A tantra 
commentary says:

	A central human being with faculties that are sound,
	Without extreme bad actions, but with faith in the objects of faith.
	These are the five kinds of favor pertaining to oneself.
	A buddha has come and taught, and the teaching still remains.
	The teaching still is followed and beings are kind to others.
	These are the five kinds of favor pertaining to other beings. 

	Here the freedoms are the essence and the favors are its particular dharmas.  This is like the blue utpala 
lotus and its stalk and so forth.  The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

	If even becoming human is difficult to attain,
	Why even speak of completing the view of the precious freedoms?

b)  Not being steadfast, even if we have the freedoms and favors

	Even though we may have attained all of these freedoms, by craving samsaric happiness even a little:

	If we accomplish no benefit within this life,
	We may not hear later even the words "the higher realms".
	Cycling again and again on the wheel of samsara
	For a long time we will have to stay in the lower realms.
	Having no knowledge of what we should accept and reject,
	We will certainly go upon a mistaken path
	Wandering in samsara, without beginning or end.

	If within this life, so good to obtain, we do not practice the beneficial holy Dharma, by the power of 
karma we will be born in the lower realms.  There we shall not so much as hear the words "higher realms," to say 
nothing of going there.  The Bodhicharyavatara  says:

	As for our behavior which is of such a kind,
	If we shall not even gain a human body,
	It goes without saying we cannot go to higher realms.
	For if we shall not even gain a human body,
	We shall do only evil, and there can be no good.

	Now when there is a chance for excellent behavior,
	If, even so, good actions are not what we perform,
	What are you going to do when they have come for you
	With the stupefying sufferings of the lower realms?

	If we go to the lower realms, we shall not be liberated for a very long time.  The same text says:

	Even in the course of a thousand million kalpas
	I will not even hear the words, "the higher realms."

c)  The instruction to strive for the Dharma

	An opportunity of liberation from the limitless depth of samsara is hard to find.  So let us strive for the 
Dharma with all our hearts.  That is the instruction.

	Therefore, now when we still have the power to do so,
	By auspicious conditions that accord with the proper path,
	Relying on the inexhaustible wholesome dharmas
	Gained by having gathered the two accumulations,
	Let us pass beyond the city of samsara.

	Keep in mind aging, becoming old and decrepit, and dying.  Now while we still can, let us be guided by 
the path of liberation.  If we do whatever goodness we can, we shall surely come forth from samsara.  The  Sutra 
of the Vast Display says:

	O monks, because death, aging and enfeeblement are non-existent, because by nourishing 
goodness, one's powers will be transformed, and because enlightenment will proliferate, strive to 
accumulate merit and wisdom.  For you the three cities of samsara will be emptied.  The gates 
to the lower realms will be cut off.  The stairway to the higher realms will be established.  The 
realm of liberation will be attained.

d)  How we must work hard at this

	When the freedoms and favors of knowing about and establishing such benefit and goodness are 
accomplished by a guide who is our spiritual friend, extreme situations do not manifest.  When this precious ship 
has been attained in the middle of the fearful, limitless ocean of samsara:

	If we do not cross the limitless ocean of samsara
	Now at the time of having attained this precious ship,
	Then how can we do it at another time
	When painful waves of the kleshas are always utterly raging?

	If we have a great ship which will serve our purpose, we should use it to cross the ocean.  Similarly, 
having attained this ship of humanity, we should cross the great ocean of samsara, so fearful and unbearable, 
whose beginning and end are not apparent.  Because of wandering in constant birth, old age, sickness, and death, 
samsaric situations are never bearable.  Shantideva says in the Bodhicharyavatara:

	Whoever with the support of this ship of human birth,
	Can cross the great waters of the river of suffering,
  	Since later such a ship may be difficult to find,
	Would be wrong to sleep at this time, because of stupidity.

e)  The suitability of this,

	Because the freedoms and favors are so difficult to attain:

	Therefore, quickly donning the armor of exertion
	Clear the murk of mind and the events of mind,
	And thus complete the path of spotless, luminous wisdom.
	May the path of enlightenment be without obstacles.

	When the turbulence of samsaric mind and mental events is pacified, the luminous wisdom of the nature 
of mind naturally rises.  Becoming familiar with this is called the path of enlightenment.  Try to practice it 
uninterruptedly day and night, abandoning sleep and tiredness.  Just remain THERE.  The Five Stages says:

	All the complexities of mind and mental events
	At the time when these are completely pacified
	Arise as luminosity, the state of wisdom,
	This is without conceptions and has no center or limit.

	Here, "Mind," means exaggerated conceptions  which support the three realms.  By the expressions of 
subsequent analysis  in terms of these there arise murky disturbances that obscure suchness.  But when these 
conceptions are completely pacified, we enter into wisdom that is completely non-conceptualized.  The Two 
Truths says:

	Mind and mental contents  are merely conceptualization, 
	Exaggerated phenomena, the three realms of samsara.

	Samsaric mind correlates with the generalized conception  of "this," when an object is first seen.   
"That's an utpala lotus" is the mind's consciousness  of such a first moment.  Then, as we discriminate  various 
distinctions of that object, we make analytic demarcations of the contents of mind.  Here there are such 
conceptions as, "this utpala lotus is blue in color, and round in shape.  It has a blossom, stamens, and pistil."
The Center and Extremes says:

	To see the object as "that" is consciousness.
	Distinctions of that are objects of the mind.

The Abhidharmakosha  says:

	There are conception and analytic discernment and these may be fine and coarse.

	All who are bound in such conception and analytical discernment, bound by such habitual patterns of 
mind and mental events, are blocked from the level of buddhahood.  The  Madhyamakavatara   says:

	When all the dry firewood of knowable objects has been burned,
	There is peace, the dharmakaya of the victorious ones.
	Then there is no arising, and also no cessation.
	Cessation of mind brings manifestation of the kayas.

	When, within self-awareness wisdom, we become enmeshed in the net of the kleshas, because of the 
confusion of grasping and fixation, that is called "samsaric mind," the dim and dismal cellar of examination and 
analysis.  Liberation from that is buddhahood.  The enlightened object and perceiver are free from the attachment 
to the examination and analysis of grasping and fixation.  The Praise of the Vajra of Mind, says:

	If we are enmeshed within the net of kleshas,
	"Mind" is that which is expressible by speech.
	If we should be separated from the kleshas,
	This is the very thing that is known as buddhahood.

The Abhisamayalankara says:

	Having "big mind" is the jewel itself

	Buddhahood is having "big mind," or the great wisdom.  The Sutra on the Array of Qualities, says:

	The mind of sentient beings is that of false conception.
	However, the great wisdom is the mind of buddhahood.
	Just like gold in mountains or in the banks of rivers,
	Sometimes it is pure and sometimes it is not.

	In mantrayana big  mind and its big kleshas are said to be wisdom itself. It is like that:

	The dimness that does not know that is purified of its blindness.

	The unceasing desire of mind is stupidity.  When we meditate, objects still appear within awareness, but 
awareness of concept and analysis ceases.  The Sutra on the Bases of Discipline says:

		Within dhyana O monks, though the motion of mind has ceased, objects still appear 
within the sense-consciousnesses.  Objects whirl with the motions of samsara.

But now they are like fleeting reflections in a still pond.

	The Ascertainment of Proper Reasoning says:

	Even when the inner self rests motionless,
	Visual forms arise in the mind of the visual sense.

	Within the senses, apparent objects are not conceptualized.  The same text says:

	This is taught because sense-awareness is not samsaric.

	In brief, conceptualization and analysis of objects produced due to grasping and fixation are called 
samsaric mind and its mental objects.  Object and insight  when grasping and fixation are completely pacified 
are kaya and wisdom.  The Sutra of the Glorious Garland says:

		Whenever there are distinctions of grasping and fixation, that is reprovable.  Such 
conceptualization of objects is the mind of samsara.  Whenever grasping and fixation do not 
exist, object and insight are the wisdom of liberation.

By that it is established.

f)  The samsaric torments if we do not make an effort now.

	A person who has the Dharma by the power of former goodness:

	Whoever has the happy good fortune of the Dharma,
	Becoming a vessel of that precious spotlessness,
	Yet has no use for its cooling rain of Dharma-amrita,
	Will be annihilated by the torments of samsara.
	The holy rain of the cooling waters of wisdom
	From the banks of clouds of benefit and great bliss
	Falls to cleanse the free and favored minds of beings.

	Being a good vessel is like having the precious human body.  When the rain of Dharma falls on us, if we 
are not vessels who can hold it, we will only exhaust oneself in suffering in the torments of samsara.  The 
Generation Born in an Iron House says:

	Even though the free and favored vessel is gained,
	Since no drops of Dharma are received within it,
	We shall roast in Hellfire, so difficult to bear.
	Long and excruciating pain will be our karma.

g)  The teaching of the freedoms and favors, which support the Dharma.

	Supported by the freedoms that we have, the natural arising of Dharma is like this:

	Therefore joyfully practice the Dharma from your heart.

	That is the instruction.  The supreme teachings of the Buddha are the rain of Dharma.  The freedoms and 
favors are its support.  This rain naturally falls.  The Arrangement of the Vessel says:

	Kye!  O child of a noble family, for those with the freedoms and favors, the great rain of perfect 
Dharma will fall.  They will possess immeasurable benefits.

h)  Why the freedoms and favors are difficult to obtain:

	It is harder for us to gain a human birth
	Than for a tortoise to thrust its head into a yoke
	That is tossed about in the middle of the ocean.
	That is what the teacher of Gods and men has said.
	Then why even speak of a free and well favored body.
	Let us be diligent in days that are to come.

	Let us say that a turtle lives in an ocean for a hundred times a hundred years.  Floating upon that ocean 
is a single yoke with a hole in it, blown by the wind so that it did not stay in one place for even a moment.  It is 
very unlikely that the turtle's throat will be thrust into it.  But obtaining a human body from within the lower 
realms of samsara is taught to be far more difficult.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	It is harder to gain a human birth and the Dharma,
	From the state of having been an animal,
	Than for a turtle to put its head into a yoke
	While both of them are lost in the vastness of the ocean.
	Therefore with these faculties of human beings
	By practicing holy Dharma let us reach its fruition.

The Bodhicharyavatara says: 4.20

	This is the reason why the Bhagavan has taught
	That attaining human birth is much more difficult
	Than for a turtle to put its head into a yoke,
	Tossed within the vastness of a limitless ocean.

As for the scripture they are speaking about, the Bunch of Flowers says:

		It is difficult for the Buddha Bhagavats to enter into the world.  But very much more 
difficult than that is attaining human birth.  Let the reason for this be taught in an example.  O 
Shariputra, let the great difficulty of the first be like an ocean.  Within it let there be a yoke, 
having a single hole.  Let there also be a decrepit turtle.  In that great ocean the wind blows from 
above and blows from below, and as it blows these things about, that decrepit turtle rises out of 
the ocean once in a hundred times a hundred years.  The difficulty of becoming human again 
after having fallen back is not equal to that of the throat of that decrepit turtle that rises once in a 
hundred times a hundred years quickly entering into the hole of that quickly moving yoke.  For 
those who fall away like that, becoming human again is very much more difficult.

	If even attaining the human body is so very difficult, why even speak of a body with the freedoms and 
favors, and the view that realizes the Dharma.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 4.15

	That a tathagata has actually arisen,
	That we have faith, and have attained a human body,
	And that, in addition, we can practice goodness;
	When will what is so rare ever be gained again?

The Request of The One with the Jewel in the Crown says:

	To see a guide is something very hard to find.
	To hear the teachings, the Dharma of peace, is very hard.
	It is very hard to be born as a free and favored person.
	Discipline and faith are always hard to find.

B.  Now there is the second division of the general meaning: delineating the nature of the freedoms and favors

	There are six sections:

1.  The explanation of merely attaining a human body.

	What is a "precious human body?"

a.  Here is the explanation of the three divisions of those with a human body:

	There are some who merely gain a human birth,
	Some whose body is special, and some whose birth is precious.

b.  What is said about the divisions:

	Respectively these are persons who act improperly,
	Because they have no knowledge of what is right and wrong.
	Even if their powers are sound, their birth is common.
	They are barbarians even in the central realm.

	The Sutra of Precious Space says:

		These are born in the human world because of former goodness, have senses that are 
completely sound, and always are born in a country where the Dharma is practiced.  However, 
they still do not know about karma and its ripening.
		Many of them will depend on the path of what is not good. It may be said that these have 
become human beings, but they will only be the worse for it.  That is the last time they will be human, 
because they will fall without limit into the lower realms of death.

2.  The special human body

	Those who do not apply the teachings are confused
	They do not have proper faith about what is right and wrong.
	Preoccupied with this life, distracted by its business,
	Undisciplined and beguiled, neglecting what is to come,
With no interest in liberation, though they may hear the Dharma,
	They do not have the best body, but only the middle kind.
	
	Occasionally their minds are drawn to something wholesome,
	But mostly their mental vision is blocked by evil deeds.
	They only go through the motions, what good are they to anyone?
	Whether they take the form of a householder or a monk,
	Only because they are slightly above lower realms,
	The Buddha has said that these have a special human body.

	The Sutra of Precious Space says:

		In the realm of sentient beings some do not dwell purely in the Dharma, even though 
they could, because their behavior mixes right and wrong, and they are preoccupied with 
worldly activities.  Even if they are sincere, with undisciplined body, speech, and mind, they are 
easily seduced.  Falling into the three lower realms, they have the karma of remaining there.  
However, since they have seen the sunlight of the Buddha's compassion, and have had seeds of 
liberation for a long time, they are said to have the special human body.

	Because their behavior mixes vice and virtue and they give only lip service to devotion, they are not 
protected from the lower realms.  The Samadhiraja Sutra says:

	Breaking their discipline, they go to the lower realms.
	They are unprotected, no matter how great their learning.

The Nirvana Sutra says:

		Kashyapa, the monk Devadatta had heard only the ordinary sutra vehicle of the burden 
of an elephant.  Even though he grasped it, because of his non-virtue, he fell into the lower 
realms.

	The Pair Sutra says:

		Collection of Medicines, those sentient beings who wail so at the time of death are not 
among the ones who possess ripened karma of good deeds.  If these are protected from karma, 
who would not be?

Also it says there:

	Though the Tathagata has arisen and been seen,
	And though the striking of the gandi has been heard,
	Though they have heard the teachings of the holy Dharma,
	Which take us to the peace which is called nirvana,
	Nevertheless they never acted on what they heard.
	People such as these are later going to say:

	I am a person with the mind of a perfect fool.
	Having fallen under the power of bad companions,
	By the desires which rose from confusion in my mind,
	I produced the karma of many evil deeds.
	By cultivating and going along with these desires
	I have been a murderer of living beings.
	By listening to the people who waste the goods of the Sangha
	I had to know the unbearable fruit of doing that.

	I am destroying stupas by my harmful thoughts 
	By malicious words I punish everyone, even my mother.
	Regarding this human body that I formerly made
	Soon all my transgressions will be common knowledge.
	My mind will then be summoned to the lowest Hells.
	The births I see ahead are more than I can bear.

3.  The Precious Human Body.

	As for the third part:

	Supremely excellent beings, spotless vessels of Dharma
	Apply their powers to what they hear and contemplate.
	Having tamed themselves, they establish others in goodness.
	They are immovable in their practice, like Mount Meru.
	All these straightforward sages, like banners of saintliness,
	Whether they are householders or renunciates,
	Are taught by the Teacher to have the precious human body.

	After having tamed oneself by hearing, contemplating, and the yogic resting of meditation, one also 
exhorts others to goodness.  That is the good gate of auspicious Dharma.  Putting on the great armor of liberation 
one flourishes the great banner of the sages.  Calling this badge or clothing a victory banner is not just a figure of 
speech.  When we urge others to work for the good, whether one lives in a house or is a renunciate, this is called 
having the precious human body.  The Sutra of Glorious Secret says:

		Glorious Secret, though many have heard this, their hearing is obstructed.  The 
meaning is made into conceptualized thoughts.  But by meditating without kleshas, union is 
produced.  If one also urges others to do this, this produces the essence of the freedoms and 
favors, the most sublimely beautiful thing in this world including its gods.

Also the Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		Subhuti, bodhisattvas say, "I practice the good," to exhort others to do the same.  
Producing the essence of the freedoms and favors, this is praised by all the buddhas.  I praise it. 
 I honor it.

As to how others should be exhorted the Vast Play says:

	All compounded things will quickly be destroyed.
	Like lightening in the sky they cannot last for long.
	As your time too is therefore drawing ever nearer,
	The time has come for true repentance to manifest.

The master Chandrakirti says:

	First for a little while all the listeners
	Will certainly be joined to small talk and the like.
	When they become good vessels, after that occurs,
	That is the time to relate to them with deeper words.

	That is how it should be done.  What it is to be such a vessel, generally depends on which of the vehicles 
one is concerned with. In particular, as for the freedoms and favors in the unsurpassable vessel, the Jewel of 
Space Sutra says:

		The bodhisattva Akashagarbha asked, "Bhagavan, how should the freedoms and favors 
be viewed?"
		This was the word of the Buddha:  If it is divided by the discursive conceptions of 
mind, it is abused.  This should be known as disturbing what one is engaged in.  After discursive 
conceptions of mind have been pacified, resting within the nature is known as freedom.  As for 
the favors, if the nature of mind, awareness, receives the wealth of what mind really is, that is 
being well-favored.

4.  Why we should think about the Dharma.

	Here is the reason why the person who has attained freedom and favor should think only of the Dharma:

	Therefore, having heard the Dharma from holy beings,
	To establish what is proper, abide within in the Dharma
	Cultivate what is Dharmic, weed out what is not.
	By practicing Dharma, we will abide within the Dharma.

	That is the holy instruction.  It is difficult to meet with a spiritual friend.  To hear the Dharma and be 
able to practice it is difficult.  Always to work hard is very difficult.  When the Buddha was expounding the 
scriptures of the Vinaya at Vaishali, this was among the beneficial instructions given:

		O monks, look on the beings of the lower realms.  After going there, a material human 
form is very difficult to obtain.  Look on bad teachers.  Meeting a genuine spiritual friend is 
very difficult.  Look on those who have broken their discipline, and how they have damaged 
discipline and liberation.  By dwelling in the goodness of renunciation, Dharma, which alone is 
good, will be practiced.  Therefore, joyfully dwell in forests or monasteries, and go beyond these 
others.

5.  The benefit of contemplating the reason

	As for the benefit produced:

	Procrastinate no longer.  Cross over samsara's ocean.
	Quickly go to the island of peace and pass beyond suffering.

	The Request of Devaputra Sutra says:

		Devaputra, Exerting ourselves in this alone, let us exert ourselves on the side of the 
good.  We shall quickly hold the benefits of complete, perfect enlightenment.

	The Spiritual Letter says:

	Having well attended an excellent spiritual friend,
	We ought to make the attempt to behave in a decent way.
	This is what was taught by the utterly perfect Sage.
	Attend on holy beings, for having attended them,
	There are very many who will attain to peace.

6.  If the inhabitants of this earth practice, there will be great benefit.

	Beings who have been born as inhabitants of this earth, Jambuling, have established a portion of 
goodness.  But if, having become human beings, they do not train in goodness, here is what is said:

	There is no one who has a mind more foolish
	Than those becoming human who do not live in goodness.
	Like coming back empty-handed from a land of jewels,
	They make no use of the freedom and favor of their lives.
	So let us act in the way of the Dharma, which leads to peace.

	Though we may have attained these freedoms, if we do not practice the holy Dharma, then even though 
we have come to an island of precious jewels, we take none of them.  Returning empty-handed, we are fools.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says:  4.23

	If even having attained the leisure of these freedoms
	We do not train in what is wholesome and what is good,
	There is no seduction that is greater than this.
	There can be no fool who is greater than such a one.

	After doing some insignificant bit of good, we shall not have complete attainment.  But by exerting 
themselves in the truth and goodness of Dharma alone, many attain the perfection of the Buddha qualities.  The 
Precious Mala says:

	Thus it is that if we always practice the Dharma,
	We shall be the masters of all within the world.
	Whoever transforms what is noxious into goodness,
	In a little while will surely reach the peak.

	Because the good of Dharma will wake us from our sleep,
	When we awake to goodness, we shall be purified.
	Because the master within us is one who has no faults,
	Even in dreams we shall see what is virtuous and wholesome.

	If we have respectful devotion to our parents,
	Attending on the principal persons of our family,
	Committing ourselves with patience to virtuous behavior,
	Speaking soft words of truth without any calumny,

	By such discipline over a single lifetime,
	The powers of a god have actually been attained.
	Once again at this time, we shall produce those powers,
	We gradually will establish the state of buddhahood.

	After that:

	As for the benefits, the fruition of such karma,
	We shall act in accordance with what we have come to know.
	If we are always performing benefits for beings,
	This itself will be of benefit to us.

	While we do so, for this reason, there will be the wholesome merits of the Dharma.

C.  True examination of the nature of the environment and inhabitants of the phenomenal world, 

	There are six sections:

1.  The teaching of mind, the root of Dharma.

	When we undertake to find the natures of the environment and inhabitants of the phenomenal world, they 
are truly analyzed as being one:

	Dharma depends on mind, and likewise mind in turn
	Depends on the freedoms and favors, so both depend on them.
	Now these many conditions and causes have come together.
	The thing we chiefly need to do is tame our minds.

	All dharmas depend on mind.  Mind depends on the free and well-favored human body.  This is the 
interdependent arising of the environment and inhabitants of the phenomenal world.  Mind is the realm of 
Dharma, the cause of all that is wholesome.  As it is the companion necessary condition of the freedoms and 
favors, we must study exactly how to tame the mind. The Spiritual Letter says:

	The Bhagavan says we must tame our minds.
	Mind is the root of Dharma, as is taught.

The All-creating King, says:

	Without remainder all dharmas, however they appear,
	Are emanated by mind, produced by the nature of mind.

The Lankavatara Sutra says:

	Though reflections may appear within a mirror
	They do not exist; and if we do not know
	The appearances of mind as mere appearances,
	The duality of conceptual thinking will arise.

	With the seeds of habitual patterns, what is completely pure
	Arises as the variety of the mental contents.
	Though for human beings these seem to be external,
	Nevertheless the phenomenal world is only mind.

Also it says there, in regard to mind that does not possess true reality:

	For mind that is disturbed by seeds of habitual patterns
	Within the completely real, appearances will arise.

	The appearances of mind are like those of a dream.  Arising merely from the viewpoint of confused 
mind, the variety of inner and outer arises as nothing at all.  Such appearances arise from the seeds of confused 
habitual patterns.  In reality they do not truly exist; but because they appear in the mind as if they did, mind is the 
root of all dharmas.  Though mountains and so forth appear externally projected from the viewpoint of confused 
mind,  there are really no mountains.  They exist only in the mind.  If students have not guarded the mind before, 
they will not be able to guard it later.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	If this mind has not been guarded previously,
	We will not be able to keep the disciplines.

Also it says there:

	Aside from the kind of discipline that guards the mind,
	What is the use of performing many disciplines?

Also it says there:

	Thus it is that everything that frightens us,
	And also all of our measureless pain and suffering,
	Are only contents that have risen with the mind.
	So it has been taught by the Speaker of Truth himself.

	Who was it that produced the multitude of weapons
	For the use of sentient beings within the Hells?
	Who was it that produced this ground of blazing iron?
	From where do these multitudes of blazing flames arise? 

	Every one of them, and all such things as these,
	Are the mind of the evil-doer, so the Sage has said.
	Thus it is that in the whole of this three-fold world,
	There are no terrors that are other than the mind.

Also it says there:  5.5

	If we ever succeed in taming the mind alone,
	All these various things will likewise have been tamed.

	Since all that is wholesome and unwholesome within samsara has arisen from mind, working to tame the 
mind is the root of all Dharmas.  The Sutra of the Clouds of the Three Jewels says:

	When we have been instructed by our worldly mind,
	This mind of ours will never see the actual mind.
	All our virtuous karma and that which has no goodness
	Are nothing but collections in that worldly mind.

Also it says there in the chapter called, "Guarding the light:"

	Mind produces various karmas like a painter.
	In manifesting all harm, it is like an external danger.
	In producing all suffering, it is like an enemy.
	
The Dro Namje Sutra  says

	The ground is made of iron, blazing hot,
	And blazing tongues of flame are everywhere.
	The justice of the sharpened iron saws
	Divides a single body into eight.
	Such things as these arise as mental contents,
	From evil acts of body, speech, or mind.

	Mind is the root of all our joys and sorrows.  Our only effort should be to tame the mind.

2.  The Instruction that We Should Exert ourselves in Dharma Day and Night.

	When we are wandering in samsara, as successive distractions occurring time and time again, here is 
what should be done:

	Being terrified of death, within our endless births,
	With deprivation and suffering falling on us like rain,
	Arises from making no use of being free and well-favored.
	The result is a state of becoming radically disturbed.
	
	The higher manifestations, the dharmas of truth and goodness
	Arise from thinking how hard it is to be free and favored,
	Enjoy such an effort unstintingly, working day and night.

	The Gandavyuha Sutra says:

		Kye!  O son of noble family, wherever beings wander within samsara, the body 
adorned with the freedoms and favors, so hard to obtain, is not produced, due to manifestation 
of thoughts.  Because of the bad company of non-spiritual friends, there are samsaric 
phenomena, and we are tormented in flames of suffering.  Nevertheless, by contemplating the 
freedoms and favors, we shall be completely liberated from samsara.
	
3.  When the benefits have been explained, we arouse joy

	Now there is the instruction to be joyful because of these benefits:

	Here since it is useful to have seen a guide,
	And it is of use to hear the Dharma and practice it,
	Making use of this life and all its later fruits,
	Arises from having gained this free and favored body.
	Contemplate this again and again, with the highest joy.

	Having seen how Buddhas of former times were completely liberated, having the benefit of being well-
favored day and night on the present occasion, and collecting the seeds of a later liberation--this is what we have, 
if we are among the fortunate.  All this arises from contemplating the freedoms and favors, which are so hard to 
obtain.  The Closely Placed Mindfulness says:

		Ananda, how should the arising of what has been well seen and well heard by you from 
having contemplated the freedoms and favors be viewed?  It is what establishes the happiness of 
beings, and whatever good dharmas there may be.  That is how it should be viewed.

	Therefore, let us meditate with heartfelt joy on having attained these freedoms.

4.  How we can attain superhuman goodness

	Now, moreover there is the explanation of how superhuman goodness is to be established:

	Since having attained the deathless level of amrita
	By the Lord of this world of beings, including the gods,
	And his sons among the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas,
	Arose from having attained the precious human body,
	The freedoms and favors are praised as better than being a god.
	Therefore, rejoice in having attained this human body.

	When the Sage, the Bhagavan, attained enlightenment, he became the chief of the human beings of 
Jambuling.  Therefore, he was called better than the gods.  The Sutra of Complete Enlightenment says:

	Enlightenment in the realm of the gods produces an exclusive pride, and truth is not completely 
realized.  It is seen only as a human being, for whom the freedoms and favors are complete.  
Therefore, to the place of those who dress in yellow and white. 

The Bodhicharyavatara says:
[@@@]
	This body, which is better than the body of a god...

5.  Praise of the freedoms and favors, the support of all the vehicles

	The level of wisdom, that sees the truth without conception
	Is easy to gain among gods and men as a human being.
	Even the vajra vehicle, profoundest heart of the path,
	Is easily gained as the fruit of attaining a human body.
	It is taught that among the foundations of the Dharma,
	Within both the greater and the lesser vehicles,
	The free and well favored human body is best of all.

The Abhidharmakosha says:

	Thirdly, nothing higher than this is seen:
	Within the valley of sadness of human beings
	So that they might see its end this was composed.

	Also the suchness of the secret mantra is quickly established with the support of human birth.  The 
Tantra of Exhausting the Four Elements says:

	This is the wondrously risen king of secret mantra.
	If human beings exert themselves in gaining it,
	Accomplishment occurs within this very life.
	Why even speak of the siddhis of any other yogas?

Therefore, as the support of all the vehicles, the freedoms and favors have been praised.

6.  Meditating on how difficult these are to obtain.

	To take this difficulty of obtaining a human body as an object of meditation, sit on a comfortable seat.  
Take refuge and arouse bodhicitta.  Then we visualize our own bodies, adorned with the freedoms and favors:

	As a poor man who has found a gem of the highest value,
	Fearful and anxious that it was nothing but a dream,
	Contemplate the freedoms and favors with joyful longing,
	Since this will establish the holy benefits of the Dharma.

	Like a poor man who finds the finest of gems, let us rejoice in having obtained these freedoms and 
favors.  This is a Dharma that should be practiced exclusively.  Thinking, "If only this is not a dream!" we are 
afraid and terrified.  Since we have attained it, meditating in heartfelt joy, let us dedicate it to the ultimate benefit 
of sentient beings.  The Discrimination of Scripture says:

		Maudgala, these freedoms alone should be contemplated.  Remember them with joy.

D.  The fourth section of the general meaning:  Dedicating the Merit.

	Now there is the dedication of the merit of having taught the freedoms and favors to sentient beings:

	The futile agitation of beings is pacified,
	By the precious amrita of this auspicious news.
	Going into sweet solitude of pleasant forest retreats,
	May Mind, worn out within this thicket of the kleshas,
	Be freed this very day from all its weariness.

	By looking at this explanation of the holy amrita of peace, adorned with a continuous stream of the 
flowers of truth, may all beings, exhausted by the agitations of this life, eliminate them.  In a single joyful life, in 
the peaceful solitude of meditation, may their minds, long wearied by samsara, be released from that weariness.
	This is the instruction on the particular topic of easing weariness.  May the meaning of the whole chapter 
showing samsara and its sadness be instantly taken to heart.  There is also a dedication written after completing 
the chapter.  May the further chapters also be known in that way:

	In peaceful forests, caves, and joyful valleys of herbs,
	Dancing with moving flowers, to the rush of waterfalls,
	May this mind, which has been so long in complete exhaustion.
 	Producing the holy benefit of the freedoms and favors,
	Come to rest in unmoving equality/equanimity.

	May no beings be seen who are not tamed by that.
	With pacification of kleshas and the seven noble riches 
	After leaving behind this body and this life,
	May we reach the primordial level--the King of Mind.

II: The Impermanence of Life

	There are five sections.

A.  The brief teaching.
B.  The extended explanation.
C.  The instruction that we should exert ourselves.
D.  The concluding summary.
E.  The dedication of merit.

A.  The brief teaching.

	Even though the freedoms, so difficult to obtain, have been obtained, since our minds are not stable, we 
are instructed that our nature is such that we need to exert ourselves:

	Even if this hard-won freedom has been gained,
	These destructible dharmas will not last for even an instant.
	If they are examined, they are without an essence.
	They are no more to be trusted than bubbles floating on water;
	So contemplate day and night the certainty of death.

	Even if the freedoms and favors are obtained, they cannot be permanent.  They have no heart like a 
banana tree and, will not bear analysis.  Like bubbles on water, they appear for only a moment.  Then every one 
of their main and subsidiary characteristics is destroyed.  On examination, they are necessarily found to be 
separable from reality.  The Shrine of Telling the Reason Why says:

	Kye ma!  How impermanent are all compounded things!
	Anything that is born is going to be destroyed.
	Since having once been born, all will be destroyed,
	"Them as dies quickly will be the lucky ones!"

	They are like starry lamps that are clouded-over with mist,
	Ephemeral things like bubbles on water or drops of dew,
	Dreamily insubstantial, like lightning in the clouds.
	All compounded things are taught to be that way.

B.  The extended explanation,

	1. Grasping the importance of the impermanence of the human body.

	This essenceless body is impure and changeable.  Its individual qualities are separable and nothing about 
it continues.  Here is the instruction that those inclined to material desires should absorb the mind day and night in 
contemplating impermanence:

	This body, the principal source of the rising of the kleshas,
	Is the source of all suffering and unhappiness of the mind.
	Though decked in garments and ornaments, flower garlands and such,
	And worshipped with many offerings of food and drink,
	In the end we must separate and part from it.
	Because it is impermanent and destructible,
	This body will be food for foxes, vultures, and jackals.
	Abandon all thoughts that it is important, lasting, or pure.
	Rather, from now on, let us practice the holy Dharma.

	Grasping our alleged bodies as a permanent I and self, we offer them food and clothing, tending them 
with a level of ceremony befitting our ideas.  Though we hardly want to talk about it, sorrowful time speaks 
instead by reversing our ministrations to harm.  Shantideva says:

	This body of ours is like a momentary reflection.

	The time when we will be taken by the Lord of Death comes without warning.  When the mind separates 
from the body, we cannot be with the body any more.  It will be food for charnel birds, dogs, foxes, and vultures. 
To count such a thing as paramount and even think that we should do evil deeds for its sake should be regarded as 
vanity.  Really we are something like a servant indentured to the body's happiness.  Why is the body so worthy of 
being rewarded with food and clothing?  What is worth exertion day and night is the Dharma.  The Sutra of 
Instructions to the King says:

		O great king, these have an essence like a great mountain, solid and firm in all the four 
directions. This mountain is indestructible, not to be split, very hard, undamageable.  Its four 
sides, dense and massive, touch the sky and return again to the earth.  Grass, trees with trunks, 
branches, and all their leaves, living things, and spirits accumulate there, like flour on a mill-
stone.
		To escape it by speed, remove it by force, buy it off, or get rid of it with substances, 
mantras, and medicinal herbs is no easy task.
 		O great king, that is what these four great terrors are like.  One cannot escape them 
by speed, remove them by force, buy them off.  To get rid of them with substances, mantras, 
and medicinal herbs is no easy task.
		What are these four?  They are old age, sickness, death, and deterioration.
		O great king, old age comes to conquer youth.  Illness comes to conquer health.  
Deterioration comes to conquer all our good qualities.  Death comes to conquer life itself.  One 
cannot escape them by speed, remove them by force, or buy them off.  To get rid of them with 
substances, mantras, and medicinal herbs is no easy task.
		O great king, it is like this.  The king of beasts, the lion, dwells among the beasts.  He 
preys on the beasts.  He rules as he wishes.  The beasts are powerless against his mighty jaws.
		O great king, it is like this.  There is no provision against the gleaming staff of the Lord 
of Death, there is no protector, no refuge, no friendly forces, no friends and relatives.  Our joints 
will divide and come apart.  Our flesh and blood will dry up.  Our bodies will be racked by 
sickness.  We shall rage with thirst.  Our arms and legs will convulse.  We will not be able to 
act.  We will have no strength.  Our bodies will be covered in saliva, mucus, urine, and vomit.  
Our powers of vision, hearing, smelling, tasting, touch, and thought will fade away.  We shall 
vomit.  Our voices will crack and wheeze.  Our medicines will be given up as useless.  All our 
medicine, food, and drink will be thrown away.  Our possessions will go to others.  We shall lie 
in our beds for the last time.  We shall subside into the beginningless round of birth, old age, and 
death.  We shall have no body.  We shall be terrified by the Lord of Death.  Our powers of 
acting will be gone.  Our breathing will stop.  Our mouths and noses will gape.  Our teeth will 
be exposed.  They will demand, "Give us our inheritance."  Our karma will take over, and we 
shall pass into the control of samsaric existence.  Alone without a second, we shall be friendless. 
 We shall leave this world.  We shall be outside the world.  We shall be borne up in the great 
change of abode which is death.  We shall dwell in the great darkness.  We shall fall over the 
great precipice.  We shall be crowded off the edge of the world.  We shall be cast into the great 
wilderness.  The great ocean will carry us away.  Our karmic energy will pass away.  We shall 
go to ugly places.  We shall enter the great battle.  We shall be seized by the great harm.  We 
shall die away into space.  Our fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, sons, and daughters will 
gather round.  Our breathing will stop.  They will say that our property and clothes should be 
handed out.  Oh no! our fathers will say.  Oh no! our mothers will say.  Oh no! our children will 
say.  Fear will overwhelm us.  Generosity, penance, and Dharma will be our only friends.  
There will be no refuge but Dharma.  There will be no other protector.  There will be no other 
friendly forces.
		O great king, at this time, at this moment, the Dharma will be an island, a dwelling, a 
protector, a teacher.  O great king, though looking like we are asleep in our beds, we shall 
experience appearances of the life to come.  If we are going to go to the lower realms, terrifying 
premonitions of those realms will arise.  What refuge will there be then but Dharma?
		O great king, You should fully guard such a body.  But no matter how perfectly you 
look after it, its time of death will come.  Intimates having all virtues, with whom we have been 
satisfied by much pure food and drink and so on, parents and children, will be there for the last 
time.  The medicines will be thrown away.  When everything is gone, we will be unhappy.  Such 
will be the time of death.

		O great king, your body will be repeatedly washed and fumigated with incense.  It will 
be covered with fragrant flowers and, no doubt, pleasantly perfumed aromas will arise.
		O great king, you will be dressed in fine clothes of Varanasi cotton and silk, and when 
this has been done for the last time, it will be like going to a defiled, stinking place, as a servant 
who has to go alone, and so the time of death will come.
		O great king, though you have enjoyed your various desirable possessions, abandoning 
them all, as if they did not satisfy your desires, the time of death will come.
		O great king, within your house incense, flowers, silk hangings, seats, and various 
cloths will be collected.  With the pillows on the left and right, your bed will be taken away to 
the great charnel ground full of crows, foxes, and nauseating human corpses.  Doubtless your 
motionless body will lie upon the ground.
		O great king, as you are thus carried on the backs of your  elephants, horses, and so on, 
different kinds of music will be heard and pleasantly enjoyed.  Various parasols, victory 
banners, and so forth will be raised aloft.  The new king, minister, and friends and relatives will 
make pleasant little speeches, praising you and going to look at you.  The bed, formerly not 
raised very far, after you have died in it will be raised high by four pallbearers, lifted by your 
brothers and so forth.  After servants, compelled by painful beatings bring it out by the south 
gate of the city, in a solitary wild place it will be put down on the earth.  You will be eaten by 
crows, vultures, foxes, and so forth.  Your bones will be burned by fire, thrown into water, or 
put on the ground, whichever it may be.  They will be dispersed by wind, sun, and rain, and 
strewn in all directions. They will rot.
		O great king, all composite things are impermanent.  Do not rely on them.

	This extensive teaching should be taken to heart and remembered.  Persons knowing that the appearances 
of this life, no matter what they are, are empty, should try to exert themselves solely in practicing the holy 
Dharma, day and night.

2.  To attain even the realm of Bhrama and so forth is impermanent.

	Those who are the true foundation of wealth on the three levels 
Gods like Bhrama Shiva, Surya, and Ishvara,
	Though they shine in the radiant gleam of fame and fortune, Have no chance to vanquish the realm 
of the Lord of Death
	Even if they stay in samadhi for a kalpa,
	When their karma has been exhausted, that is their time of death.
	Gods as well as asuras, siddhas, and sorcerers,
	However many villeins and vassals there may be
	Throughout their endless births are terrified by death.

	Bhrama, Maheshvara, Vishnu, Indra, the four great world-protecting kings, and so forth fill the world 
with great rays of light, brighter than a thousand suns.  They are more splendid than a mountain of gold.  The 
fame of their merits fills the world.  They are the highest beings of the three worlds, below the earth, upon the 
earth, and above the earth.  But, though they are adorned with all this real wealth, they still have to die.  The 
Dulwa Lung says:

		O monks, look on this wealth as being essenceless and subject to deterioration.  If the 
retinue mindful of my teachings were transferred into the inconceivable life and insatiable 
powers of Bhrama, Indra, the world protectors and so forth, they would be brought down to the 
lower realms.

Also it says there:

	Bhrama the pure one, wrathful Indra, and thousand-eyed Surya,
As well as desireless Vishnu, are impermanent, and passing.
	The display of the sun and moon is only for a moment.
	The continents of the world, are seen to have been emptied.

	The gods of the four dhyanas, and the other gods, the asuras, siddhas who have accomplished austerities, 
and all holders of vidya mantra still die.  The same text says:

	The gods who accomplish the dhyanas, as well as the kinnaras And ascetic sages who are not gods but 
blaze with splendor,
	Are impermanent, though they may live for a long time or a kalpa.
	As for conditioned humans, whose bodies are like foam,
	No need to discuss their freedom from individual destruction?

	The lords of the four continents, the universal monarchs, kings, ministers, and all kinds of ordinary 
people, monastic renunciates, brahmins, householders and so on, none of them escape death.  The Shrine-room of 
Telling the Reason Why says:

	Kings possessing the seven precious treasures,
	Great noble lords and royal ministers
	Monks and brahmins, householders and such,
	All of these beings are impermanent.
	They are like beings experienced in a dream.

3.  There is impermanence because change is the nature of things.

	Because there is transference and change, there is impermanence:

	Within the impermanent play of the rain-clouds of this life,
	In garlands of flashing lightning, dances the Lord of Death.
	Day and night, the falling rain of the changing seasons
	Drowns whatever sprouts may grow within the three levels.

	Ornamented by the essence of the freedom and favors, the dark summer cloud-banks of this life gather, 
while, naturally wreathed in quivering lightning, the Lord of Death performs his dance.  Day and night, not 
pausing for an instant, the rain of immanent death falls constantly, flooding out and drowning all the sprouts of 
sentient beings dwelling within the three worlds.  The Vast Play says:

	The three worlds' impermanence is like the clouds of autumn.
	The birth and death of beings has the aspect of a dance.
	The lives of beings vanish like lightning into space.
	Like waterfalls cascading down a precipitous mountain,
	As quickly as the water comes it falls away.

4.  The impermanence of the Vessel and Essence

	The vessel is the world, which has long been stable and motionless.  The accompanying essence or 
contents supported by it is taught to be moving beings.

	When the vessel and contents of this impermanent world,
	With all its various cycles of creation and destruction,
	Is destroyed seven times by fire and once by water,
	And blown away like dust by the force of the raging wind,
	Even Mount Meru, with its four slopes of precious substance,
	Surrounded by the four oceans and the four continents,
	Encircled by mountain ranges and the ramparts of the world,
	Will not endure when all is turned to a single space.
	Thinking that this time must certainly come to pass,
	Therefore, let us practice the Dharma from our hearts.

	The external vessel and contents are destructible.  The inner vessel and contents too are taught to be 
impermanent.
	In the beginning of the first kalpa, in the accommodating sky, the empty space of nothing whatever, 
pranavajra was born from a crossed vajra, indestructible.  Above it was born the mandala of water, hard like 
vajra.  There also on the little island which is this world, was the supreme mountain of precious substances, 
Mount Meru.  The east was made of crystal, the south of yellow beryl, the west of ruby, the north of gold.  
Reaching to the edges of the surrounding water, with seven lakes between them are Nyashing Dzin, and so forth, 
the seven mountain ranges, surrounded by the expanse of the outer ocean. 

In the outer ocean, in the east is the continent Purvavideha.  In the south is Jambudvipa, in the west 
Aparagodaniya, in the north Uttarakuru.
	On Mount Meru, are four groves, and to the north-east, completely enclosed in trees, is the all-victorious 
good house, ornamented by caverns like a city, with agreeable mountains at the edge.  From this to the ocean's 
horizon, as far as the other surrounding iron mountains,  is the vessel, the world, ornamented by the sun and 
moon.
	Supported within it is the essence, sentient beings.  The luminous gods are separated from people of the 
four main continents and eight sub-continents beside them.  These sub-continents are Deha and Videha, Chamara 
and Upachamara, Satha and Uttaramantrina, Kurava and Kaurava.
	Also there are the appearances produced by lower karma, the individual realms of lower beings, the 
animal, hungry ghost, and Hell realms.  In the dhatu of the animals the great ocean is the root place.  Below, the 
hungry ghosts' royal capital city is their chief place.  Hell beings have the hot Hells and snow mountain cold 
Hells.  Under them all, like a yellow rose with eight joined petals, are the neighboring Hells, oriented in the four 
directions of the Avici or Unremitting Hell, which is the place at the root.  The widely scattered animals, the 
hungry ghosts wandering in space, and the ephemeral human realm are also there.
The six kinds of kama divinities of the desire realm, kama deva shatkula, are halfway up mount Meru in the 
rising place of the sun, moon, stars, and planets.  First there are the four, great, noble kings.  Above them is the 
heaven of the thirty-three.  Above them with their sky palaces dwelling like the stars and planets, in order there 
are the desire realm deity heavens of the strifeless, Yama; joyful, Tushita; Delighting in Emanation, Nirmanarata; 
and Mastery over Transformation, Paranirmita.
	In holes in the rocks of Mount Meru dwell the asuras.  In the edges of the water Rahu, and in Skartreng, 
Garland of Stars, a city at foot of Mount Meru, is the asura king Kanto Mali.
	In the edges of earth are nicely textured slopes where desire gods contend in wealth and enjoyments.  Of 
the four realms of the desire gods, in the Bhrama realms of the first dhyana are the stratum of Bhrama, 
Abhasvara; Priests who chant before Bhrama Bhramapurohita; and Great Bhrama, Mahabhrama.
	In the space above is the heaven of Mastery over the Emanations of Others, Para-nimitta-vashvartin (the 
sixth of the twenty-eight desire heavens) whose thrones reach upward four pagtse.
The second dhyana has the heavens of Lesser Radiance, Parittabha; Immeasurable Radiance, Apramaanaabha; 
and radiance, Praabhasvara.
The third has Lesser Virtue, Parittashubha; Immeasurable Virtue, Apramanashubha; and Vast Virtue, 
Shubhakritsna.
The fourth has Cloudless; Increasing Merit, Punyaprasava; and the great fruition born of merit Brihatphala.
	Then there are the five Pure Abodes, Paqcashuddhanivaasa.  Here the three places of individual beings 
are the Slightest, Avriha; Painless, Atapa; and Attractive Sudrisha.  The other heavens of the pure realm gods are 
extreme Insight, Sudarshana, and the Highest, Akanishta.  These five heavens are one above the other.
The four formless realms are limitless space, Akashanabtyayatana, limitless consciousness, vijqanabtyayatana 
nothing whatsoever, Akimchanabtyayatana and neither perception nor non-perception, naivasamjqasamjqayatana.
	These peaks of samsara, depend on former attainment of the formless samadhis.  They are in the place 
where one dies. Thus, uniting the aspects of vessel and essence, as explained, this is called one world realm of 
four continents.
	A thousand of these, likewise surrounded by iron mountains as high as the place of the thirty-three gods, 
is called a first thousand-fold world realm.
	A thousand such realms, with surrounding mountains as high as the Para-nimitta-vashvartin realm is 
called a middle-thousand world realm. 
	A thousand of those, with surrounding mountains as high as the special first dhyana realm, is called a 
great three thousand fold world realm.   In each of these worlds is shown a body like that of the supreme 
nirmanakaya, performing the twelve deeds of a buddha that are not performed before or after.  By its appearance, 
these are called worlds of those to be tamed.
	Other than that in the ten directions, are measureless other words, round, semi-circular, square, and of 
other shapes, pervading to the limits of space.  They also have immeasurable kinds of sentient beings above, 
below, and on the same level.
	Generally, in this universe of suffering, the times of arising, enduring, destruction, and vacuity are equal.
	The first is the time of well-arising.  Then there is the present time of well-remaining, from the time of the 
coming of the tathagata Nampar Zikpa  when all beings attain immeasurable lives to when Shakyamuni comes, 
to the time when beings have lives of ten years.  From the long ago time of the beginning lives each decrease by 
200 years each.  Then when they reach 100, they increase by one from 11 to 80,000 after Maitreya has come.  
After 100, they diminish by 1, until reaching 10 years of life.
	There are 80 such cycles of increase and decrease, 18 in the present kalpa;  Among these, 995 buddhas 
arise.  Then from 200 years lives increase by one to measureless.  When they go a little lower, after the buddha 
called "Devoted" comes," all the deeds, lives and assembled retinues of former buddhas are brought into one, and 
the same deeds and lives and assemblies arise.  Beings not tamed by the former buddhas are tamed.  The sound of 
the three jewels is heard.  This continues until even beings who had sundered the basis of discipline and 
completely slandered virtue are liberated from samsara, and by the power vows to do so, these deeds are fully 
accomplished.  Until their nirvana the holy Dharma also remains that long.

	The completely perfect third-thousand-fold universe's sentient beings, however many they were are 
established in liberation.  After their tenth year of life, that kalpa is entirely burned seven times by destroying fire, 
to ashes.  The fire lasts a day.  Some sutras say seven days.  Some say that one sun having the heat of seven 
arises.  In reality 700 times ten million suns will occur and, the universe will be annihilated and burned.  The 
ashes will be washed away by water, scattered by wind, and finally, having become a single space, it will be like 
the former situation where nothing had yet been born.  Know all dharmas to be like that.
	Like this story of how the outer vessel and essence will be destroyed, the inner body too should be 
viewed.  Mind becomes the single first nature of mind.  From within that the wind of ignorance and discursive 
conceptualization are born.  Because of that, by the karma of dwelling in samsara, by the condition of the karma 
establishing the nature of water, from the semen and blood of the father and mother, the body is Mount Meru, the 
eyes are the sun and moon, whose inner essential natures are white and red.  The twelve ayatanas and dhatus are 
the four continents and eight sub-continents.  The eight consciousnesses are the seven mountains and the great 
horizon, making eight altogether.
	Supported by body, speech, and mind are the three main nadis, roma and kyangma to the left and right 
and the central channel.  With the support of the three gates, the three poisons, and the three kayas there are the 
three realms.  The nadis petals which are the five or six chakras are the five or six buddha families.
	There are many distinct but similar realms, and within all these thousand-fold world systems appear 
many joys and sorrows and so forth.  Gathered together, they separate.  Born, they die.  Compounded, they are 
destroyed.
	When the time of death comes, the four external elements within which dwell the four inner elements, are 
destroyed seven times by fire and once by water, eight altogether.  Then the inner elements dissolve into the secret 
elements, primordial luminosity, and everything becomes a single space.
	When the four elements of the body have been gathered together, the emptying of prana nadi and bindu 
are the seven destructions by fire.  Transmigration of life is the one destruction by water.  Cessation of the breath 
is the final scattering by wind.  The individual body disperses, finally becoming nothing at all like space, like 
before the body was born.  The Later Tantra of Vast Wisdom: says:

	Ripened by the elements of air and water and fire,
	The world of the body is engendered as the vessel.
	Nadi and prana and the essence of the elements,
	Existing as the pure nature of the four great elements,
	Then abide in the form of changeless, radiant light.

	Dwelling in space, if we transfer into purity,
	All the different elements, nadi, prana, and essences,
	That is like the world-destruction by seven fires.
	The dissolving of the elements is the one destruction by water.
	Cessation of coarse and subtle is the scattering by wind.
	Entering into the light is the realm of spaciousness.

	Then there is the primordial lord, enlightenment,
	This is reaching the final goal of non-confusion.

	We should examine further the subsiding of the worlds of individual sentient beings.  The Spiritual 
Letter says:

	For seven days the mass of the earth, as well as the oceans,
	Will blaze, and all these beings will be burned away.
	If visible bodies all will be reduced to ashes,
	Why even speak of those which are invisible.

	That is how we should think about it.

5.  Impermanence of the teachings of how the victorious ones and their sons attain nirvana.

	Even the teachers who come into these worlds, the many tathagatas and their retinues, go beyond 
suffering to nirvana.  In considering how their teaching declines, there is the further teaching that our own lives 
are impermanent:

	Even the leaders of the world, the lord buddha sages,
	Attended by their retinues of buddha sons,
	Pratyekabuddhas and hosts of shravakas,
	As within the clear sky the always-existing moon
	Is encircled by its attending garland of stars and planets;
	Though these shine with brilliance in their luminosity,
	They also teach impermanence by passing into nirvana.
	See too how the measureless sun of the precious teachings
	Sets ever more from generation to generation.
	Then why should our bodies, like plantain trees without a heart,
	Or like a phantom castle, fail to be destroyed.

	Teachers came to this world of suffering.  Their forms were seen.  Vipashyi, Ratnach_da, Vishvabhu,  
Krakucchanda, Karakamuni, Dipamkara, and Shakyamuni, like the full moon rising on an autumn evening, 
blazed with the brilliance of the major and minor marks.  They were surrounded by hosts of stars as their retinue, 
shravakas, bodhisattvas, pure ones, world protectors, and so on. Their bodies blazed with splendor.  Their speech 
was brilliant, and without meaningless chatter.  Their spotless minds shone with their illumination.  They were as 
firm as vajra, having passed beyond suffering.
	Other teachers, gradually declining, depend on the supreme being of the Shakyas.  If all of them were 
impermanent, how will my body, as insubstantial as a bubble, not be impermanent.  The Shrine of 
Impermanence says:

	Ablaze with a thousand marks is the body of sugatagarbha.
	If this is impermanent, established with merit a hundred times over,
	Then, as unreliable as a breaking bubble,
	How can, this, my body, not certainly be destroyed?
	The one who is the benefit of sentient beings,
	The Victorious One, the Sugata, passes like the sun,
	The moon, the treasure of holy Dharma, is seen to set.
	As for our goods, our retinues, and our enjoyments,
	We should be ready to know that they are impermanent.

6.  We are impermanent because our lives never wax but always wane.

	If even a vajra-like body is impermanent, why depend on this body, as insubstantial as a plantain tree.  
That is the instruction:

	Therefore, though it is certain that we are going to die,
	Of where and when and how there is no certainty.
	Our life-span never waxing, is always on the wane,
	Conditions of death are many, and those of living few,
	Life has no time to waste, so keep right to the point.
	From today onwards, what makes sense is to work with Dharma.

	Just by being born, death is certain.  The White Lotus of Holy Dharma says:

	Wherever there is birth, death will be there too.
	Wherever there is gathering, there is dissolution.
	
	Though time is beginningless, everyone has died.  The Good Marks Sutra says:

	Who was ever known who might not die tomorrow?
	Therefore this very day we should exert ourselves.
	The Lord of Death and his considerable tribe,
	Neither of the two, are any friends of ours.

	Anywhere in the world, death is inevitable.  Walking, standing, or whatever we are doing, we should be 
ready, thinking, "Is it today that I will die?"  The Sutra of the Good Army says:
	
	Mountains or steep ravines, defiles or precipices,
	At home or in the streets, or on the bank of a river.
	Somewhere upon the earth will be my last abode.
	This is something that is not to be divulged.
	This completely removes my enjoyment of the world.

	Because of conditions, the time of death too is uncertain.  The scriptures say:

	Some people die from choking on their food.
	Others die from taking their medicines.
	Why even say that beings have different conditions?
	There is no certainty of the time of death.

	Our life-spans never increase, but always grow shorter.  Death is certain.  The News of Impermanence, 
says:

	Like the rock of a pool that was cut by falling water,
	There is no increase, but always only decrease.
	Since all of us must enter on the path of death,
	Who can rely upon this incidental life.

The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	Day as well as night it never stays at all.
	This life eternally fleeting is getting ever-shorter
	Having gotten shorter, it will not then increase.
	Why would one like me not be going to die?

	Few conditions are required for death other than birth in a womb.  Death is certain.  The News of 
Impermanence, says:

	Though the conditions of death are a numerous multitude,
	The conditions of our being born are very few.
	Therefore since it is certain that we shall quickly die,
	Let us keep the holy Dharma in our hearts.

7.  How what seems external is inner impermanence

	One's own mind is even more mortal than an ancient ruined city:

	Sentient beings, like a bower gathered from the four elements
	Are ornamented with moving thoughts like people inside.
	Composite, their dharmas arise from conditions and are destroyed.
	Since all is impermanent, like an ancient city,
	Let us quickly perform the actions of holy Dharma.

	That is the exhortation.  Ruined cities that are now abandoned were once well-constructed and filled with 
many beings.  Later they became vacant.  Look at this life as being like that.  Kye ma'o!  What is left of the 
former youth and wealth of these samsaric beings?  Only the people's names remain.  Their adornments 
destroyed, bones are all that is left of these beings who once emanated their various discursive thoughts.
	Like this, our bodies, these bowers collected from the four elements, are now beautiful with clothing and 
ornaments.  What people will later call by our names is our bones.  "That's how it is," we should think from our 
hearts.  The Spiritual Letter says:

		As we near the finish of the body, we glimpse its bleak end.  At last its foul essence is not there 
at all.  It is worn out, decomposes, and is completely destroyed.  Know that its dharmas will be torn 
asunder.

8.  An example of impermanence

	Like being instantly killed in a dream in which we have enjoyed celestial bliss for a long time, at that 
time:

	As the flame of a lamp that has been caught in a sandstorm
	Flickers and is not steady, even for a moment,
	When suddenly we are struck by the fierce conditions of death,
	We shall not endure, but certainly will die.
	Therefore, practice the holy Dharma right away.

	A lamp may endure a soft breeze rising from the hearth, but is quickly blown out when a strong wind 
arises.  Our lives, like such a flickering lamp, are agitated by the incessant, soft wind of day and night.  When we 
have grown old, death gives no respite, and as if by a fierce wind, we will be quickly blown away by conditions of 
illness or harm.  Think about this being certain.  The Letter to Students says:

	Like the tongue of flame of a lamp,
	Blown away by a mighty wind
	This tiny moment of life,
	Has no reliance at all.

9.  All is impermanent and must be left behind.

	Moreover, as for thinking of impermanence; because, having left everything behind, we must go:

	Attendants, pleasures, friends and relatives,
	Youth and beauty, power and social rank--
	We have to leave alone, abandoning them all,
	Followed by black and white karma, until they both are emptied.
	Then there is no refuge other than the Dharma.
	Why should we not exert ourselves to go beyond them?

	At the time of death, none of the appearances of this life will be of any use to us.  Only the Dharma will 
be our refuge from the execution of the karma of our virtue and vice.  About this the Sutra of Instructions to the 
King says:

	The time approaches when the king will go,
	Your cherished pleasures, friends and relatives
	Will not follow where you must go then.
	As for kings, wherever they may go,
	Karma follows after like a shadow.

The Sutra requested by Shridatta , says

	By karmic confusion we are made to seek enjoyments
	We are also distracted by our children and spouses.
	By that we shall experience suffering alone.
	They will do us no good at our appointed time.
	Our beloved parents, siblings, children, and spouses,
	Servants, wealth, and crowds of friends and relatives,
	Will not travel with us when we go to death.
	Karma will be an only child at that time.

	At that time those who have gathered powerful bad karma will seem to be surrounded by those whom 
they have killed, and the minions of the Lord of Death will seem to lead them away with a noose.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says:

	If this is the day when a man is being led
	To a place where he will have a limb cut off,
	With dry mouth, blood-shot eyes, and such,
	He seems quite otherwise than he was formerly.
	
	When the utterly terrifying messengers of the Lord of Death
	Having a form of flesh, seize us bodily.
	How badly will we be stricken with the illness of great fear?
	What need is there to say how terrible that will be?

	Who is the sahdu  that can be our guardian
One who is able to guard us from such frights as these, Our flesh will crawl with panic, and with staring eyes,
	We shall search for protectors in the four directions.

	Having seen that in the four directions there are none,
	We shall be enveloped in complete despair.

	Then it will be too late to think about Dharma.  It will be like criminals looking for a refuge as they are 
given into the hands of their executioners.  From now on we had better remember that.  The same text says:

	Even if we truly abandon laziness,
	Then it is too late.  Then what could we do?
	After the Lord of Death has suddenly appeared,
	We shall think, "Oh no, all is surely lost."

Thus:

	The three jewels and the virtue of Dharma are a refuge
	For those who have supplicated for this spotless gift.
	For those besides such beings, though they have appropriate virtue,
	Even our father and mother will be no refuge to us,
	Nor will a host of friends, and wealth and beautiful youth.
	All such refuges will sink into samsara.

	We should give over our bodies joyfully to the buddhas,
	And likewise entrust to them our lives and our enjoyments.
	Other than the three jewels, there is no refuge at all
	On which we can rely while we are sentient beings.

10.  The impermanence of the three times

Samsaric existence and the being of ourselves and hosts of others are all more impermanent than we think:

	Think of the existence of former and later worlds.
	Countless former generations have passed away.
	Also most of the beings of the present world
	Certainly will not last another hundred years.
	Those of the future will follow in a similar way.
	Young and old are equal in their lot of passing away.
	Because we too will not transcend this common nature,
	Thinking that death is certain, let us practice Dharma.

	Our existence was primordially good and pure, but think of the other spheres of apparent being to which 
we will later transmigrate.  Look and see whether the people who lived a hundred years ago are still embodied.  
We who are now human beings a hundred years from now will be only names.  The Shrine of Telling the Reason 
Why says:

	A person who just for a night
	Entered into a womb,
	Would suffer tremendous harm.
	Such going is irreversible.
	In the morning one would see
	Many different beings.
	By evening some would be gone.
	Of the many one would see later
	The next morning more would be gone.
	Numerous men and women
	Die even in their youth.
	Why are the young so cheerful,
	So confident they will thrive?
	Some will die in the womb.
	Some the day they are born.
	Some will be snatched away,
	In unexpected departures.
	Some will die old, some young
	But one by one they will go,
	Like fruit that ripens and falls.

11.  The impermanence of the three levels 
	Moreover:

	Within the three levels from Hell up to the peak of samsara,
	There is no liberation from the Lord of Death.
	All is impermanent, changing, and essenceless.
	Nothing stable, and things roll along like a wagon wheel.
	Particularly the human world has many afflictions.
	Being a place of harm by sickness and by dvns, 
	By fires and falls and weapons; by poison and wild beasts.
	By kings and enemies, by robbers and the like,
	We will be ravished of life and our wealth will be destroyed.

	There are no beings anywhere in the six realms, for whom death does not establish itself.  We should 
recall that none of the six kinds of beings in the three levels transcend death.  The Sutra on Teachings that are the 
Bases of Discipline says:

	Someone who is born without death being established
	Such a one does not exist within this world.
	Nor are there any in the air or in the oceans.
	There are none who live among the tallest mountains.

	When we die, as soon as we lose our bodies, this mind by its former karma undergoes rounds of 
samsaric existence in many worlds.  The Vast Play says:

	Beings, by of the power of samsaric ignorance,
	In divine and human paths, and those of the lower realms,
	Are tumbled in samsara as five kinds of ignorant beings .
	For example, as a pot is turned upon a wheel.

	Baited with fine and pleasant forms and ravishing sounds,
	Sweet fragrances, delicious tastes, and blissful touch,
	The snare of evil times always traps these beings
	For example, like a monkey snared in a hunter's net.
	
	Many in the human realm are afflicted with leprosy, contagion, disorders of prana and bile, and other 
diseases.  There are many injuries from birds, rakshasas, dakinis, geks and dvns. Kings, enemies, savages, 
dissipation of the skandhas, and so forth end hundreds of lives.  These contend with the Lord of Beings for our 
body and life.  Since we die without respite, we should try to practice the holy Dharma. The Collection of 
Precious Qualities says:

	With the many harmful spirits and diseases of the world,
	Peace is a truly kind and beneficial gift.

12.  Instantaneous Impermanence

	Not only do we die of such afflictions, but even if we have no afflictions, the life of sentient beings is 
passing away:

	Even with no afflictions, the life of beings is passing.
	Day and night, with the passing of every moment or instant,
	It is always approaching the land of the Lord of Death.
	As over waterfalls, water flows into the ocean,
	Or far to the west the sun declines until it sets.

	Even though there are lives where someone can say, "I have not been harmed by incidental affliction," 
and though there are teachings that extend life by appropriate food and medicines and so forth, in the end it is of 
no use--we have to enter death.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	Though seemingly today, I am without any illness,
	Even if I have food and am without affliction
	This life is still no more than an illusory instant,
	This body is no more than a momentary reflection.

	About its not lasting for even a moment, the Pinnacle of Precious Gathering says:

	It was said by Subhuti, "The life of beings is like a waterfall.

The Sutra on Teachings that are the Bases of Discipline says:

	Waterfalls descend in rivers to the sea
	The sun and moon sink down behind the western mountains.
	Day and night tick off their fragmentary instants.
	Like these the life of beings must pass and disappear.

13. The impermanence of the conditions and time of our existence:

	
	Having completed life's conditions, such as food,
	As sure as taking poison, will bring occasions of suffering.
	With so many contrary conditions that do us harm,
	How can this completion fail to be destroyed?
	All of it must turn into a cause of death.
	Never knowing how or when or where we die,
	We have been seduced into futility.
	Therefore, abandoning the dharmas of this world,
	Let us turn to genuine practice from the heart,
	Attaining the Dharma teaching of impermanence and death.

	Though food is necessary for life, it is also a condition of sickness.  Though it appears to be temporarily 
beneficial, essentially it is an inevitable establisher of harm.
Even beneficial purification with baths and medicine leads to sickness, not to mention life being cut off by 
damage that actively opposes it.  Since the conditions of death are changelessly many, let us consider the 
approach of death.  Moreover, as above, whoever lives will die.  Only when and how are uncertain.  We cannot 
even be sure that we will not die today.  And even if we could, the Bodhicharyavatara says:

	"At least today I will not die," I say.
	What reason is there to rejoice in that?
	For still, the time when I become a non-existence
	Will doubtless come to pass, in any case.

C.  The three instructions of striving

1.  The instruction to practice at this favorable time of having the guru and oral instructions.

	At this auspicious time of completely attaining the free and well-favored human body, we should liberate 
ourselves from samsara:

	If, having attained the ship of being free and well-favored,
	Whose captain is the oral instructions of the guru,
	If we do not strive to cross the river of suffering,
	But stare at it fascinated, until there is no choice,
	At last we shall fall in, and so be swept away.

	In the ship of external freedom and favor, having the holy guru as our guide, if we think we do not need 
to work with the tradition of Dharma established by the Buddha Bhagavat, we are much deceived.  The Letter to 
Students says:

	Whoever, attains the path of Dharma of the Sages,
 	The tradition like a great ship, and throws it away again,
	Will whirl like a giddy dancer in the ocean of samsara.
	A mind that thinks that joy is certain is deceived.

2.  The exhortation truly to make an effort from our hearts:

	This is because if we do not try, we will not be liberated.

	While we have this precious vessel praised by the Teacher,
	Which offers an end to evil and attainment of what is pure,
	If we will not receive the wealth of the two benefits
	That for ourselves and also that for other beings,
	We only chain ourselves in the prison of samsara.

	Those with the support, these freedoms, who do not practice the holy Dharma that benefits self and 
others will be bound forever in the noose of samsara.  Those who use their leisure to turn back samsara, will 
establish the liberation of holy Dharma.  Urging practice, the Letter to Students says:

	Whoever has the best gifts of the ocean of arising
	Also plants the good seed of supreme enlightenment.
	Its virtues are better than those of a wish-fulfilling gem.
	
	Whoever has human birth, though lacking the fruition,
	Having the power of mind attained by human beings
	Should rely on the sugata path, which is the guide of beings.

	Such a path is not attained by gods and nagas,
	By sky-soarers, kinnaras or serpent gods. 

	Having attained humanity, so hard to gain,
	Whoever really thinks about the worth of that
	Will practice very hard with the greatest diligence.

3.  The motivating power of compassion

	Third, for the human beings who have been so well-urged, there is also the motivating power of 
compassion.  These words have been spoken so that we can protect beings.  How can we not hold this in our 
hearts?  Therefore, our aspiration to peace is always motivated by the guiding power of compassion.

	Kye ma!  As if we had been chained to solid rock,
	Thinking mostly of this world, our sorrow grows.
	Not realizing what was taught; not understanding the teachings,
	Even though our day of death may be tomorrow,
	We fixate our lives as being long and permanent.
	Not grieving at samsara, with no speck of renunciation,
	We are consciously proud and knowingly confused.
	While we are so distracted, the rain of the kleshas falls.
	How can we ever be of use to sentient beings.

	Kye ma! Sentient beings have been told how things are, but with a fool's intelligence, they do not 
comprehend the details of the symbols and the means of practice.  Really having very little freedom to follow 
them, they will never realize them.  They do not understand the explanations.
	Some, even while they are being urged to get rid of the appearances of this world right away, are actually 
attached to keeping them, motivated only by the actions of this world.  Their karmas and kleshas blaze like a fire, 
and they are far from happiness.
	Others with the fire of aggression burning within them are jealous of others.  They abuse them in many 
ways, provoking faults, spreading bad rumors, and belittling them.
	Some, no matter how many sufferings torment and oppress them, are not saddened by samsara and do 
never experience the least particle of renunciation.
Some, who have heard just a little, dispute and condemn others because of pride and arrogance, emanating a 
thousand tongues of  klesha flames in the ten directions.  Dispensing with the natural goodness of their being, they 
burn up anything pure.  As they break vows and samayas day and night, there falls a rain of evil.  	When 
we see this, sometimes the thought arises that we should give up and just try to practice profound samadhi alone 
in peaceful forests, with the intent of personal enlightenment.  But for the most part, the powerful force of 
compassion produces the joyful thought, "Let's get enlightened!"  The following are verses on this highest of 
aspirations.

	Those who are in the ten directions of the world,
	As many sentient beings as may be in existence,
	By my merit may all of them gain happiness,
	And may they all be free from any suffering.

	Those who are sickly and those whose lives will be cut short,
	May they have the good fortune and auspiciousness
	Of lives that are long and happy, without attacks of sickness.

	May those condemned to being poor and hungry beggars
	Have abundant food and drink, and ample wealth.
	May all in fear of bandits, savage ones, and kings,
	Great abysses, water, fire, and other terrors,
	Attain the happiness that is free from all such fear.

	Whatever they wish for, may their wishes be established.
	Because of always acting well and properly,
	May they be liberated in enlightenment.

	By a good Sakyong King may the whole earth be protected.
	May his gentle kingdom widely spread and flourish.
	May his ministers' Dharmic wishes be fulfilled.
	May his servants always live in happiness.

	May those who have the sufferings of the lower realms,
	Be freed and have the happiness of the higher realms.
	May those who have the sufferings of the higher realms,
	Be peaceful and establish prosperity and bliss.
	May sentient beings who dwell in the three realms of the world
	All be happy in their minds and every thought.

	Let no evil conceptions flash within their minds.
	Day and night may they transcend them through the Dharma.
	May there be good harvests in all the realms of beings
	May they be free from every sickness and affliction.
	May there be no strife and quarreling between them.

	May they be happy, like the gods in heavenly realms.
	May promoters of goodness be completely successful.
	Those who want wealth and retinue, servants, and attendants,
	May it be accomplished, just as they desire.

	May merit and dominion increase for sentient beings.
	May the Dharma increase for its renunciates.
	For those who want virtue, may virtuous states of mind increase.
	May life and auspicious fortune flourish and increase.

	For those who practice dhyana, may samadhi and insight,
	Higher perceptions, and miracle flourish and increase.
	May there be the path and fruition of the Dharma.
	May we come face to face with liberating wisdom.

	Those who are tormented with pain and suffering,
	May their minds be soothed, expanding with great joy.
	May those who are idle and slothful, strive for enlightenment.

	May those well-ornamented with the wealth of merit,
	Those who have dhyana and discipline, never be separate
	From all who need them in their fear and anxiety.

	May the many children of the Victorious One
	Have immeasurable body, life, and buddha activity.
	May benefit for others be completely perfect.

	May they time they remain on earth be very long.
	If anyone at any time who depends on me,
	May happiness and prosperity of such beings increase.

	Those who have mastered the vinaya, knowing what is allowed,
	May they be possessors of the seven aryan riches 
	Whether they praise or blame, or verbally disparage,
	May all who see or hear, remember or contact me
	Quickly cross the fearful ocean of samsara.

	May those who even hear my name, because of that,
	Be expelled from samsara in that very life.
	Attaining bliss and liberated from samsara,
	Let them be set firm as unsurpassable buddhas.

	May I always, like the elements, earth and so forth,
	Be a sustaining ground for the sake of sentient beings.
	May everything that is beneficial be established.

	May those who are poor and suffer setbacks in samsara,
	Needlessly tormented in blazing tongues of flame,
	Become a happy throng, completely liberated.
	May they always try to benefit other beings.
	May beings' sufferings serve to ripen them for me.

	Whatever merit I have, may it ripen sentient beings.
	By any virtuous mental power I may have,
	May beings attain to bliss and purification of suffering.
	May suffering be unseen, even in their dreams.

	May they attain an ocean of bliss and happiness.
	Pervading the space of the sky in all the ten directions
	As many buddhas and sentient beings as there may be,
	May they be associated with happiness.

	May they be wealthy and prosperous, because of what I do.
	Throughout the ten directions, for all who hear my name,
	May there fall a rain of all that is desired.
	Making offerings to buddhas and other sentient beings,

	May sentient beings of the six realms and ten directions
	No more be surpassed by any victorious ones.
	May I completely liberate every one of them.
	May the endless ocean of samsara be empty.

	Sukhavati,  totally beautified by ornaments of light, the precious source of all beings, is a universe 
filling the whole of space, established from clouds of pure happiness.  By grasping this white yak tail scepter or 
jeweled umbrella, all the obscuring torment of the three levels is cleared away.
	In this undisturbed water, may the gradually blossoming lotus of the victorious ones be planted. May 
pleasant and delightful divine maidens, their heads adorned with fragrant lotus garlands, playing on a platform 
with water birds, lovingly caress the lotus anthers.  By these teachings may human hearts be greatly exalted, 
floating in the water of explanation emanating as it does in the pure lands.
  	Free from the harm of the kleshas, completely filled with samadhi, may those excellent ones help all 
sentient beings cross over.
	Like the undefiled young sun, whose eye is characterized by an excellent red light, wreathed in variegated 
stars.  Becoming amrita for beings, their eyes shine more excellently than the brilliantly blazing light of Bhrama.  
May the vast appearance of these radiant masters, revealed as great beings adorned with the mandala of the major 
and minor marks, fill the whole of space.
	May all beings effortlessly reach that field, the supreme wealth of trikaya, the cloudless path of the sun 
and moon, free from even an atom of the nirvana of lower people.
	Without duality of one and many, in uncompounded, primordial existence incomprehensible to thought, 
the spontaneous presence of peace, in the field of Samantabhadra may the purified minds of all beings heal their 
weariness.  May they reach the space of the dhatu beyond wide and narrow, high and low, bias and partiality, 
concept and thought.
	There may they remain without sadness and weariness, with excellent thoughts, exerting themselves to 
benefit self and others among the rocky mountains.
	Urged on by the intention of benefit, one can hardly not be sad at the Dharma teachings of 
impermanence.  For those with a mind that always grasps samsara and never turns back, teaching Dharma is like 
addressing a lump of stone or an animal.  The Instruction on Impermanence says:

	Like me you too will die.

And:

	There is no doubt about it.
	Kye 'ud! I am an animal.

D.   The final summary

	There are two parts.

1.  How to think of impermanence in order to cross over from samsara.

	Now the final summary teaches of the great exhortation to meditate and work until samsara is gone:

	Whoever truly wishes to cross the ocean of evil
	And establish the wondrously risen excellent qualities,
	Now should contemplate the certainty of death.
	Meditate day and night on impermanence alone.
	Again and again arouse renunciation and sorrow.

	Whether going, staying, eating, sleeping, arising, walking, talking, or seeing a crowd of many people; 
and whether staying in villages, valleys, or monasteries, always meditate on impermanence.  Whatever we see, 
hear, and remember has the nature of impermanence, and the marks of impermanence. Remember the exhortation 
of impermanence.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	Always, day and night, I should think of this alone.
	
	If we do not think about it, what's the problem?  Having come into the power of this life alone, there will 
be ambition, love of fame, desire, hatred, laziness, hoarding, indolence, cantankerousness and sometimes the 
Dharma's not arising.  We will not quickly be liberated from samsara. We do not have enough time for ordinary 
tasks, let alone the liberation of enlightenment.
  	Strive with a long and continuous effort until buddhahood is attained.  Dipamkara, Shakyamuni, and so 
forth were at first sentient beings like us.  But by their exertion, they became Buddhas.  Now we are the ones 
wandering in samsara.  Even though countless former buddhas have come, we have not been healed by their 
realization of enlightenment.
	Thinking that by our own karma, we will wander limitlessly in samsara, by now we should have been led 
to complete their path of enlightenment.  Thinking that this life is impermanent, like a borrowed moment or 
instant, we should try to practice the Dharma.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	If I do not make an effort from now on
	I will simply go ever lower and lower still.

	Though countless former Buddhas have come throughout the past,
	Having the purpose of benefit for all sentient beings,
	I, because of my own faults and shortcomings,
	Was not within the scope of their healing ministrations.

	If from this time on, I still act like that,
	Again and again, as it has been before,
	I will die and have to go to the lower realms,
	Being cut in pieces and suffering other tortures.

2.  The Benefits of the Teachings

	If we meditate day and night only on impermanence and death, in a short time we will accumulate a 
measureless accumulation of virtues.  Then because of that,

	Thus goodness and benefit will surely be established.
	Striving with fierce energy to establish them,
	The mind of this life will be abandoned and cast away.
	The confusion of fixating egohood will be destroyed.
	
	In brief, establish all the excellent qualities.
	Restrict the mind to the root of all dharmas, impermanence.
	This will be the cause of holy liberation,
	Bringing us the end of everything that is evil.

	Death is certain,  Thus our own death is certain.  When the smoke of thinking, ceaselessly "Will we have 
even tomorrow," continually arises, the blazing fire of exertion in Dharma will also naturally arise; and so we will 
be led to the path of this and later benefits.
	When appearances of this life are seen not always to have power, mind does not desire, be contentious, 
quarrel, grasp maliciously, be angry, harm others, and naturally leaves behind all afflictions.  Pride and ego 
grasping cannot occur, and by the rising of the extraordinary, all is harmonious and pleasant.  Since we know that 
wealth, retinue, and all relatives and companions are impermanent, desire and attachment to them will not arise.
	When through these relatives and companions other harms or benefits arise, whatever joys and sorrows 
occur, no desire or aggression will arise.  When these die or are separated from us, or even if we have nothing, the 
suffering of unhappiness will not arise.  Wherever we go in the world, we will not return to the karma of desire 
and attachment.
	Whatever suitable and unsuitable conditions arise, the individual marks of desire, aggression, and the 
grasping of attachment will not arise.  Day and night will pass in happiness. Having come to the path of Dharma, 
we will fulfill our vows and difficult practices.  Our activities will be spotlessly pure, unobscured by 
transgressions.  Working with the Dharmic activities of the path, we shall accumulate the two accumulations a 
hundred times over.
	Since our conduct will not be mixed with evil deeds, there will be no regret for anything we do.  A 
special faith, compassion, and renunciation will newly arise.  The Buddha and all the bodhisattvas will take care 
of us.  Men and non-men will have no opportunity to harm us, and the gods of Abhirati will keep us within the 
whiteness of virtue.  We will sleep in happiness, rise in happiness, go in happiness, walk in happiness, possess 
happiness, and live happy lives.
	The higher worlds of the celestial realms will arise.  We shall see the Sugata and his children.  We shall 
hear the good Dharma.  We shall meditate on the good path.  We shall attain the good realm of Sukhavati.  The 
Sutra on Teachings that are the Bases of Discipline says:

	Those who act with pure conduct
	And meditate well on the path,
	Will not suffer in dying,
	As if freed from a burning house.

	These and limitless other virtues will be attained.

E.  Dedicating the merit.

	Now the merits of well composing this are taught as a way for beings to attain blessings:

	Thus by the amrita of this auspicious news
	From the resounding drums of the thunder-clouds of Dharma,
	By the deep, melodious speech of beneficial instructions,
	May the weary nature of the minds of beings
	Unhinged by the kleshas and fixated thoughts of permanence,
	Be released this very day from all its weariness.

	In benefit-producing white light, to the sound of divine drums, from the swelling ocean of good 
teachings, emerge water dragons of instruction with gaping mouths.  For beings exhausted by samsara, the 
turbulent extremes of ever-grasping mind are completely pacified.  By the primordial lord who draws breath in 
enjoyment of bliss and happiness in his excellent house adorned by the rays of the sun, may all weariness be 
eased.

	Beings are distracted, as if they were in a dream.
	Gathering and dispersing, dharmas are hollow and empty.
	Though travelling to a market, companions match our path,
	They like impermanent dharmas soon will go their own way.

	Like an flash of lightning among the autumn clouds,
	The life of beings hurtles by like a waterfall.
	Dharmas are impermanent with no stability.
	From today let us realize that with certainty.

	Things and property and much collected wealth,
	Along with any fame and glory we possess,
	Are fickle dharmas.  Mind can never rely on them.
	Let us know their nature of the four extremes.



III.  The Sufferings of Samsara 

	There are four parts:

A.  The general explanation of the nature of suffering
B.  The extended explanation of the particulars
C.  The appropriateness of thinking about the sufferings of samsara
D.  The dedication of merit

A.  The general explanation of the nature of suffering

	There are eight parts.

1.  The brief teaching of suffering.

	After realizing the impermanence of dharmas, is the teaching of the suffering intrinsic to samsara.  Anything 
one says about it falls short of the truth.

	For those among the dharmas of the three realms of samsara,
	Unremittingly changeable, there are the extremest sufferings.
	With sufferings of suffering, change, and composite nature,
	All beings of its six habitations live in extreme anxiety

	The Sutra of Instructions to the King says:

	O great king, this samsara is change.  This samsara is impermanence.  This samsara is suffering.

	The three kinds of suffering are the suffering of suffering, the suffering of change, and the sufferings of the 
composite.  By these the six kinds of sentient beings struggle and sink in the ocean of samsara.

2.  The examples of suffering.

By these verses the examples of how the kleshas are produced are explained:

	Like some person who is thrown into a fire,
	Or attacked by a ravening horde of savage men or beasts,
	Or imprisoned by some king, just like an animal,
	With successive waves of suffering like the Unremitting Hell And having no chance of escape, our sorrows 
only increase.

	Thus as the assembled faculties of sentient beings are not purified of former suffering, it will oppress them later.  
Unbearable, it is without measure or limit.  The Jewel Mala says:

	Space in all the directions, earth, water, fire, and air,
	Just as they are limitless, so are beings' sufferings.

	They rise again and again, as waves rise in the ocean.
	They are like always having to live in terror and fear

	With vicious beasts of prey and cruel savages.
	Like the dungeon of a king, getting free is difficult.

3.  The example of being seduced by desire.

	Though all sentient beings want to find happiness and be free from suffering:

	One may wish to find bliss, and be separated from suffering.
	But suffering strikes us, acting as both cause and effect.
	Like a moth who is attracted by the flame of a lamp
	Enticed by grasping, desirous of his wished-for object,
	Or like deer, bees, and elephants,
	Enticed by sound or smell or else by taste, or touch,
	Beings are seduced by desire for the five objects of sense.
	See how they never find bliss, but only suffering.
	
	By the obscuring power of accepting and rejecting, though we may want powerful means of entering into the 
fruition, we do not produce the cause.  How can we be free from accepting and rejecting?  Those who want happiness 
should practice the cause, the virtuous path.  We want to leave suffering behind, yet wholeheartedly enter into its cause, 
non-virtue.  We practice all the causes of suffering, the five klesha-poisons, and the three chief kleshas.  We are rushing to 
practice the source of all suffering, whose fruition is suffering itself, and experience of its different varieties.  Still we just 
accept this and cannot even be ashamed of it.  This is like a thief who is punished by having his hands cut of, but still robs 
us again.  This time his punishment is having his head cut off.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 1.28

	We think we have the intention of getting rid of suffering,
	Instead we run right to that very suffering.
	Though we want happiness, because of ignorance,
	We conquer our own happiness like an enemy

	How do we conquer it?  By the force of desire and attachment to the five desirables, the power of the kleshas 
increases, and we enter into suffering.
	A moth desiring the form of a lamp's light, is burned when it is reached.  Deer are killed because they listen to 
the sound of a flute.  Bees who suck flowers, which are the source of nectar, get tangled when they close to them.  
Fishermen entice fish by the taste of food on the point of a hook.  Elephants wanting to feel cool, go into lakes and die.  A 
song in the Dohakosha:

	By the mudra of samsara all beings are seduced.

Also it says there:

	Kye ho!  The stupid are wounded by arrows it is said.
	View them as having been enticed like gullible deer.
	They are like fish and butterflies, elephants and bees,

	The kleshas arise from the five sense-objects, and by their force we wander endlessly in samsara.  This is more to 
be feared than poison, it is taught.  The Letter to Students says:

	Objects and poison alike are pleasant when first experienced.
	Objects and poison alike are unbearably harsh when ripe.
	Objects and poison alike are imbibed because of ignorance.
	Objects and poison alike are potent and hard to reverse.
	Poison and objects, imputed with certainty by the mind,
	Both do harm, but poison may simply be avoided
	But injuries by objects are not so easily shunned.
	Poison is only poisonous in a sentient being
	Our feelings regarding objects are poisonous anywhere.
	Poison when mixed with other poison is neutralized.
	Thus supreme secret mantra is properly used as a cure.
	Poison skillfully used is of benefit to man.
	However, the great poison, objects, never will be so.

4.  How beings are tormented in successive births within the six realms of beings

	These samsaric beings whirl about with each other and suffer:
	
	For gods, asuras, Hell beings, and the hungry ghosts,
	For humans and animals, all beings of the six realms,
	Like the chain of buckets on a water wheel,
	Limitless sufferings follow each other in train.

	The Precious Mala says:

	Its three paths have no beginning, no middle and no end.
	Like the circle that is made by whirling a fire-brand.
	Mutual causes become the mandala of samsara.

5.  How enemies, friends, and relatives are uncertain

	Thus when we are whirled within samsara: 

	In the course of the generations, every sentient being
	Has carried the burden of being our friend and our enemy.
	Also they have been neither, or something between the two.
	The number of times that they have done us right or wrong
	Or benefit and harm transcends enumeration.
	Often a father becomes a mother and she a sister,
	And she again a brother, lost in uncertainty.
	We can never be sure if our friends will change to enemies 
	In all the generations from beginningless time a particular sentient being will have been the father of all the 
sentient beings in the three realms, and so forth.  The number of times that it will have been their father, mother, and 
intimate cannot be counted.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	By desiring what is fine, deprivation, and death
	Sickness, age, and so forth, are sources of many sufferings,
	Samsara indeed is a treasury of every sorrow.

6.  How we suffer in countless births:

	
	If thus we think of the karmic succession in this world,
	Our sorrow should increase to its ultimate extreme.
	If all our previous bodies, when we were born as ants,
	Were gathered up together and piled into a heap,
	Its height would surpass Mount Meru, with its four precious slopes.
	The tears we have wept would surpass the four oceans in their volume.
	When we have been a Hell being or a hungry ghost,
	The amount of molten copper that we have had to drink,
	And the foul volume of pus and blood and excrement,
	Is unmatched by the flowing rivers to the limits of the directions.
	Our other sufferings were as limitless as the sky.
	The number of time our head and limbs have been cut off,
	Because of desire, is unmatched by the atoms of the world.

	The Resting in Closely-attentive Mindfulness, says:

		O monks, be sorrowful within the realm of samsara.  Why?  While we were being whirled 
about in beginningless samsara, we were born as ants.  If their discarded bodies were brought together 
in one place, and made into a heap, it would be taller than Mount Meru.  We have wept more tears 
than there is water in the four oceans.  The countless immeasurable number of times we have become 
Hell beings and pretas, we have drunk more seething molten copper, blood, urine, pus, and mucus than 
there is water in the four great rivers that flow down to the ocean.   Because of desires, the number of 
times that our head, eyes, and major and minor limbs have been cut off equals the number of atoms of 
earth, water, air, and fire in as many worlds as there are grains of sand of the river Ganges.

The Spiritual Letter says:

	More than the four oceans is the milk that we have drunk.
	More than the retinue of existing individuals,
	The heap of all our bones would be bigger than a mountain
	If juniper berries were as many as our mothers,
	The earth would not suffice for such a number of them.

7.  How, even if we attain the fruition of Bhrama and so forth, we will ultimately suffer.
	
	Moreover, when we course within samsara, here is what happens:

	Charnel vampire-ghouls, and demonic mountain spirits,
	Beasts and snakes, and various things that creep and crawl
	Experience the countless pains and pleasures of this realm.
Bhrama and Indra, and adepts of dhyanas formed and formless
	Defending their territory and seven precious possessions 
	Human rulers, whatever splendor and wealth they gained,
	Fell to the lower realms, suffering more and more.

	In this time of samsaric succession, there are no realms of earth, water, mountains, islands, and space, where we 
have not been.  Countless times we have been gods, nagas, rakshasas, gandharvas, kimbhandas,  persons who 
experienced the sufferings of all the six lokas at once,  Bhrama, and Indra, and world-ruling kings.  There is no joy and 
sorrow of any of these that we have not experienced.  Again, we have been whirled down to the lower realms and lived 
among their extreme sorrows.  The Letter to Students says:

	What being exists that we have not been a hundred times?
	What joy is there that we have not savored many times?
	What glories, like splendid white yak tails, have we not obtained?
	Yet whatever we have gained, our desires only increase.

	There is no river upon whose banks we never lived.
	There is no country's region where we have never lived.
	There is no direction where we have never lived.
	And yet the difficult power of our desire increases.

	There is no sorrow that was not ours formerly many times.
	Nothing could satisfy beings that we have not desired.
	There is no sentient being that we have not engendered
	But whatever we have in samsara, we are not free of desire.

	Completely grasping at birth these widely meandering beings
	Are rolling on the ground in ecstasy and sorrow.
	There is no being with whom we have not been intimate.

8.  Suffering due to the nature of change.

	These others who did badly in the mouth of samsara are worthy of further thought:

	Having enjoyed unlimited wealth within this life
	These beings of exalted station, after they departed,
	Were stricken with poverty or even made to be servants.
	As wealth in a dream is gone as soon as we awake,
	If we thoroughly think of the sufferings of change,
	Arising from the impermanence of all our joy and sorrow,
	Our sorrow increases, building ever more and more.
	Therefore beings within the three realms' habitations,
	Without desire for samsara's pleasures, should get enlightened.
	
So it is for Indra, the king of the gods, and Bhrama, the paranimitavashavartin gods, and those who have attained 
happiness among human beings.  When they exhaust the fruition of their former virtuous karma Bhrama, Indra, 
chakravartins, gods, including samadhi gods and formless gods, and ordinary people who had a great fruition, by 
the power of former karma, death, and transmigration, must experience many afflictions, going to the lower 
realms and so forth.  The Sutra on Renunciation says:

	When from their joyful and excellent existences
	Lion-like lords of beings have to die and transmigrate.
	The gods will speak to them, saying words like these:
	This care-free life must be completely left behind.
	The joys of the gods, however many they may be,
	All of these arose from the cause of our good karma.
	Now by these pleasant actions that you have in mind
	All your collected virtue is totally exhausted.
	Now, experiencing suffering from non-virtue that you have,
	You will fall into the suffering of the lower realms.

	Extensive manifestations of this kind will arise.  Also the Sutra on Teachings that are the Bases of Discipline 
says:

	Wealth in a dream with houses and abundant enjoyments, 	Dreaming that one has been made a lord of 
gods and men
	Becomes quite non-existent as soon as we awake.

It is like that.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 2.35

	Like the experiences that we have in our dreams
	Whatever may be the sorts of things that one enjoys
	These become nothing more than objects of memory.
	They all are gone.  We do not see them any more.
	
	When one transfers between lives, this also happens.  The Spiritual Letter: 

	Indra who is worthy of homage from the world,
	By power of his karma, falls back upon the earth.
	Even after becoming universal monarchs,
	Lords of the world are born again as others' servants.

	Breasts and buttocks of celestial courtesans,
	Are delightful to fondle, but after time has past,
	Destined to be sausage in the Lord of Hell's machines,
	Such lovers will be attended by knowledge hard to bear.
	
	The touch of their shapely legs, is happily endured,
	But having lived with tremendous joy for a very long time
	Again in Hells of biting flames and rotten corpses
	An equal result of unbearable pain will be produced.

	After the joyful attentions of celestial maidens,
	After this life of pleasure in exquisite groves,
	By a forest of trees, with leaves like swords and daggers
	Ones arms and legs and nose and ears will be cut to pieces.

	Having lived in a place with divine girls free to hand,
	All with pretty faces and golden lotuses,
	Again we shall be helpless in the rivers of Hell
	Forced into scalding water, as hot gates block return.

	Desire for the realm of the gods will be very great
	But having attained the desireless bliss of Bhrama again,
	Once more we will fuel the fires of the Avici Hell.
	We shall be thrown into constant suffering with no gaps.

	Attaining the sun and moon, the light of our personal bodies
	Will shine with brilliance to the limits of the world.
	Then again we shall come into dismal murky darkness,
	Unable to see so much as our own hands and feet.

	Thus, as for the merit of those who were criminals,
	After the triple lamp of the Buddha's teaching appears,
	They will go where the sun and moon have never shone,
	They will pass into chaos, limitless endless darkness.

	The three realms of desire, form, and the formless, are the cities of appearance, half-appearance, and non-
appearance.  This is because they have coarse appearance, subtle appearance, and none at all.  Those who are happy, not 
desiring the path at all, are instructed to establish unsurpassable enlightenment.  But being without the leisure to establish 
merit, they must make an effort.  The same text says:

	If our hair or garments suddenly burst into flame
	The first thing we would do is put them out again.
	Then we would try to keep it from happening again.
	There would be no priority that would be higher than that.

B.  The extended explanation of the particulars

	There are three parts:

1.  The basis of confusion

There are two parts.

a.  The basis of confusion in the three worlds.

	Whatever sufferings exist, their basis of dependence is the inner three realms.  These are body, speech, and 
mind; or desire, form, and the formless:
	
	In the cities of appearance, half-appearance and non-appearance
	Tormented by composition, pain, and change,
	The compositions of senses, mind, and consciousness
	Are remorselessly turning mills of the objects of joy and sorrow,

	 Body composed of coarse things is the city of appearance.  Speech, as appearance that is non-existent like an 
echo, is the city of half-appearance.  Mind, without the phenomena of the five gates and completely without things, is the 
city of non-appearance.  These are also called the realms of desire, form, and the formless.  The Entering the Intention 
says:

		Body is the coarse, the desire realm.  Speech is the subtle, the form realm.  Mind is the very 
subtle, the formless realm.  Within these three cities lives the child of apparent true existence.

	That child is explained as naturally-arising wisdom.  The three gates are tormented by the three sufferings.  By 
the condition of conceptualizing everything, arising becomes experience of one confusion after another.  How does 
confusion arise?  The objects of the six senses individually come forth by means of the powers of the six sense-
consciousnesses.  By fixating these objects, there is continuous attachment to them as happiness, suffering, and neutrality. 
 These individually arising phenomena of form and so forth are called "consciousness." The first, coarse, general 
phenomenal process of conscious is insight, rigpa, or mind, sem.  When we analyze the particular kinds, there are 
passion, aggression, and ignorance, a continual series of mental contents of one or another of these three kinds, 
comprising "content-mind," yid. The Bodhisattvabhumi says:

	The appearance of objects is known as consciousness
	The first conceptualization of these is known as mind.


	Subsequent particular analysis of these deals with the mental contents.  This is content-mind.  Mental contents 
are also established by mind as having universal relationships, similarities or classes that exist among mental contents.  
When objects are evaluated by insight, at first there is a generalized perception of nature.  The aspect that does this is 
mind.  Then, by discriminating particular aspects, mental contents are individually designated conventionally.  Because 
this is our real object understanding, and except for such analysis, there is no other.  The Precious Mala says:

	If you ask about the objects that are seen by mind,
	They are what is conventionally expressible.
	Without the mental contents, mind cannot arise.
	Not to maintain them as co-emergent is meaningless.

	At the level of a sugata and the completely non-conceptual natural state, apparent objects are individually 
discriminated by insight, but there is no mind, content mind, or consciousness.  This is because there is no grasping of 
dualistic appearance, or awareness of a grasped object by a fixating mind.  The Praise of Vajra of Mind says:

	Sentient beings, who have mind, content-mind, and consciousness, since they are accustomed to 
grasping and fixation, conceptualize them.  Therefore, they do not have non-conceptual wisdom.  
Supreme wisdom is the mind, lo,  that sees reality.

The Structure of the Three Jewels says:

	Neither mind, content-mind, consciousness; nor samadhi which is free from these are discarded.  The 
secret mind of the sugata is incomprehensible by thought.

	When form, sound, and so forth arise as the corresponding  external phenomena, and the mind's insight 
apprehends them, it is called consciousness, literally nampar phenomenal awareness shepa.  Since these mental 
productions appear to be objective phenomena, they are called nampar shepa.  At the first time when we know objects, the 
aspect of insight, that apprehends, "this," is mind.  The analyzer of the distinctions that arise continuously connected to 
that is content mind.  After the instant of clarity when individual things first present themselves, the knowledge that 
discriminates object awareness analyzes them.  If it is attached to them as pleasant there is desire or passion.  if as painful, 
there is aggression.  If there is neither, but attachment to "this," that is ignorance.   Examples are, seeing a good woman 
we once knew; seeing an enemy that once conquered us; and seeing a wall, water, a highway, a tree, and ordinary people, 
toward which we have neither joy or sorrow.  The Sutra on Teachings that are the Basis of Discipline says:

	If we see amicable people, then we feel desire.
	If harmful ones are present, our minds become aggressive.
	For intermediate ones, our ignorance will increase,
	In any case the gates of our faculties have been bound.

b.  The basis of confusion in the eight consciousnesses

	Now the ground of arising and divisions of these are extensively taught as follows:
	
	Alaya consciousness, content mind, and then the five gates,
	Gradually proliferate, one upon the other.
	From that arise the cause and effect of samsaric suffering.
	The root of samsara and suffering is ignorance, 
	Having the confusion of grasping and fixation.
	By objects, conceptualization, and mind's habitual patterns,
	By fixating "me" and "mine," samsara is established.

	Here to distinguishes the different aspects, at the very time when awareness  of individual objects  arises, 
without divisions of their vividness, mind  which has insight of this is called the alaya-consciousness.  Then the mind 
that fixates that, that peacefully saves it, with much analysis of objects at its leisure and so forth, is content-mind.  The 
Sutra of the Ornament of Manjushri's wisdom says:

	Mind is the alaya consciousness.
	The "I" fixator is content-mind.

	The eye-consciousness sees, when forms are seen, depending on the eye.  Similarly depending on the ear there is 
sound, depending on the nose there is smell, depending on the tongue taste, depending on the body touchables.  These are 
the five consciousnesses  The arising of later knowledge from such former phenomena is called the ayatana.  In Tibetan 
this is kyeche, meaning increase or proliferation of what has arisen.  The objects and awareness of these have 
immeasurable conditions, and since these many and extensive aspects are not put aside, but "retained" this is called kham 
or in Sanskrit dhatu.
	From the object there is the arising of the seemingly supported perceiver-mind.   From what is former, a 
connection to the later arises, and dharmin, the realm of dharmas, and dharmata, their nature, occur.  This is 
interdependent arising.  When the two minds of object and perceiver are combined, pleasure and suchlike phenomena are 
felt and included in insight.  By the condition of contact, this is called feeling.  The particulars of these and other aspects 
are beyond describing.
	In brief, by the three poisons, arising from the three collections of objects, the senses, and the actions of concept 
mind,  come all motivating karmas.  These karmas are unhappiness.
	From patience and so forth freedom from the three poisons arises.  This is the great happiness, the great bliss.
	On the path of the ten virtues and so forth, prajqa and compassion are not fully accomplished.  This is the path of 
the lesser happiness.  Accumulated by ignorant earthly beings, after the fruition of samsaric happiness is produced, it is 
exhausted.  This is happiness proportional to merit.
	The enlightened happiness produced by completely finishing the path is happiness proportional to liberation.
	By the three poisons there is universally arising unhappiness.  The lower realms and whatever suffering there 
may be are produced by this cause.  Happiness proportional to merit grasps the glorious highlights of divine and human 
happiness.
	The happiness proportional to liberation is produced both by incidental highlights and ultimate true goodness.  
The Precious Mala says:

	As for passion, aggression, and ignorance
	The karma produced by them is unhappiness.
	As for non-passion, -aggression, and -ignorance,
	The karma produced by them is happiness.
	Unhappy karma is all suffering.
	Happy karma is all the higher realms
	And all the happiness of sentient beings

	'Externally appearing things are like the things that appear to be other in a dream.'  This means that grasping 
involves habitual patterns of objects.  These various appearances of pure and impure are confused existence.  Habitual 
patterns of reality are produced by the karma of bodily arising and also by the inner condition of not knowing suchness.  
These are the shandhas, dhatus, ayatanas, and so forth.  From them arise all the kleshas, and the suffering that is their 
fruition, the support of the confusions of fixation.
	Luminous, naturally-arisen wisdom is in essence empty, and by nature luminous.  It is the source of the 
unobstructed arising of various kinds of radiance.  When we become attached to this as the individualizing characteristics 
of grasping and fixation, insight arises as the habitual patterns of mind.  The five or the three poisons arise.  The root of 
confusion is fixating on the "I" and ego.  Because of that, the confused appearances of samsara arise like reflections, 
dreams, or hairs drifting before the eyes.  Moreover, fixation is fixated as "I", and grasped objects are fixated as "mine" 
with an attitude like that of the owner of a house.

2.  The manner of confusion,

	There are two sections:

a.  By knowing or not knowing what we are  there are liberation or confusion.

	Now the basis and way of confusion are extensively taught, as follows:

	The changeless nature of mind, perfection, dharmakaya,
	By ignorant fixation, takes on habits of false conception.
	Involving confused appearance of impure relativity,
	Dualistic appearance of objects as self and other,
	Then come to be grasped as really being two.
	Intrinsically this presents itself as limitless suffering.
	
	When we have realized the ever-changeless nature of mind,
	By the path of meditation on this unerring perfection,
	We will properly reach the field of pure relativity.
	Easing the weariness of the village of samsara.
	
	Here three great doctrines of the yogachara  tradition are taught.  These are false conceptions, relativity, and the 
perfectly established, in Sanskrit, parikalpita, paratantra, and parinishpanna.
	There are two kinds of false conceptions, characteristics, and accountable false conceptions. 
	By characteristics, from someone's viewpoint something is conceptually imputed, though it is non-existent, such 
as the horns of a rabbit or the alleged ego.  This includes any bad doctrines and all the names and meanings of this and 
that established from that that may be presented by such a mind.
	What is this like?  Some search for the real bodily existence of that to which the name "lion" is imputed, but do 
not find it.  Though the phenomenal meaning has been presented as "this," from mere arrogance, giving individual 
characteristics without any real remembered mental object, they may say it is like "fire."
	Accountable false conceptions are various aspects of the environment and inhabitants of the phenomenal world 
arising from the viewpoint of confusion--joy and sorrow, the skandhas, dhatus, and ayatanas.  Because they really do not 
exist, but only appear like a dream from the confused viewpoint of mind, they are called accountable false conceptions.  
Though all these things are natureless, they appear from the viewpoint of confusion.  Since they are exaggerations, they 
are called parikalpita, or false conceptions, in Tibetan kun tak,  literally all-imputation or all-labeling.  The 
Bodhisattvabhumi says:

	As for the false conceptions of parikalpita
	Though non-existent, are produced by the mind of confusion.

	There are also two kinds of relativity, pure and impure.   Pure relativity is the pure fields and the objects of the 
pure seeing of the buddhas, appearances that arise of buddha fields, the seven precious things  and divine palaces of pure 
light.  Some say that the relativity of yogachara tradition is unacceptable, since all such things are classified as personal 
appearance.   Such disputatious people have not seen this properly.  This sort of relativity is not established by oneself 
from personal habitual patterns of awareness.  It is not like the phenomena reflected in a mirror, which are produced by 
conditions.
	Whether everything is included within personal appearance should be analyzed.  Either mind is included within 
mere appearance, or appearance is included within mind.
	If it is like the first, at the time of mere appearance, there is no discernible boundary between phenomena that are 
included and those that are not included.  Therefore "included" is a mere word, having nothing to do with real 
phenomena. 
	If it is like the second, how can this be suitable?  Someone might say, "Since appearance arises from mind, it too 
is mind."
	Then a boy child that comes from a woman would also be a woman, but this is not so.  Excrement comes from 
the body, so it would be the body.  This is clearly not the case.
	Someone also might say, "Appearance is mind because it appears in mind."
	Then form would be visual consciousness, because it appears in visual consciousness.  Buddhas that appear to 
erroneous sentient beings would be the minds of those beings.  Fallaciously, these sentient beings with their erroneous 
minds would be buddhas.  Since sentient beings also appear to these buddhas, the whole realm of sentient beings would all 
be buddhas.  Moreover, this fault that spotless buddhas are also defiled sentient beings could never be abandoned.  This is 
because if buddhas were not mind, they could not arise at all. 
	If someone says, "Phenomena are mind," then what is really cause and fruition would be a single thing. if this 
did not exist, neither could arise at all.  Thus, an enemy and one's anger at the enemy would be the same single thing.  
Therefore, without the enemy, there could be no anger at the enemy.
  	Also it is not proper to say, "phenomena are mind because they are produced by mind."  Then the details of a 
painting would be the painter, because the painter produced them.
	How is it proper to maintain that external earth, stones, mountains, and rocks are mind?  Admit that their arising 
from the habitual patterns of mind is confused appearance.  If this were not so, when a hundred people look at one vase, 
the vase that is seen by them all would be their awareness, and all the hundred beings would be a single awareness.  If this 
is maintained, it would be proper reasoning that if one of them gets enlightened, they would all be enlightened.  If one 
went to the lower realms, they would all go there.  If it is like these notions, sentient beings in the world like you and me 
would not exist at all, since all that appears like that would be other than one's own mind.  Moreover, it would not be 
suitable that there were any other buddhas besides the single one Shakyamuni.  This is because all objects seen by him 
would be his awareness.  If one maintains that, clearly he is us.  These days many people fixate such traditions and 
completely obscure the mahayana.   From what they say it would follow that a huge body could be covered by one the 
size of a lotus.  A flower could have ear-rings.  A gold face would be more than a mere ornament.  An elephant would be 
just the sound of trumpeting.
	If you ask what are pure appearances, when it is proclaimed within proper reasoning that completely false 
phenomena that are spotless are mind-only, that tradition says:

	These appearances of oneself to oneself are one's own mind appearing to itself, but the apparent object 
is not mind.

Many yogachara texts say:

	As many things that appear, that many are mind.
	But that is not so for apparent objects themselves.
	Having habitual patterns from beginningless time,
	We are shaggy, as it were, with hairs before the eyes.

	Appearance and the apparent object are distinguished.  Others may think, "The apparent object of a mountain is 
a mountain!" but the clear appearances of fixation of mind arise in dependence on the faculty of sight.  The objects we 
directly encounter, the phenomena fixated by our minds, are private, personal appearances.   Then when others 
encounter the same mountain, that their apparent objects are the same as ours does not follow.  Apparent objects are 
fixations of what appears in sense perception in terms of the habitual patterns of former eye consciousness.
	A mere abstraction,  a mental object, a luminous appearance of what does not exist, vividly appears in the 
mental sense.  Therefore, even if appearances apprehended by the mind and the fixator of them, appearances of others and 
the fixator of them are all mind,  the object which arises for and is perceived by the mind
is classified as an apparent object.  All the objects of the five gates appear even though they do not exist, like shaggy hairs 
before the eyes, because of beginningless habitual patterns.    Thus they become dualized.  It may be asked, "Do you 
therefore establish appearance and apparent object as different?
	For you also they are two.  This is because they exist externally to apparent mind, and because this is maintained 
within the fixating mind.   These are one within the mind, but are called "two." 
	It may be asked, "according to proper reasoning are they one?  	Here the apparent object caused by confused 
habitual patterns and the appearance ascertained by fixation, while both do not exist,  neither differs conventionally from 
the phenomena confused by habitual patterns.  Moreover, since there are not really two such objects, they are established 
to be not-two in nature.  For we who profess madhyamaka, if we analyze, not only the thing which is the apparent object, 
but the appearance too is maintained not to be mind.  {{217.5}}  This is because mind is inner and does just so, not exist 
externally and external appearance that arises within the individual senses is analyzed as being within the mind.  If 
appearances had an external aspect too, then peoples' consciousness would be two or more at the same time, or one's 
consciousness would be a material thing.    There would be many such fallacies.
  	Therefore, the fixator of appearance and non-appearance is mind, but appearance itself is not established as 
mind.  What is or is not the word "tail" is grasped by the listening consciousness, but listening consciousness itself is not 
established as the word, "tail."
	In brief, one's own mind, though seemingly externally projected does not really go outward, and therefore, 
external phenomena really appear inwardly.  However, external appearance is never internal mind.  Why?  Because what 
appears does not exist.  A variety of such things, white and red, arise. 
	For one who has diseased eyes due to a disorder of the phlegm
objects which are completely non-existent nevertheless appear, externally, internally and between.  These are said to be 
natureless or empty of essence.  Neither what is established as mind and what is established as other than mind are 
liberated from attachment to truly existent self-nature.  In that respect they are indistinguishable.  Some one may say, 
"Isn't this assertion that there are external objects-things which are not directly known, like that of the shravaka 
vaibhashika school?
	It is not the same.  The vaibhashikas proclaim that these objects are established to have individual characteristics 
of material things.  We, on the other hand, say that habitual patterns of confused appearance, appear to mind even though 
what seems to be there is non-existent like a dream.  This approach is not refuted by madhyamaka, and so it is suitable.
	Someone may ask why what has been proclaimed by us is not refuted by the prasangika madhyamaka school.
	 Mere appearance is not refuted, but attachment to true existence is refuted.  The teacher Nagarjuna says:

	Thus though appearance itself is not to be refuted,
	Eliminate thoughts that conceptualize this as truly existent.

{218.5}}	The yogachara true-aspectarians proclaim that phenomena are mind.  Both the true and false aspectarians assert 
the refuted tenet that the absolute is truly established as self-insight,  so how will they deny that confused appearances of 
habitual patterns arise while they are non-existent and that classifications of existents are really entered into?  This is 
because these would be made into the classification of the relative at the same time. 
	Thus outer relativity and the relativity of mind or insight,   arising after the former, its appearance depending 
on other previous objects, must be analyzed in terms of inner patterns.  If seeming appearance of before and after is 
imputed, the name alone is the meaning, and they accord.  If it is maintained to be other and different from what is 
present, one's own insight cannot be established as a characteristic of something other, because the very assertion is 
contradictory.  This is not good reasoning.  The former text says:

	Thus all these various different kinds of appearances,
	Because they seem to be phenomena that are other,
	Are the impure relativity of grasping and fixation.
	The pure is also said  to be relativity,
	But what becomes through external power is not pure.
	This too is explained as appearing to be something other.

	The perfectly established is changeless and true.  This changeless, completely established nature without 
confusion is the emptiness of dharmata, by nature intrinsically pure, without distinction of earlier and later.  This 
changeless perfectly established is the quintessential natural state.  The empowerment of this is established as empty or as 
threefold.
	It is naturally empty of itself, other, and both.  As for emptiness of itself, it appears as non-existence, like the 
moon in water.  Individual characteristics are abandoned, and divided aspects of self and other do not exist; but 
spontaneously present dharmas are not put aside, there are both imputations of these and of the emptiness of their self-
nature.
	Other emptiness is the other emptiness of not having or the other emptiness of accountables.
	Emptiness of both self and other has both emptiness of accountables and emptiness of the individual 
characteristics denoted by the words.
	This luminous nature of mind, the nature, the dhatu, the essence, is empty of all fallacious things.  It has the 
characteristics of the buddha qualities.  Its purity of essence is beyond faults and virtues, and establishing or clearing away. 
 	Various defiled dharmas of confused appearance, red and white, arise.  These false conceptions, the eight 
consciousnesses, are natureless.  Their self-nature is empty.  Accountable like a pillar or a vase, they are empty and 
fallacious.  The pure nature is beyond faults and virtues, establishing or clearing away.  The paths too are empty of 
themselves and have some virtuous and some faulty aspects.  But the pure essence is beyond faults and virtues.
	At the time of the ultimate purity, all injurious faults together with their habitual patterns are obscured in 
emptiness.  This is the absolute itself.  Whatever qualities of the absolute dhatu exist are also ultimate manifestations and 
are not empty.   The pure essence is beyond faults and virtues, establishing and clearing away.
	In brief, as for self-emptiness, the nature of dharmas of this and that has no true existence.  From the two 
divisions, as for characteristics being empty of their own essence, whatever characteristic is described is non-existent like 
the horns of a rabbit.  Though appearing from the viewpoint of confusion, it is without nature or reality, empty like the 
moon in water.
	Emptiness of self-nature of imputation, is emptiness of what is imputed by names, words, and letters.  Except as 
mere mental constructions, the individual characteristics of these objects do not exist, as for small children what is 
imputed by the name "lion" really has a turquoise mane.  What is actually denoted by the word used by this small child 
has a body without such a mane, but since the understanding producing name can have an understood symbolic meaning 
even when it is empty, all impute to it an effect-producing power.
	In emptiness of other, a dharma is imputed to be empty of another dharma.  From the two divisions, in other 
emptiness of not having the sun is said to be empty by not having darkness, a pillar, a blanket, and so forth.  Here, 
dharmas that are non-existent within the sun are other real individual natures. 
	As for emptiness of accountable others, "the sun" and "light-producer," and "the one with seven horses" are 
general accountable imputations.  Since the natures  and particular included examples  expressed do not touch the 
individuating characteristics which are the meaning of the sun, it is empty of them.
	What is empty of both self and other, is a dharma that has neither.  From the two divisions.  There are 
accountable imputations and real individual characteristics.
	Within the one involving accountable imputations, are the skandhas, dhatus, and ayatanas  and so forth, which 
are imputed by samsaric confusions.  All such things are also empty of the individual characteristics of the three realms, 
since they are constructions of conventional mind in names.  They have both empty individual characteristics, like the 
water in a mirage, and no individual characteristics, like the child of a barren woman.  Though they are empty of any truly 
any existing nature, they unubstructedly appear, vividly luminous, with an emptiness like that of relativity.
	If the three essences are divided in this way, there are six sorts of things of which there is emptiness.  Though 
these are expressed by calling them empty of essence, they are also completely pure and by the accountable expression 
empty since being beyond mind is included as a second sense, all dharmas should be realized also to be empty in this 
manner.
	As for what is said by exponents of nihilistic emptiness, since that style of emptiness is impossible, their dharma 
is like that of the outsider materialists, the charvakas.  There is emptiness; but this non-empty emptiness is merely partial 
emptiness.  It accords with the dharma of those of the eternalistic view of the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas, and 
therefore it falls into both the eternalistic and nihilistic extremes, and simply should not be relied upon. 
	Correct perfect establishment is the path of true liberation.  In realizing the natural state as it is, since the 
phenomena of appearance are not put aside, in the relative, merit can be accumulated.  The nature of emptiness which is 
contemplated is the accumulation of wisdom within the absolute.  Earnestly produce this dharmata like the sky free from 
one and many.  The former text says:

	"Correct" is genuinely gathering the truths of the path.

	In brief, we enter into the nature of mind, the changeless luminosity of suchness, after all dharmas are realized to 
be empty in the sense of being mere false conceptions.  If we meditate on the path, impure confused appearance, along 
with the mind of false conceptions, becomes pure as it really is.  The primordial state has been reached.  The dharmas of 
the holy teachings are gathered into one as the inexhaustible body, speech, and mind, of the sphere of the ornament.  One 
becomes a perfect master of the pure buddha fields.

b.  The suffering of wandering in samsara because of ego-grasping.

	Now because there is such a grasper and grasped, while we are wandering here in samsara, as if in a dream, we 
are compared to people sinking in a river:
	
	E ma!  How limitless is this realm of samsara.
	How difficult it is to examine what it is.
	So painful is the weariness of the path of samsara
	That anyone born there has no happiness at all.
	This unbearable fruition is produced by unhappy actions,
	It is a self-projection which is wrongly understood,
	The sort of thing we often do within a dream.
	The natures experienced by individuals of the six lokas
	Are confused appearances of what does not exist.
	Therefore they give rise to measureless sufferings.
	Listen while briefly I summarize what has been taught about them.

	The Analysis of Scripture says:

	As if in a filthy swamp of foul and disgusting stench
	Beings of the six realms have no happiness.
	As if in a blazing pit where it is never cool
	Those in samsara too never have any joy.

	Within samsara they transmigrate from the desire realm to the realm of form.  From the realms of form and the 
formless, they transmigrate into the realm of desire.  From the realm of the formless, they transmigrate to the realm of 
form.  Wherever samsaric beings exist within the six lokas, there is only suffering, and they have no chance of happiness.  
For a little while, as explained in the scriptures etc., they may remember how those who have realization put aside the 
mind of joy in samsara and urged them to "practice the dharma of liberation." If they do not make an effort to do this, 
generally they will continue to wander in samsara.  The Letter to Students says:

	Whoever dwells within the ever-changing round of samsara, Happily thinking that it is just a residence,
	Will certainly willy-nilly many hundreds of times
	Wander everywhere with like and dissimilar beings.

3.  The Divisions of Confusion

a.  The Hells,

1)  the Hot Hells 

	Of the twelve hot Hells, the first is the Reviving Hell.

a)  The Reviving Hell:

i)  A brief explanation:
	
	Over the blazing iron coals of the Hell of Reviving,
	Beings meet and kill each other with their weapons.
	A voice says, "Revive," and again they suffer as before.
	They experience this until their karma is exhausted.

	Above blazing iron coals, these Hell beings are gathered by their karma.  They strike each other with sticks, 
battle-axes, iron clubs, disks and so forth.  Seeing each other as hostile enemies, they seem to fight until all of them are 
killed.  Then a voice from space says, "Revive," and right away they revive as they were before.  They have to experience 
countless times the real suffering of being killed by their weapons.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	Three hundred times a day by short sharp spears,
	These are fiercely stabbed, and their sufferings
	When they enter into the sufferings of Hell
	Are an intolerable rain of sufferings.
	Even one instance is unbearable.
 
ii)  The measure of their lives

	The measure of their lives is until their karma is exhausted, briefly, as it says in the ordinary sutras:
	
	Fifty years within the life of a human being
	Are just a day for the four great gods who are kings of the world.
	Their months are thirty such days, and twelve months make a year.
	Five hundred such years are a day of the Reviving Hell.
	They have to suffer for five hundred years of days like these.
	An exact calculation of this according to the sutras
	Is a hundred and sixty trillion years of human time.

	The ordinary sutras of the mahayana, the tantras, and the shastras say that individuals' karma being thin or 
thick  and by merely transmigrating between lives, those who fall into that place are not taught to have one single certain 
measure of life.   Strong antidotes may arise in one's being and so forth, so that one suddenly transmigrates.  Someone 
who was something like a tantric master might have to remain for many kalpas, until released from karmic obscuration.  
The Spiritual Letter says:

	Thus they experience quite unbearable suffering
	Over the course of eight times ten million years.
	For as long as their bad karma has not been exhausted,
	For that long they cannot be free of that life.

	In the case of the viewpoint of the ordinary sutras, the Abhidharmakosha says:

	In the six levels of the Reviving and so forth,
	One day equals the life of the desire gods.

	According to the account given in the Objects of Mindfulness and Le Namje, fifty human years is one day for the 
great conquering kings of the four families.  Thirty of these is one of their months, and twelve of these is counted as their 
year, and five hundred of those years is one day of the Reviving Hell.  They suffer for five hundred such years.  If one 
counts this in human years, the Objects of Mindfulness says:

	Beings endure a hundred thousand times ten million years and 62,000 in the Reviving Hell.

b)  The Black Thread Hell

	The Hell below this is the Black Thread Hell:
	
	In the Black Thread Hell they are sewn together with blazing needles,
	Then just where they were stitched, they are cut apart again.
	Because of this, their suffering is terrible.

	If we take a day of a hundred and three human years,
	A thousand years of those is a day of the Black Thread Hell.
	According to the teachings, a thousand of their years
	Is twelve trillion, nine hundred sixty billion years of ours.

	The Spiritual Letter says:

	Some are sewn with needles, and parted like that again.
	By sharp irresistible axes they are cut apart

	If 133 human years is counted as a day, a thousand years of such days is one day of the Black Thread Hell.  They 
endure a thousand such years.  If one counts the same period in human years, the Objects of Mindfulness says:

	The years of beings in the Black Thread Hell are twelve hundred thousand and ninety six times ten 
million years.

c)  The Hell of Crushing and Joining

	Below that
	
	In the Hell of Crushing and Joining, beings are crushed to atoms
	By mountains like horses, camels, lions, tigers, and so on.
	The mountains part, and again they are living, as before.

	In iron valleys hammers pound them into dust.
	While they are being crushed, streams of blood flow down.
	Two hundred years are a day for the Aviha gods.
		Two thousand such Twin-god days are a day of the Crushing Hell.
	There they are said to suffer for two thousand of their years,
	Or thirty trillion, nine hundred and eighty billion years.

	The Letter to Students says:

	Herded by two fearful mountains like giant shepherds
	Gathered between them their bodies are crushed and reduced to dust.
	They are separated by wind that does not cool at all.
	Then again they are crushed to dust like that a hundred times.

The Spiritual Letter says:

	Some are crushed like sesame seeds,
	And others ground fine like flour.

	There are certain gods who, because they are free from fighting with the asuras, are called "free from strife," 
Aviha, and because boys and girls emerge from their loins together, they are also called the "Twin gods."  Two hundred 
human years make up one day for them.  Two thousand of these days are one day in the Hell of Crushing and Joining.  
Beings there must endure two thousand such years.  If this is divided in human years, the Objects of Mindfulness says:

	Those of the Hell of Crushing and Joining endure 10,368,000 times ten million human years.

d)  The Crying and Screaming Hell

i)  A brief explanation

	Then below that:
	
In the Crying and Screaming Hell, beings are burnt in fires,
This is why they weep and lament, they scream and wail.
They suffer by being cooked in boiling iron cauldrons.
Four hundred years are a day for the Tushita gods.
Four thousand of these are a day of the Crying and Screaming Hell.
Their sufferings go on for four thousand of these years.
In human years this is a hundred and eighty trillion
Nine hundred and forty-four billion are also added to these.

	The Spiritual Letter says:{{229.3}}

	Some are burned by blazing embers continuously,
	While they are being consumed, their mouths are gaping wide.
	Some boiled in iron caldrons, or great copper ones,
	Are cooked like meat that is being made into soup.

The Letter to Students says:{{229.4}}

	Some fall into great soup-kettles and are boiled there
	Others transmigrate to burning sand that gives off sparks.
	They cannot see the ground on which they put their feet.
	
	Four hundred human years are counted as one day among the gods of the Tushita heaven.  Four thousand of 
these are one day of the Crying and Screaming Hell.  They endure four thousand such years.  If one counts this in human 
years the Objects of Mindfulness says:

ii)  The measure of their lives

	Those of the Crying and Screaming Hell live for
 10,944,000  times ten million human years.
	
	In the Hell of Great Screams, in a blazing iron house,
	Beings are burned in fires and hacked in pieces by Yama. 
Eight hundred years are a day for the Nirmanarati gods. Eight thousand of those are a day within the Hell of 
Great Screams.
	Their sufferings go on for eight thousand of their years.
	This amounts In human years to three quadrillion,
	Five hundred and fifty-two trillion, six hundred and sixty billion.

	The Letter to Students says:

	They live in Hell fire and a shroud of stinking smoke.
	Tongues of flame pervade the circle of the directions.
	Adorned with heaped white bones, like some terrible wreath.
	As elephant skins appear as a means of threatening them
	These beings cry out in pain and fear "Kye ma! Kye hu!

	Some places great flaming fires are emanated
	With an agonizing roar they rise and tower upward.
	By day their voices peak in number and shrill volume
  	Inside their dwellings of bones, they loudly scream and howl.
	Not even kalpa fire produces what they fell into.

	Eight hundred human years are counted as a day of the Nirmanarati gods, and eight thousand of those years are 
a day of the Hell of Great Screams.  They remain for eight thousand of their years.  As for the count of this in human 
years, the Objects of Mindfulness says

	They have to endure the Hell of Great Screams for 663,552,000 times 10 million human years.

e)  The Hell of Heat

	Below that:

	In the Hell of Heat beings are in an iron house.
	Their brains are first exposed by using a short spear.
	After that they are thoroughly beaten on with hammers.
	Inside and out they are seared by blazing tongues of flame.

	A day of the Paranirmitavashavartin gods
	Has the same length as sixteen hundred human years.
	Sixteen thousand of these is a day within the Hell of Heat.
	They suffer there for sixteen thousand of their years.
	Which equals three billion and eighty-four million human years,
	To which are added another hundred and sixty thousand.

	The Letter to Students says:
	
	We see the noose of time in the hand of the Lord of Death
	Poisonous snakes are coiled around the head and lap.
	Crows, gulls, ravens, and vultures peck out eyes and brains From living victims without the slightest hesitation.

	Sixteen hundred human years is counted as one day by the Paranirmitavashavartin gods.  Sixteen thousand of 
these are counted as one day in the Hell of Heat.  They endure sixteen thousand of their years, which in human years, as 
the Objects of Mindfulness says:

	Those of the Hell of Heat endure this for  818,416 million times ten million human years.

f)  The Very Hot Hell

	Below this:
	
	In the Very Hot Hell, among two rows of iron houses,
	They are burned in fire and stabbed with three-pointed weapons.
	Their heads and shoulders are parted, then joined with bandages.
	They also suffer by being boiled in copper cauldrons.
The length of their lives is half an antahkalpa.
	It is beyond being counted in terms of human years.
	In four small kalpas the world arises and endures.
	It is destroyed and there is nothingness.
The length of these is equal to one antahkalpa.
	One great kalpa is eighty intermediate ones.
	
	A sutra says:

	In the Very Hot Hell are a host of blazing fires
	Their bodies are pierced and stabbed by vajras and by tridents.
	They are boiled in great copper cauldrons and tied in bandages.
	They only rest while burned by fires within and without.

	The measure of their lives is unfathomably long.  In four stages the word arises, endures, is destroyed, and 
remains in emptiness.  Each of these is counted as one antahkalpa or intermediate kalpa.  They live for half of such a 
kalpa.  The Objects of Mindfulness:

	Those of the Very Hot Hell experience their sufferings for half an antahkalpa.  This should be kept in 
mind.

g)  The Avici Hell

Below that:

	In the Uninterrupted Hell, in blazing iron houses
	Aside from the clamor of lamentation of the Hell beings,
	The fire and those beings cannot be separately seen.
	Just As the burning flame of a lamp will cling to its center,
	There is just a spark of life in the center of the fire.

They have to suffer this for the time of one antahkalpa.
	Since there is no greater suffering that this,
	Therefore it is called the Uninterrupted Hell.


	The Letter to Students says:

	As dry grass burns from the heart, they are burned by blazing fires.
	From throats and mouths repeatedly issue smoky flames.
	Falling from inner hunger, their innards burst and splatter.
	They produce an indescribable howling cry.

	Wishing to be freed from their great suffering,
	Again and again, they watch from within the opening gates
	Seeing other places, they wait until they open.
	As soon as they go forward the gates shut tight again.

	Then there is further pain of unbearable depression.
	Like a falling rain of sharp and blazing arrows,
	the guardians beat them with sticks, and boiling tears flow down.

	Because they are being stewed in a pot of molten iron, 	Drinking in a heaped up wreath of tongues of flame,
	Smoke rises from the holes of mouth, and nose, and ears.
	Eyes and brains ooze like cream in blazing tongues of flame.
	That fire, as if furious at those piled bodies,
	Flare like piles of dry firewood that are being kindled.

The Spiritual Letter says:

	Among the unbearable sufferings of all of these
	Those of the Avici Hell are worst of all.

The Analysis of Karma says:

		At the gates of the Avici Hell is an iron mountain of 60,000 pagtse.  The Hell beings, 
exhausted by getting by it, transmigrate to new lives.

	There are an immeasurable number of them, it is taught.  This is manifested by very heavy karma of having 
abandoned Dharma, broken samaya etc.  The Objects of Mindfulness says:

		Those of the Avici Hell transmigrate after having passed there an intermediate kalpa.  Even if 
they are born as a king, their powers will not be sound, so it has been taught.

h)  The summary of the meaning of these

	Now there is the summary:
	
	In each these different Hells that have been mentioned above,
	The tongues of flame are seven times hotter than the last.
	Each is lower, with greater suffering, than the last.
	Beings suffer until their karma is exhausted.


	As for these Hells that have just been described, the tongues of flame become seven times hotter [from one to the 
next.  The Analysis says:

	Hellfire from one to the next
	Increases by seven times.
	Likewise the sufferings
	Are seven times the last.
	
	More and more sufferings are stacked up, like blisters on top of leprosy.  As if their sensations had became seven 
times stronger, their sufferings are also seven times stronger.  They must endure this until their karma is exhausted.

i)  The ephemeral Hells

i)  The Main Explanation of the temporary Hells

	Included among these Hells are the following:

	The ephemeral Hells may be in the mountains, trees, or sky.
	In water, fire, or rocks, or in uncertain places.
	Groups or single beings remain there for a while.
	In those places they suffer their respective torments.
	That explains their being called "ephemeral Hells."

	The beings of the ephemeral Hells are in mountains, rocks, water, fire, space, and so on, or in uncertain places, 
like a pestle, rope, refuse rag, a burning piece of wood, or a log.  There may be different kinds of beings together, or one 
alone. They may be hot, cold, wet, or dry, ripped apart, cut up, boiled, whatever sort of suffering it may be, but each of 
them unbearable.  This may last half a day and night, just a moment, or for all eternity, since they suffer by the force of 
different karmas.  Thus they are called ephemeral.  The Sutra on Teachings that are the Basis of Discipline says:

		Then son of Maudgal from across the ocean, the Hell of the beings of the ephemeral Hells are 
in places like a pestle, or a tree, and they are seen to be tormented by many different kinds of suffering.

	Within the realm of samsara, beings have no pleasure.
	They are like the beings of the ephemeral Hells,
	All tormented by their individual sufferings,
	As if they had been forced to live in a blazing land.

ii)  In order to refute other kinds of wrong conceptions:

	Some mistakenly say that the name "ephemeral"
	Is given as few are there, or since their lives are short.
	But scorpions live for quite a while among the rocks.
	And once there was an ephemeral Hell that had the form
	Of five hundred shravakas gathered for their noontime meal.
	It is said that they took up weapons and struck each other.

	Some say are called ephemeral since each day they become non-existent.  This is not the right sense here.

	After many human generations in an iron house
	Still they have many years to remain within this Hell.

	With such harm, and some alone and companionless, they are called ephemeral.  When Shro_ako__kar_a  
arrived in a vihara, from one with a net beating a gandi,  as soon as 500 beings had taken the form of shravakas, they 
quarreled with each other, and resolved it with weapons.   The moment the hostilities were over, they were no longer 
seen, so the scriptures say.

j)  The Neighboring Hells

i)  The brief teaching.

	Around the Avici Hell are 16 others:

	The Neighboring Hells are found by the Uninterrupted Hell.
	They are found in each of its cardinal directions.
	These are the fire pit Hell, the Hell of putrid stench,
	The plain of weapons, and the river without a ford.
	In all there are four times four--sixteen such Hells.


ii)  The extensive explanation

	There are six sections describing these, which open in whatever direction one turns.

a))  The Fire Pit Hell:

	Thinking that its ten million gates have now been opened,
	Beings come forth from within the uninterrupted Hell.
	Seeing shady river valleys, when they enter the running water,
	Having sunk into blazing coals up to their knees,
	Their flesh is burned away, leaving bones as white as lotuses.
 	Then revived, as before, their suffering is extreme.

	First, their karma mostly restrains them in the iron houses of the Avici Hell, where sufferings of heat are afflicted 
with increasing sufferings. Then, thinking that the gates have opened, they flee.  As they approach, driven by iron dogs, 
they seem to see a pleasant shady ravine.  About what they suffer the Letter to Students says:

	A crowd of torn people are herded by dogs with gaping jaws
	Long thorn-like fangs with vajra tips rip at their bodies.
	There is a ravine and river completely lacking water,
	Full of dismal ashes and licking tongues of flame.

	While driven they are mutilated by corners of rocks,
	Having sharp razor points that tear unbearably.
	Fleeing into the river, they sink into the ashes.
	Their flesh and bones are burned, and then they revive again,

b))  When they think they are free,

	Here is what they reach:

	As soon as they enter the cooling ponds that they have seen,
	They sink in a putrid, stinking mire of rotting corpses.
	Worms with metal beaks of copper, iron, and gold,
	Piercing their bodies, bore and tunnel into them.
	
	The Letter to Students says:

	Some move about like little worms and insects. 
	Because of the crowd their bodies are immobile.
	Or else they rot away upon the fields.
	With lives blocked by the trap of their karmic nature
	They live without being even able to move.

c))  Then:

	As soon as they return to the pleasant plains they have seen
	They are cut to pieces by blazing daggers while still alive.

	The Letter to Students says:

	Into a grove whose branches are swords with dagger leaves,
	They run exhausted, and of course their bodies are wounded,
	by many three pointed short spears, arrows, and sharp swords
	Fangs in the mouth of the Lord of Death pierce as they fall.

d))  And then:

	When they have entered into pleasant leafy groves,
	They are overcome by a forest of sharp swords

	The Letter to Students says:

	Enduring many torments difficult to bear
	Day and night, their bodies are grievously destroyed.
	As they go among green trees which they formerly saw
	They cannot help falling onto leaves of a hundred weapons.
	There in long entanglements they are badly wounded.

e))  And then

	Passing from there to a very pleasant mountain peak,
	They see their former homeland and go as if they were summoned.
	Flesh and blood are scraped away with sharp iron spoons.
	Vultures peck their brains, as they are climbing upward.
	Then they think that they are called to descend the mountain,
	And again they are scraped by the spoons, as when they first went up.
	At the edge of the plain are men and women with sharpened beaks.
	In the blazing embrace of these their suffering is extreme.
	After that they are eaten by many dogs and jackals.

	Then they think that there is a very pleasant mountain.  When they go there, these former men and woman seem 
to see all the features of the countries where they formerly lived, and seeing people once close to them, thinking they are 
calling, they ascend.  As they are scraped with iron spoons, their flesh and blood multiplies.  As they come down, they 
suffer the same pains of being scraped as when they went up.  The Letter to Students says:

	As they quickly climb this slope of unbearable shalmali trees, 
	There is a host of briars.  Sharp spoons scrape them through.
	With terrible pain, they destroy inside, and then subside.

And also:

	When they move downward, from iron briars going upward,
	They Remember many sharp things roughly piercing their bodies,
	Then sometimes by the sharpness and the painfulness
	Of blazing three pointed spears, their bodies cannot descend.

	Then by crows whose beaks are marked with symbolic weapons
	They are driven along by ordinary needs
	Of their bellies and such, and as they are lost and scattered.
	Some fall into fearful abysses of mountain chasms.

Also 

	From all the women a hundred tongues of flame come forth.
	They live ornamented by massive wreaths of flame.
	Toothed like saws these do not ever leave their bodies.
	Lured into pleasant groves, they embrace unite with them.
	
f))  And then:

	Also having seen the cool streams of flowing rivers,
	As soon as they joyfully go and are immersed in them,
	They sink to their waists in hot ashes, and flesh and bones are consumed.
	They see the guards of Yama keeping them from the two banks.
	There they have to suffer for many thousands of years.

	 The Objects of Mindfulness says:

		When they go there, they see streams.  As soon as they step into them up to their waists, their 
flesh is burned, and even their bones turn to powder and separate from them.  When again they are 
revived, on the banks where they formerly were, the beings of the Lord of Death appear to be standing.

k)  The instruction on eliminating those sufferings.

	They are as follows:

	If someone in the Hells remains unterrified,
	But knows the nature of these endless samsaric torments,
	Then that person will have the means of passing beyond them.

	That is the instruction.

2)  The Cold Hells,

There are three sections

a)  The eight cold Hells.

	Now the sufferings of cold are explained:

	There are also eight Hells where there are the torments of cold.
	In extremely frigid places of snow and so forth,
	Arbuda, Nnirarbuda, Atata, and Hahava
	Huhuva and Utpala, Padma and Mahapadma. 
	In blackest darkness their bodies are ravished by swirling blizzards,
	Devoured by living things with sharp and flaming beaks.
	Until they reach the end of their karma they shiver there.
	
	Having been afflicted, in cold and snowy places, cold and dark, blasted by black winds, they are covered with 
blisters and, when the blisters burst, with wounds.  Except for sneezing "achu!" they cannot speak.  They lament, "kye 
'ud!" and their teeth chatter, so that no speech can get out.  They are wounded like a blue utpala lotus with fine roots and 
big leaves turned inside out.  Like a red lotus, they are split into four pieces.  Like a big lotus they are split into eight 
pieces.  From their wounds come fine streams of fluid.  Insects crawl in and eat.  As for their immeasurable sufferings 
from cold, the Letter to Students says:

	They are many beyond example, exposing even their bones.
	Their hungry bodies shiver, becoming shriveled and crooked.  A hundred blisters rise with fluid, and as they 
break,
	Insects ravage them with beaks as sharp as swords
	To their feet the blood and gore comes dripping down.
	Their teeth chatter helplessly.  Their head and body hairs tremble.
	Sore eyes, ears, throats and noses, torment all these beings.
	With bodies and minds corrupted to the very center, 
	They remain in those Cold Hells, and loudly cry and wail.

b)  The explanation of the measure of time.

	The time of their suffering in these eight Hells:

	The length of their lives in the Hell which is called Arbuda
	Is as long as it would take to empty out
 	A sesame store in Kosala  containing 200 bushels 
	By removing only a single grain in a century,
	In each of the other cold Hells, it is twenty times the last.
	
	The Objects of Mindfulness says: 

	If the storage bin of the city of Kosala were full of sesame seed full of sesame seed without any gap,  The lives of 
the beings in the Blistering Hell are as long as it would take to empty it by removing one grain every hundred years.  The 
others each last for twenty times longer than the last.

In accord with this, the Abhidharmakosha says:

	From within a sesame store every hundred years
	Removing a single seed until they all are emptied,
	That is the length of life within the Blistering Hell.
  	The lives each of the others are twenty times the last.

c)  The Instruction of striving in the means of liberation from these Hells

Thus thinking of these immeasurable sufferings of heat and cold: 

	Beings with minds should then arouse their strength of effort
	To conquer these merely mental worlds of Hell.

	   So it is taught.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	Evildoers, as soon as their breath has ceased,
	When they are cut off by time, at the end of life,
	Having heard of Hell's measureless sufferings,
	To be fearless through emptiness requires the vajra nature.

	If having seen pictures of Hell and heard of it,
	Remembering, reading, or merely glancing at pictures,
	People are often stricken with unbearable fear
	Why speak of the actual experiences of ripening?

b.  The suffering of the hungry ghosts,

There are three sections.

1)  The way they live:
	
	Pretas stay and roam in their world of hungry ghosts.
	Their bodies are large with great paunches.  Their hands and feet are small.
	Their necks are slim with mouths no bigger than a needle.
	Finding no food or drink, they are racked by hunger and thirst.
	Trees and flowers, medicinal herbs, and wholesome things
	Wither away as soon as these pretas look at them.
	Externally they eat vomit, or things that are foul and vile.
	If they do see food and drink, they seem to be kept away.
	Because of inner defilement, their food is consumed by fire.
	Smoky tongues of flame are spewing from their mouths.
	Obscured with malicious anger, they always fear deprivation.
	In terrifying places, they suffer helplessly.

	Living in space, externals are obscured for them, and since externals they do experience are not pleasing, they do 
not get what they want.  Their evil bodies have to eat evil vomit, and even if these ravening ones see food and drink, it 
seems to be guarded, or as soon as they get to it, it dries up.  By that they suffer.  	Their inner obscurations are even 
worse.  Flames blaze from their bellies, and emit smoke.  As for their obscurations generally, on top of that they always 
suffer poverty, deprivation, hunger, thirst, ugly forms, and sensory distortion.  They always have to be fed by others.  They 
are fearful, without refuge and protector.  The Letter to Students says:

	Unbearably tortured by thirst, they seem to see spotless streams.
	They want to drink, but as soon as they can, the water
	Is full of clots of hair, mixed with fish dung and pus
	Trailing mud and slime, and blood and excrement.

	In time winds disperse the water, and they are among cool mountains.
	If there they see green growing groves of sandalwood
	Above them, the forest flames, with sharp thick tongues of fire,
	Blazing embers fall and they cannot help themselves.

	Fearful ocean waves rise and crash over them
	Even if they get beyond that foamy trouble,
	Millions of harsh red clouds of howling, gritty wind
	Whirl and drown everything in a fearful, sandy desert.

	If the rain-clouds come that they are praying for,
	A rain of iron arrows, falls with smoke and embers,
	Hot vajra boulders crush and ravish them completely,
	Seeming of golden color, wreathed with orange lightning,
	A rain of these falls everywhere upon their bodies.

2)  Those who live in the air and in space:

As for this subtle assembly:

	The spirits of the air are evil hungry ghosts. 
	By miraculous actions they go unhindered anywhere,
	Accomplishing their various manifestations of harm.
	Bringing sickness, they ravish health and cut off life
	A month for human beings is just a day for them.
	Five hundred years of theirs are fifty thousand of ours.
	They suffer thus within the realms of the Lord of Death.

	These too are among the hungry ghosts, and
their suffering is immeasurable.  Their realm is unpleasant, dangerous, fearful, hungry and thirsty.  Whoever is close to 
their hearts is infected with fatal diseases.  They themselves are always tormented by these as well, and spread these 
diseases.  Life and health are ravished away, and only harm to others is accomplished.  They are beings unhappy to meet.  
Going about by miraculous power, they appear as guardians of narrow paths.  Their individual bodies are like gates, 
bubbles, half burned or split pieces of wood, and various dogs and birds.  Some by former slight merit have enjoyments, 
but also suffer many sufferings.  Mostly events occur at the wrong season and moreover even in their enjoyments there are 
limitless sufferings and so forth.  The same text says:

	Even in a snowstorm they are afflicted by heat.
	Helplessly chilled by winds, they are even cold in a fire.
	By such unbearable ripenings they are stupefied.
	Various kinds of things wrongly appear to them.
	Even the eye of a needle seems many terrifying miles,
	With their great bellies, even if they drink an ocean,
	It will not wet so far as even the end of their throats.
	By the heat of their mouths they are thirsty for even a drop of water.

The Spiritual Letter says:

	Hungry ghosts are impoverished by never-ending desire.
	The suffering so produced is continuous and unbearable.
	Hunger, thirst and cold; heat, fatigue, and fear,
	Produce unbearable sufferings that always attend them.

	Some with tiny mouths as small the eye of a needle.
	And bellies as big as mountains are tormented by hunger.
	They cannot get rid of the false perspective of their eyes.
	They do not have the power to seek out anything.

	Some are naked with bodies formed of skin and bones
	They are dry like the sun-baked tops of desert palms.
	Some are ablaze with fire from mouths and genitals?
	As food of burning sand falls into their gullets.

	Some of the lower ones do not even get
	Pus and excrement, or blood and other filth.
	From their throats, they mutually infect each other.
	Buboes arise, and then exude a ripening pus.

	For pretas, even in the springtime of their lives,
	Even the moon is hot and even the sun is cold.
	Trees are fruitless and barren, blasted by their glance,
	As soon as they are looked at, rivers and springs dry up.

	Sufferings attend them continuous and unhindered.
	As for the karmic noose of their evil activity,
	The bodies of some of them are quite tenaciously held.
	They will not die in five or even ten thousand years.

	One human month is counted as a day of the pretas.  Five hundred of their years is taught to be 50,000 human 
years.

3)  Encouragement to practice Dharma, not Desiring Samsara.

As for the endless ways of suffering:

	Having seen this saddening nature of how things are,
	Accordingly, persons, to gain their liberation,
	Should distance themselves from samsara's hedonic calculus.
	By that the true peace of holy Dharma will be established.

	That is the good instruction.

c.  The Animal Realm

1)  Animals too are without happiness:

	In the animal realm, those who live within the four oceans
	All devour each other, in measureless suffering.
	Even if they hide in the dark places of the land,
	They fear heat and cold, and hunger and thirst, and being eaten.
	Wild beasts and birds throughout the human realm
	Are in danger from sharp weapons and also from each other.
	Horses, oxen, camels, as well as donkeys and such,
	Have limitless pains of carrying burdens and being beaten.
	They are killed for their skins, and for their meat and bones.
	They cannot see the limitless suffering of their nature.

	Nagas suffer the pain and pleasure of midday and midnight.
	And the pains and pleasures of coming day and coming night.
	In some places there fall rains of abrasive, burning sand.
	In some they are forsaken, alone without companions.
	Mostly stupid, they fear soaring birds and such.
	They meet with a great variety of sufferings.
	Their lives, uncertain, are sometimes just a day.
Divine Takasaka and others are said to live a kalpa
	
	The great oceans between the four continents are filled without gaps with fish, conches, crocodiles, and the like, 
crawling like grain in chang.  The big ones eat the little ones, the little ones eat still littler ones, and so forth.
	Others from this continent to the surrounding iron mountains-hide under fine in darkness inside the earth, since 
the sun and moon do not appear there.  As in the water, they eat one another, and have measureless sufferings of hunger 
and thirst.
	The scattered animals on the face of the world, living in the human realm's mountains, plains, water, rocks, sky, 
and so forth, small creatures, worms, insects, birds, wild animals, and so forth, each have their particular sufferings of 
heat, cold, hunger, thirst, being eaten by each other, and so forth--measureless illness and affliction.  In particular they are 
tormented by hunters, fishermen, and birds of prey.  Some die for their flesh, skins, and bones, or are used beaten and 
bleeding and then killed at the end of their labors, and have limitless other sufferings.
	In the serpent realm too though there are appropriate pleasures of day and night, morning and evening, there are 
also the many particular sufferings of hot and cold, hunger and thirst, and so forth.
	Where some live thousands of rains fall, and some are forsaken by any.  Some are entirely alone and 
companionless.  In general they are stupid and afraid of birds, vidya mantra, and immeasurable other harmful 
phenomena.  Their lives are uncertain.  Some live only an instant, a day, and so forth.  The kings of nagas, like Takasaka, 
live for an intermediate kalpa.  The Abhidharmakosha says:

That of Takasaka is a kalpa.

The Sutra Requested by Ocean says:

	He lives in the ocean for an intermediate kalpa.

The Spiritual Letter says:

	Those who live within the animal realm
	Have various sufferings of bondage and beating.
	They are worked and driven with whips and hooks and so forth.

2)  The instruction to be diligent in the Dharma:
	
	Having thought about this, those who want liberation
	From the world of animals, to benefit themselves,
	Should customarily travel the path of accurate vision.
	Striving day and night to be absorbed in the wholesome.

	For these reasons, those desiring liberation from the fate of those who have gone astray among the animals, from 
the goodness and so forth of holy Dharma, should strive with this opportunity of the great human and divine path of the 
ten virtues that accord with merit, the four dhyanas, and the four formless attainments.  This is the instruction of the 
ultimate great path of liberation through the accumulations of merit and wisdom.  Its essence is emptiness and 
compassion.  Strive to meditate on that path by the six paramitas and so forth.

d.  The human realm,

There are nine sections:

1)  The torments of the eight sufferings:

	Now, though they have attained the higher realms:
 
	Humans also have no chance of happiness.
	Sorrows, unhappiness, strife, and war and such,
	Before we are rid of one, we suffer with another.
	Sometimes our food is changed by being mixed with poison.
	Food, clothing and requisites fail us, and therefore we get sick.
	Later sufferings we have ripened then come forth.
	There are the three kinds of suffering and also the following:
	Birth and age, sickness, death and hostile people;
	Being parted from those we love and what we want,
	As well as the pain of having to deal with what we get.
	The suffering of these eight is without measure and end.

	  What kinds of suffering do people have?  The three great root sufferings are the sufferings of:

1).  Suffering,
2).  Change
3).  Conditioned existence.

The eight kinds of suffering that always grasp us in samsara are:

1). Birth,
2). age
3). sickness
4). death
5). meeting with hostile enemies
6). being separated from dear intimates
7). not getting what one wants
8). sufferings intimately associated with the five skandhas.

	In the suffering of suffering, one misery is heaped on another.  It is like our father dying, and then our mother 
dies too.
	In The suffering of change, as much as one's present pleasure is the suffering it emanates.  This is like a house 
falling apart when someone has not been careful about the site, or poison mixed with food.
	The suffering of conditioned existence is like having eaten poison.  Though our food, clothing and activities are 
not directly harmed, they are involved in the subsequent sickness; or from one's senses being injured, later injuries follow 
on that.  The Dulwa Lung  says:

	The misery of samsara
	Arises from the skandhas.
	There are the three sufferings
	Of suffering, change, and conditions.
	From the eight varieties,
	People suffer terribly.

	The suffering of birth is predominantly before birth occurs. Thus wandering in the intermediate state between 
lives, spirits who come near and enter, as they grasp existence in the mother's womb:

	Prana mind and bindu of ignorant consciousness.
	Gather as oval and oblong, and then a solid lump,
	Then we are like a disk, then like a fish and tortoise,
	In seven weeks a body is gradually engendered.

	When the mother is tired, hungry or thirsty, hot or cold,
	Even a little bit, we suffer immeasurably.
	Dark and close, it is fearful with an unpleasant stench.
	We must suffer unbearable suffering of restriction.

	After seven weeks, for twenty-six following
	The deceptions of the senses and limbs are being established.
	For a total period of thirty-six weeks,
	The bodily embryo grows and gains the power to move.

	Then soon to be extruded between the girdle of bones,
	By our karmic energy we are turned head downward.
	There is greater pain than dying, like the Crushing and Joining Hell.

	After birth, being touched is like being skinned alive.
	Being washed is like our flesh being scraped away with razors.
	
	From the intercourse of the father and mother there is a mixing of the essence of the red and white bindus, which 
constitutes consciousness.  In the first week, the embryo has the shape of a fluid oval like mercury.  In the second, there is 
an oblong shape like mucus .  In the third there is a lump shaped like a finger.  In the fourth there is a hard lump like an 
egg.  In the fifth, there is a disk like a lotus petal.  In the sixth, it is like the fish as which Vishnu incarnated.  The seventh 
is like a tortoise.  For example, the head, feet, and hands are very non-prominent like those of a tortoise.
	Then for twenty-six weeks, the limbs of the body, the fingers, the eyes and other senses and their supporting 
structures, the hair of the head and body, the heart and veins on the inside, the prana and dhatu essences, blood and 
lymph, masculine and feminine organs, and so forth develop along with the ayatanas.
	During the thirty-sixth week, in the body that has developed, there is the downward moving power of consuming 
food and drink, and produced by the fetus's eating and drinking, there is occasional movement and restless thoughts and 
the body becomes uncomfortable.  During these stages, the fetus dwells in darkness.  It seems close and disgusting.  There 
is the suffering of being restricted, and if the mother's belly is too well satisfied, it thinks it is being squashed by mountains 
and oceans.  If she is tired and strongly agitated, there is suffering like being thrown over a cliff.
	Young boys, remain with their faces looking inward from the mother's right side, covered by their two palms.  
Girls stay looking outward from the left.  Then by the wind of karma their heads turn upside down.  Having been extruded 
through the pelvic girdle, at birth they suffer as much as those in the Hell of Crushing and Joining.  As soon as they are 
touched, it is as if their skin was being taken off.  When they are washed, they suffer immeasurably, as if their flesh were 
being cut off with razors.  The sufferings of growing, can be briefly seen from those of entering the womb.  Of these the 
Letter to Students says:

	Confined, accumulating unbearable unwholesome stench,
	Enclosed in unmitigated darkness and narrowness.
	Having dwelled in the Hell-like place that is the womb,
	The body, completely restricted, must suffer great suffering.

	Gradually ground like sesame oil, how will it be born?
	But in the sutras it says its life will not be lost.
	Indeed its condition is highly fit for suffering.
	Living in filth, by looking about it is badly harmed.

	By the damp womb it is fettered, in unbearable fearful stench.
	The pain of development is as bad as being destroyed.
	Like coming on something disgusting, former memory is lost.

2)  The suffering of old age

	Then in stages:
	
	The suffering of age is very hard to bear.
	After youth decays, there will be no more pleasures.
	We cannot get up and down without the help of assistants.
	As bodily heat is impaired, our food is hard to digest.
	Our strength is failing and we begin to tremble,
	So that it is difficult either to go or stay.
	Our joints decay.  We cannot get where we want to go.
	The senses fail.  The eyes are dim and cannot see
	We cannot hear sounds or voices any longer.
	There are no sensations of smell and taste and touch.
	Memory is not clear.  We sink in an ignorant sleep.
	Perception of things is failing, so there are few qualities.
	Delicious food and such appear as the opposite.
	As life is failing, thoughts are disturbed by the fear of death.
	Like a child's, our patience and span of attention are small.
	We are quickly gone, like a lamp whose oil is spent.

	By the slipping away of youth, the strength of the body deteriorates.  The joints disintegrate.  Food does not 
nourish.  The senses cloud.  The eyes are fuzzy.  The ears become increasingly deaf.  The tongue stammers.  Memory is 
lost.  Objects and food that were previously delightful are no longer pleasurable.  To the dimming sense organs of the 
tongue food and drink, do not taste like they did when we were young.  We are afraid of death.  Like a child again, we 
have little patience.  There are such immeasurable sufferings.  The Letter to Students says:

	Then for all persons, age,
	The hand of the Lord of Death,
	After it has grasped us
	With no chance of letting go,

	Our hair turns gray and white,
	All our collection of teeth
	As if for a joke are taken.

	Our joints all come apart.
	Our minds become impaired.
	Our situation becomes
	As bad as being in Hell.

3)  As for the suffering of sickness:

	The suffering of sickness is very hard to bear.
	The bodily nature changes, and mind becomes unhappy.
	Our enjoyment of things no longer give us pleasure.
	There is increasing fear that we will lose our lives.
	We wail a lament about this unbearable suffering.

	When we are afflicted with sickness our minds are distressed and no joy arises.  Perception is interfered with, 
and we are irritated.  We must die, or sometimes we just think it would be better if we did.  We wants to die, but at the 
same time the torment of dying rivals Hell.  The Commentary on the Praise of the Hundred Actions says:

	As for embodied beings
	Tormented by sickness,
	It feels like being in Hell.
	Rising higher and higher,
	Such is the misery
	Of suffering in samsara.

4)  The suffering of death

	When one's time is exhausted, or even if it is not really exhausted, but one throws it away:

	The suffering of dying is even greater than this.
	There is our last meal and our last words are spoken.
	For the last time we get dressed.  We go to our final sleep.
	Body and life, attendants and servants are left behind.
	Friends and relations, wealth and enjoyment, are left behind.
	We cannot stay, but still we fear to go alone.

	For the last time we lie down, rest, talk, eat, get dressed, and come to the last appearances of this life.  Attendants 
and enjoyments are left behind.  We has no power to keep living, and  leave alone and companionless.  Having thought 
about how we will do it, with an unhappy heart, with a strong feeling that one's essence is being destroyed, life ceases.   
We experience wandering in the bardo.  Without refuge or protector, our skandhas are lifted on a litter.  We are taken to 
the charnel ground.  We are eaten by jackals and so forth.  Our assembled intimates suffer immeasurably.  The Letter to 
Students says:

	How is it going to be?
	This fearful Lord of Death
	Walking at my head,
	Whether oppressed or doubtful,
	The pain will seem like vajra.

	Those who harm the mind,
	After having oppressed it
	Relations and the household
	With tears streaming down their faces
	We see their pain like vajra.

	That having infiltrated
	Into our deepest nature
	Is most unbearable
	like entering murky darkness.

	This body we guarded so zealously
	And all its accustomed pleasures
	Will be completely lost.

	Firmly bound at the feet
	Of the terrible Lord of Death
	Our head tuft is pulled out,
	Our fate will be determined.

	As we are taken by him,
	By the roar of those nearby
	One's many screams and cries
	Are never heard at all.

	Between water hard to cross
	and piled heaps of boulders,
	Pricked by sharp piercing thorns,
	Those on this frightful path,
	Bound by the noose of time,
	By the things of the Lord of Death
	They are fiercely driven with sticks
	And herded like animals.

5)  The suffering of meeting with enemies:

	By the suffering of meeting people we dislike
	We are oppressed by fear of the danger of being unpleasantly harmed.
	If we meet with hostile enemies, we will no longer be able to have our bodies, lives, and enjoyments.

6)  The suffering of being separated from those dear to us:

	To separate from people and the country that we love
	Causes sorrow, lamentation, and unhappiness.
	Remembering their qualities, we are tormented by longing.

	If we are separated from our dear friends and relatives who are kind to us, remembering their qualities, our 
minds are tormented with suffering.

7)  The suffering of deprivation.

	As for the suffering of being deprived of desirables:

	In the suffering of being deprived of what we want
	A tormented mind arises when we do not succeed.
	We are worn out by poverty, like hungry and thirsty pretas.

	If we do not succeed in our goals, our minds are unhappy.  When we are deprived of possessions or of something 
desirable, we are tormented by unhappiness.

8)  The suffering of defilement:

	Form, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness
	Which comprise the five perpetuating  skandhas,
	Because of defilement are the ground of all suffering.
	They have been said to be its source, support, and vessel.

	The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		Subhuti, because the closely connected skandhas are defiled, they are the place of all suffering. 
 They are the support of all suffering.  They are the vessel of all suffering.  They are the source of all 
suffering.  	Moreover, since form manifests the harm of suffering, it is its place.  Since feeling 
takes on suffering, it is its vessel.  Since perception is the first gate to being disturbed by 
conceptualization, it is its support.  Since the doer and understander arise among formations and 
consciousness, they are its source.

	These are so explained in the Great Commentary on the Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines.

9)  The Instruction of exertion in the means of liberation from this.

	Now there is the instruction on eliminating unhappiness:

	Thus within the limits of this human world,
	With suffering as cause and effect, there is no happiness.
	To be liberated from this, think of the excellent Dharma.
	That offers the means of liberation from samsara.

	As for the path, by the action of the cause of suffering, unhappiness, there is subsequent suffering.  Sometimes, 
by the fruition of former actions, there will be suffering.  We should be liberated from that.

e.  The suffering of the asuras,

1)  How they are unhappy:

a)  The way of their unhappiness:
	
	Asuras likewise are without a chance of happiness.
	Through hatred they have senseless quarrels, disputes, and wars.
	Through envy they cannot bear the splendor of the gods.
	Their warlike perspective supports many hundreds of sufferings.

	They fight and quarrel even with their own kind.  Having seen the happiness and wealth of the thirty three gods, 
they are tormented with fires of hatred and jealousy.  Sometimes, in the wars which they fight with the gods, their heads 
and limbs are cut off.  They are injured by vajras, arrows, wheels, and so forth, and sometimes die, or suffer from fear of 
dying.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	Since by their nature asuras
	Hate the splendor of the gods,
	Their minds all suffer greatly
	Though they are knowledgeable,
	by the obscurations of beings,
	They do not see things truly.

	As for this explanation that they do not see truly, their seeing is like that of the path of seeing of the shravakas 
and pratyekabuddhas, but not like that of the mahayana.  The Edifice of the Three jewels says:

		If one explains an account of the dharmas of those lives, the gods, nagas, asuras, and sky 
soarers of the animal realm, the kinnaras, and the big bellied hungry ghosts beyond number with 
respect to dharma do not have even a particle of the dharma eye, nor do they attain spotlessness.

	Therefore, the way of their vehicles should be realized.
b)  The instruction to be diligent in practicing Dharma:

	Therefore, those who are going to happiness and peace
	Should quickly practice the Dharma, that leads to liberation.

f.  The suffering of the gods

There are four sections


1)  the suffering produced by death and transmigration.

	Thus in the heavenly realms:
	
	Also the gods of the realm of desire have endless suffering.
	Drunk with desire, they are careless.  They fall in the changes of death.
	Their flowers wither, their thrones no longer give them pleasure.
	Abandoned by their friends, they dread their coming state.
	For a week these gods will have unbearable emotions,

	The victorious Four Great Kings and the Thirty-three, and the Twin Gods, and the Ganden gods and the 
Thrulga gods and Shenthrul Wangje appear to be happy.  But even this happiness does not go beyond the suffering of 
change and the suffering of conditions.  At the time of their deaths, the color of their bodies becomes unpleasant.  Their 
thrones do not please them.  The flowers wreathing their brows wither.  Their clothes smell bad.  A pain they have never 
experienced before arises.  They are troubled by the perception that they will leave their divine companions and be alone.  
With the divine eye, they see the place where they will be born, they are terrified.  When they faint away, from far away 
the gods who are their father and mother or intimates call their names, saying, "May you be born among human beings in 
Jambuling.  There having practiced the ten virtues, once again may you be born here in the god realm."  Having said that 
and scattered flowers, they depart.  The day of such gods is a week.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	In the celestial realms, as they are very happy,
	The suffering of death and transmigration is therefore great.
	Having contemplated that, superior ones
	Do not crave for celestial realms that will be exhausted.

	Their color of their bodies becomes unpleasant to see.
	Their thrones no longer please them.  Their wreaths of flowers wither.
	Their clothes smell bad; and irresistibly in their bodies,
	Arises a dread that they have never felt before.

	These are the five presages of being summoned by death
	And their transmigration from the celestial realm.
	That arise for gods within the realm of the gods.

	As with men on the earth who are going to die
	There are those who are summoned to view their deaths.

2)   The associated suffering of their subsequent samsaric birth
	
The samadhi gods of such realms of form, as the realms of Bhrama,
	Exhausting their former karma, fall down into samsara.
	They suffer the suffering of having foreseen this change.
	They see how their karma of formless shamatha will be exhausted.
	They suffer anticipating their subsequent state of samsara.
	Though they have gone to heaven, they cannot rely on it.
	Therefore, fortunate ones should gain enlightenment.

During their great fruition in the Bhrama realms, the samadhi-gods have natural bliss.  But they too die, and this is 
transformed.  they suffer over entering into their subsequent births.  Nagarjuna says:

Those with self-existing samadhi like the Bhrama realms,
	Though they have the brilliance of limitless light and color,
	Since they have not seen their latent ego-conceptions,
	After they die, they cannot help being born in Hell.

	Those gods who remain one-pointedly in formless shamatha, also die and transmigrate, and then with 
formations of suffering on seeing their subsequent samsaric birth, they must be reborn.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	Since they are in such a samsaric state asuras
	As well as Hell beings, animals, and hungry ghosts
	Are not good births and therefore we should know these births
	To be the vessels of many further kinds of harm

3)  The suffering of defiled bliss:
	
	All beings who are attached to samsaric happiness
	Are tormented for their craving in a fiery pit.

	Moreover, they sow the seeds of subsequent existences in the lower realms where there will be nothing but the 
flow of the four great currents.   The Letter to Students says:

	Gathering fiery suffering in the world of destruction,
	Beings who expect to be happy are manifesting pride.
	They will be flung to the giant mouth of the Lord of Death.
	They sow the seeds of the tree of subsequent rebirths.

4)  How we should establish liberation,

	There are four sections.

a)  How if we do not establish it, we shall not attain liberation

	We may think that we will really be protected by the Buddha from the lower realms, but here, if by ego we have 
done evil deeds, the fruition of the lower realms is ripening within us.  As for the teaching that it is difficult to have an 
opportunity of being seen with compassion:

Enlightenment and the means to it depend on us.
So it has been said by the Teacher of gods and men.
It cannot be the incidental gift of others,
Just as dreams in the coma of sleep cannot be stopped.
If this could be done, samsara would already have been emptied
By the rays of compassion of the Tathagata and his children.
You yourself must gird yourself in the armor of effort.
Now is the time to ascend the path of liberation.

	Being liberated from the lower realms and from samsara depends on our own efforts.  This cannot be done by 
any amount of effort or skillful means by someone else.  The vinaya says:

	I, by teaching you the means of liberation
	Teach you to strive for freedom depending on yourselves.

	That is the right idea.  Attempting to let the karma of one's self-accumulated projections reverse itself, is like 
eliminating a dream, by going to sleep and having another dream.  If that was workable, these immeasurable samsaric 
beings would already have been emptied previously by the light rays of compassion of the buddhas.

b)  Since we have not been tamed by the buddhas in the past, if we do not make an effort now, we will not be liberated by 
them.

	Therefore, by our own defects:
	
	Those like us who have not practiced the remedy,
	As was done by countless buddhas in the past,
	Will wander on the desolate path which is samsara,
	Whose nature is to be a path of evil deeds.
	Think how, as before, if we do not make an effort,
	We will produce the sufferings existing within the six realms.

	The Bodhicharyavatara says: 4.13-14

	For the sake of benefiting sentient beings
	There have been countless buddhas, teaching in the past;
	Though this is so, simply because of my own defects,
	I have not been the object of their curative actions.

	If now again I act in such a way as that,
	Having acted again and again in just that way,
	How will I be worthy of their consideration?

c)  The instruction that compassion will not enter into bad karma:
	
	The sufferings of samsara are as limitless as the sky.
	As unbearable as fire, and as various as all objects.
	Our lack of care for ourselves is really such a shame.
	How can we have a chance to enter into compassion.
	The wise and skillful deeds of buddha activity
	Are said to depend on the karma of those who are to be tamed.
	Therefore having come to recognize our faults,
	Mindful in our hearts of the suffering of samsara,
	So that we and beings may be liberated from samsara,
	Let us truly embark upon the path of peace.

	The sufferings of samsara are as limitless as space and cannot be encompassed by thought.  They are a mass of 
fire difficult to endure.  Since their existence is not reasonable, enduring the variety of seeming net of red and white 
apparent external objects is not right.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:  4.29

	This is an inappropriate and shameful object of patience.

	Since such patience is truly shameless.  Not seeing the rays of the sun of the Buddha's compassion, we are like 
people in the darkness under the earth who have no chance to enter into sunlight.  Just as the darkness under the earth has 
its own impure manner of existence, unassociated with conditions that produce light, within the murky darkness of one's 
own being, it is difficult for compassion to have an opportunity.  The compassion of the Victorious One also appears only 
in accord with the merit and good fortune of those who are to be tamed, The Avatamsaka Sutra says:

	Just as, even if the disk of the moon arises,
	When there is no vessel, it will not shine there,
	Also the ever-shining moon of the Buddha's compassion
	Will not shine where there is no vessel of good fortune.

	Since this is so, it is right to exert ourselves in the means of true liberation.

d)  How, even though suffering has been explained, we are not saddened

	Suitability for that is like this:
	
	If our suffering now is hardly bearable,
	How will we bear the pain that is truly unbearable.
	If we are not even a little sorry when this is explained,
	Our hearts must be great lumps, composed of the hardest iron.
	Our minds must surely be as thoughtless as a stone.
	
	Shantideva says:  ???

	If even the amount of suffering I have now
	Is irresistible and more than I can bear,
	What about the sufferings of sentient beings in Hell?
	How will I be able to bear such pain as theirs?

	Think about that, and don't just say "Well it isn't my fault!"  The Basket-like Talk says:

	We hear of samsaric suffering, and yet we are not sad.
	We who are like that are certainly very foolish.
	As if we were made of stone or a piece of solid iron.
	We clearly show ourselves to be just mindless fools.

C.  It is right to contemplate the sufferings of samsara.

	For that reason:
	
	Samsara is a valley of unbearable suffering.
	Knowing mind as the source of many different kleshas,
	Kleshas and sub-kleshas, and those that are universal,
	Who would want this state of samsara to increase further?
	So let us quickly be victorious over samsara.
	
	The nature of samsara is suffering.  The fruition of suffering is the five skandhas.  These are the six causes.  The 
five root kleshas and the twenty lesser kleshas are all included in the truth that all is suffering. The nature of this great 
source of many illnesses and harms should properly make us sad.

D.  the dedication of merit of the situation

	Now the merit of proclaiming the nature of these in song is dedicated as a cause of benefiting sentient beings:

	Therefore, by this dharma feast, the source of happiness,
	May as many beings as dwell in the three habitations
	Be able to nourish themselves on joy and happiness,
	Wearied by all the various kinds of suffering,
	Today may the nature of mind, be able to come to rest.

	That is the aspiration.  And by the auspiciously-caused merit of this wreath of genuine words and meanings, may 
all the beings here in the three worlds of beginningless samsara, impoverished and exhausted in the Dharma of 
accumulation of merit, be enriched by the true wealth of the noble ones, so that their weariness be eased.

	May those tormented by masses of fire in Hell and so forth
	Be cooled by a lake of celestial water gently falling.
	Wreathed in a circlet of jewels, their faces adorned in light,
	Having gone to the higher realms, may they reach enlightenment.

	Thus may hungry ghosts, animals, and asuras,
	Human beings and gods, becoming of equal fortune,
	Having attained the joy of the celestial realms,
	Attain the enlightened peace, where not even an atom exists.

	Awakening from the pure view of good dharmas of meditation.
	And also the absorptions of the four formless attainments,
	By having completely perfected themselves in merit and wisdom
May they attain a state like that of lord Amitabha.

	By this true and virtuous intention which is mine
 	May all samsaric beings be led to total peace,
	Striving day and night, may they perfect the two benefits.
	May they attain the limitless major and minor marks.


IV  This is the commentary on the fourth chapter of the GREAT PERFECTION, THE NATURE OF MIND, 
THE EASER OF WEARINESS, "Karma, Cause, and Effect."

	The fourth chapter, "Karma, Cause, and Effect," has four parts:

A.  The brief teaching of the essence,
B.  The extensive explanation of the nature,
C.  The final summary,
D.  The dedication of merit.

A.  The brief teaching of the essence.

	Why do these lives of wandering in the sufferings of samsara, each with its own appearances of joy and 
sorrow appear?  They occur because of karma:

	Thus, samsara's heights and depths of pleasure and pain
	Arise from former accumulations of our karma.
	That is how it has been taught by the Sage, the Buddha.

	From the different conditions of beings, different fruitions of their associated karma exist.  Many kinds of 
connection with their happiness and sorrow ripen.  The Hundred Actions says:

	E ma ho! Karma comes from the world.
	Joy and sorrow are a painting produced by karma.
	The assembly of conditions arises karmically.
	Happiness and suffering are produced by karma.

Also it says:

	Karmas over the time a hundred kalpas
	Do not dissipate, but accumulate.
	Once embodied beings have acquired them
	The ripening of their fruition is assured.

The White Lotus says:

	Karma, like a painter, produces everything.
	Karmic patterns are choreography of a dance.
	
The Gathering the Accumulations of Enlightenment says:

	Having as well as being without the three-fold kleshas
	Are established according to merit and karma of liberation.
	Because of mind, karma, and the causes of beings,
	Many karmas are gathered up, and then remain like seeds.

B.  The extensive explanation of the nature of karma, has two sections.

1.  The establishment of the samsaric world,
2.  Being connected to peace.

1.  The establishment of samsara.

	There are three sections

a.  The brief teaching,
b.  The extended explanation,
c.  How to eliminate it.

a.  The brief teaching

	From the establishment of the samsaric world, and being connected to peace, this is the first subject:

	The black and white actions that are the formations of samsara
	Have the nature of the ten wholesome and unwholesome actions.

	The ten unwholesome action and the ten wholesome ones that accord with merit establish samsara.  
What are they?  The  Precious Mala says:

	Not cutting off life, and giving up thievery;
	Leaving alone the spouses of other people;
	With no talk that is frivolous, wrong and rough,
	Keeping our speech both true and genuine.
	Without the attitudes of desire and anger,
	Having completely abandoned the view of ego,
 	These ten actions are the white karmic path.
	The opposites are the path of unwholesome blackness.

	These unwholesome actions produce suffering and the lower realms.  By the wholesome ones, we attain 
happiness and the higher realms.  The Objects of Mindfulness says:

	By unwholesome ones we gain suffering and the lower realms,
	By wholesome ones there is happiness and the higher realms.

The Sutra on Production of Karmic Phenomena says:

		The Householder Toutaputra, the bhramin's son, asked, Kye Gautama, by what cause 
and conditions are sentient beings short or tall, have many illnesses or few illnesses, have a 
pleasant or unpleasant color, great or small powers, exalted or low caste, great or small 
activities, and great or small prajqa?
		The Buddha spoke saying, "O Bhramin's son, sentient beings are as they are because of 
karma.  Their karmic roles are performed.  They have their karmic birth-places.  They depend 
on karma.  Low, high, and middle, exalted, degraded, bad, and good ones develop.  The karma 
of sentient beings is various.  Their views are various. Their actions are various.  By black 
karma sentient beings are born among hell beings, pretas, or animals.  By white karma they are 
born among gods and human beings.

b. The extended explanation,

There are three parts

1)  The support,
2)  The supported,
3)  The fruition.

1)  The support

	There are ten sections,

a)  The explanation of alaya and consciousness,
	
	The supporting ground of these is the neutral alaya.
	As if on the surface of a mirror without reflections,
	Luminous awareness, without conceptual   objects,
	Produces a ground for such reflections to arise,
	It is like the luminous clarity of a mirror.
	From that comes the consciousness of the five sense faculties.
	As the five senses fixate their objects, such as form,
	In its own nature this is not conceptual; 
	Rather they are like reflections in a mirror.
	After that occurs, there rise the awarenesses
	Of the divided objects of grasping and fixation.
	Within successive moments, as these are fixated or not,
	There may be conceptualization, or there may not.
	The former is klesha-mind, and mental consciousness.

	Karma and all the resulting appearance of phenomena depend on what is within alaya as its seeds.  The 
Sutra of the Immaculate Wisdom of Maqjushri says:

	Alaya is the ground of everything,
	The ground of both samsara and nirvana,
	And all the appearances of phenomena.

	The suchness of space is called the neutral alaya.  The ground of all that is divided it is completely 
neutral and undistinguished.
	On top of this, or within it, connected to and supporting the spontaneously present, primordially 
uncompounded nature of insight is the alaya of reality.  This is made into a ground by ignorance.
	The support of the dharmas of samsara, the collections of the eight consciousnesses, with their habitual 
patterns, is called the alaya of the various habitual patterns.   Within this are supported all things of the 
compounded nature of good and evil, arising as various joys and sorrows.  Here all causes and fruitions in accord 
with merit and all goodness according with liberation are also supported.  These are naturally supported by the 
fruition free from defilement.
	As for the extended explanation of these, on top of the neutral alaya are lower wholesome and 
unwholesome samsaric causes and effects; the aspects according with liberation, the separable cause of nirvana; 
and the karma of phenomenal appearances.  As many as are perceived are supported.
	Wholesome things according with liberation, included in the true path are incidental and compounded.  
Therefore, they are supported as separable causes within the alaya of various habitual patterns.  They are 
supported on the gotra as fruitions of separation.  Such a fruition is dependent in something like the way that the 
revealed sun depends on the sun behind obscuring clouds which is yet to be revealed.  The  Uttaratantra says:

	Earth is in water, water in wind,  and wind in space.
	But space is not in the dhatus of wind and water and earth.
	Thus the skandhas and dhatus,  and the powers of sense,
	Are supported in existence by karma and the kleshas.

	Karma and the kleshas are not as they should be.
	They always exist in the form of mental artifacts.
	As for these mental artifacts that are not proper entities,
	They exist completely in the purity of mind.
	But the true nature of the mind does not exist in these.

	In this case we speak of:

1).  The ground of separation
2).  The cause of separation
3).  The fruition of separation
4).  The separated.

	The ground of separation is the element or essence.  The cause of separation, eliminating defilements 
superimposed on that, is the aspect in accord with liberation, possessed by the wholesome path.  	The 
fruition of separation is that when sugatagarbha has been freed from all defilements, the buddha qualities 
manifest.
	The separated is the eight consciousnesses, with their various habitual patterns, which depend on the 
alaya of the various habitual patterns.
	These, according to secret mantra, are known as the basis, producer, and fruition of purification and that 
which is to be purified.  The words are different, but the meaning is the same.  	Within that state, without 
dependence, is the nature of ignorance, the alaya of the various habitual patterns.  It is the cause of impure 
samsara and its consciousness.  That compounded wholesome entities are associated with the level joined to 
liberation has been taught for a long time.  The alaya of reality is associated with the buddha qualities of nirvana, 
which depend on it.  These arise because of the essence, emptiness; the nature, luminosity; and all pervading 
compassion.  The jewel-like qualities of the alaya of reality, neither defiled nor free from defilement, are 
spontaneously present as realization of the primordially luminous kayas and wisdoms.

THE NATURAL STATE.

	The natural state is natural, complete purity, like space.  Though described by the names markless, 
emptiness, completely uncompounded, and so forth, it is not nihilistic empty nothingness; rather, it is realization 
of spontaneous presence, the luminosity of the kayas and wisdoms.  It is empty in the sense of being completely 
liberated from all dharmas of samsara.  The Continuous Display of Beauty says:

	The disk of the moon immaculate and pure,
	Always undefiled, is completely full.
	By the power of time within this world,
	The moon is thought to wax and wane in phases.

	Likewise, the alaya of reality
	Always is or possesses sugatagarbha.
	Alaya here is another word for the essence
	As it was taught by the tathagatas.

	For individuals who do not understand this
	Alaya, by the power of habitual patterns,
	Is seen as various karmic joys and sorrows,
	The Universal affliction of the kleshas.

	With a nature pure and undefiled,
	With qualities like a wish-fulfilling gem,
	Without transmigration, and without change,
	It is the perfect awareness of liberation.

Maitreya says:

	There is nothing to be illumined,
	There is nothing to be improved.
	The real looks at the real.

	In accountable names, this is called the associated alaya of reality, the beginningless goodness of the 
element of dharmas, sugatagarbha, the dhatu, the luminous nature of mind, dharmadhatu, the suchness of the 
natural state, the natural purity of suchness, the perfection of prajqa, the supporting ground, the source of arising, 
and the producer of the cause of separation.  However, what is being named cannot be truly encompassed by 
thought.
	In addition to the nature of mind there is the support of habitual patterns of samsara, called the alaya of 
the various habitual patterns.  What is it like?  It is primordially without the karmic natures of wholesome and 
unwholesome, liberation and apparent phenomena.  That is because it is the support and producer of all such 
incidental productions.  Since the arising of both good and evil depends on it, and because its essence is 
ignorance, it is neutral.
	Some say that ignorance rather than the alaya of the various habitual patterns is the support and 
producer of the five poisons and phenomenal arising. That is just a change of labels.  Why?  Though it is not the 
same as the ignorance that discriminates the five poisons, co-emergent ignorance at the time of first being 
confused by samsara is also called ignorance.
	The support and producer of phenomenal appearance should be examined further.  It is not the support 
and producer of the wisdom of buddhahood, possessing the two purities, primordial purity and purity from 
incidental defilements.  That kind of alaya must remain unchanged.  The Holy Golden Light says:

	The alaya that remains, is dharmakaya, the essence.

The Tantra on Exhausting the Basis of the Elements says:

	The pure alaya is the same as dharmadhatu.

	Pure alaya is not the cause of the dhatu separate from defilement, and they are not related as support and 
supported.  It does not produce  compounded merit and actions of meditation on the path of the accumulation of 
wisdom, except in the sense of being the support of their phenomenal appearance.  Since these are included in the 
true path, though classified as deceptive and impermanent, it is therefore accepted that they are dependent on the 
alaya of various habitual patterns.  If so, how is it reasonable that it also destroys such things?
	This has been said, but it really is like that.  It is like a lamp dependent on a wick or a fire dependent on 
fuel burning until they burn themselves out.  Though they depend on alaya, habitual patterns of samsara are self-
purified by the path of the two accumulations.  In that way defilements of the gotra, or of dharmadhatu, are 
purified.  Then the phenomenal exists as it did at first, as the manifested luminosity of enlightenment.  What 
produces this manifestation is called the condition of purification.  Subsequently the antidotes that produce 
purification destroy even themselves.  This is because they are good false conceptions imputed by mind.  The 
commentary on the Uttaratantra says:

		The beginning  of the manifestation of enlightenment occurs because all truths of the 
path are eliminated.

The Madhyamakavatara says:

	By burning all the dry kindling of every knowable object
	There is the dharmakaya of the victorious ones.

	If so, what about the kind of emptiness that throws nothing away or the thirty seven factors of 
enlightenment?
	Things are gathered into the level of buddhahood without being thrown away, and there are the thirty-
seven factors of enlightenment; but neither of these are included in the path, since at that point the path is over.
	The list of names of the great darkness is co-emergent ignorance, the alaya of the various habitual 
patterns, obscuration without beginning or end, primordially existing unawareness and so forth.
  	The nature of mind like the sky, besides existing as the beginningless space of the dhatu, depending on 
liberation is yogic union, and depending on samsara is the various habitual patterns.  These are the joys and 
sorrows of the different appearances of samsara and nirvana and the arising of their faults and virtues.  The 
commentary to the Uttaratantra says:

	The dhatu of time without beginning and end
	Is the true state of all the various dharmas.
	Since this exists, all beings are in nirvana.

THE DIVISIONS OF ALAYA AND THE EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES.

	The neutral alaya of the various habitual patterns is like a mirror.
	The alaya-consciousness, is like the luminous clarity of the mirror.
	The consciousnesses of the five gates are like reflections in the mirror.

	The mental consciousness is the process of analyzing former objects of these or saying, "These are the 
apparent objects of the five gates," when these first arise.
	Klesha-mind occurs after that, when desire, hatred or indifference arise simultaneously with experience.  
If there is no such appraisal by klesha-mind, there is no formation of any of the three poisons, and no karma is 
accumulated by the six sense-awarenesses.  This is how the former teachers say it should be analyzed.
	When the nature of all dharmas is known, the situation of the view, meditation, and action, is like that.  
Ignorant beings who make biased assertions about such a mind accumulate bad karma.
	Thus, the gate of accumulating karma is the mental sense and the five senses along with their supports.  
The actual accumulator is mind possessing the kleshas and wishing for goodness, and the one who knows such a 
mind.  When these are collected, they are collected on top of alaya.  The developer, proliferator and collector, 
diminisher and so forth, is alayavijqana.  Master Lodrv Tenpa in his great commentary on the 
Mahayanasutralankara  says:

		The mind-sense and the five senses, the eye and so forth, are the gates of karma, and 
supports of its entering.  The mind that thinks of good, bad, and indifferent is the producer.  The 
six objects, form and so forth, are what is produced.  Alayavijqana is the developer.  Alaya is 
their support and place, like a house.

	Alayavijqana is clear and vivid awareness with no fixation of grasper and grasped.  Proliferating from 
that are the awarenesses of the five senses.
	The eye consciousness has insight of form.  It does not arise conceptually,  but as consciousness.  
Similarly the ears hear, the nose smells, the tongue tastes, and things that the body can touch are sensed.  They do 
not arise conceptually, but as consciousness.  	The apparent objects that seem to arise as likenesses in the 
five gates are dharmas.  They are also the mind consciousness and the dharmas of the object aspect.  These 
phenomena, arising as apprehensions,  are known as consciousness.  The same text says:

	As for mind-consciousness, traces like former objects arise, or inferences of non-manifest 
objects, but these too are objects of consciousness.  Also the awarenesses of the five gates and 
alayavijqana, as soon as they have ceased, as former objects or phenomena of the individual six 
awarenesses, are also mental.

The Abhidharmakosha says:

	As soon as the six have ceased,
	Their consciousness becomes mind.

	When there is apparent form, the vivid, luminous object without a grasper is alayavijqana.  The arising 
awareness that apprehends a form-phenomena is the eye-consciousness.  When presentation of both has ceased, 
the instantly arising aspect that thinks and makes the imputation, "this is form," is mind or concept mind.   
Moreover, entering that same instant, labeling that non-conceptuality quickly and precisely as non-conceptual, the 
object first intuited is labeled in "grasping conception."    Detailed analysis that arises after that is "fixating 
conception."   If there is not this continuation of the apprehension of mind at the first instant, karma does not 
accumulate.  So it is maintained by all the lords of yoga.  The Doha of the Peak of Knowing says:

	The consciousness of the objects of the six senses,
	Is not defiled by simply being grasped.
	Without karma, it is also without its ripening.
	It is seen without defilement, like space.

b.  How consciousness accumulates karma

	Now, as for how these consciousnesses accumulate karma:
	
	By the coarsened vice and virtue of conceptual desire
	Alaya supports the seeds  of constructing what is desired.
	Luminous non-thought is reconstructed as form.
	Depending on these seeds there is one-pointed, formless non-thought.
	The removable two obscurations, the nature of samsara,
	Are an essential part of their environment.

	From the false conceptions of the coarse grasping and fixation of mind, one falls into the good and bad 
karma of the desire realm.
	If the natural state is not attained in samadhi, meditation in which conceptualization of apparent objects 
as appearances does not arise, karma collects on top of alaya in the realm of form.
	By meditating in complete non-thought, in the sense of blocking apparent objects, seeds of being born in 
formlessness are heaped up in alaya.  The chapter on "ultimate samadhi" of the Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

		Whoever is afflicted by desire  produced by discursive thoughts, in turn produced by 
formations of good, bad, and indifferent, falls into the desire realm.
		Whoever within this kind of mind has complete non-thought that does not discard 
objects, produces one-pointed yogic union.  Separate from the essence of Dharma, this is 
conditioned formation of the form realm.  	Whoever is within neither form or desire, not seeing 
the tracks of mind's objects, and becoming accustomed to this by looking at it a great deal, 
whirls in the formless realm.
		These will never be liberated from these three realms of samsara.  Therefore, hearing 
with true hearing, one should earnestly meditate on that which should be meditated on.

c)  The occasion of awareness

	Now the occasion of awareness is taught:

	When awareness is undistracted, being without all thoughts,
	One pointed without the grasping of apparent objects,
	That is the time of apprehending the neutral alaya.
	When there is no fixation of luminous appearance,
	That is the motionless, clear, and luminous alaya-consciousness.
	When the five objects are grasped and fixated, affirmed and denied,
	And objects are coarsely conceived in the seven consciousnesses,
	That is what is called the seven consciousnesses.

	Unwavering one-pointedness without any thoughts at all is alaya.  When apparent objects are lucidly 
seen, with still attention and without any thoughts at all, this is alayavijqana.  Then, when phenomenal objects 
arise clearly and distinctly this is awareness of the five gates.  When any object that arises is grasped at the first 
instant, and then is adulterated by kleshas produced by secondary apprehensions, this fixated arising is klesha 
mind and the mental consciousness.  Those are the seven consciousnesses.  The Level of the Awakening of 
Bodhicitta says:

	Non-thought unconnected to objects is the occasion of alaya.  Non-thought connected to objects 
is the occasion of alayavijqana.  Individual apprehension of phenomenal objects is the five gates. 
 With subsequent analysis of the first conception of objects as for grasping and fixation arising, 
this is mind-consciousness and the occasion of klesha-mind. 

d)  Knowing the occasions:

	When becoming familiar with these, in the three realms of samsara,
	There is formation of the three gates and of suffering.

	Knowledge of alaya unconnected with the path of liberation is the stable samadhi of one-pointed resting, 
and the stable conceptionless luminosity of vipashyana.  Subsequent arising of objects, with the predominant 
condition of the six senses, in their accumulated coarse awareness of good and evil are the formless, form, and 
desire realms.  The reason is that liberation is not accomplished, and grasping and fixation are not transcended.  
Also, grasping this samadhi of non-thought, and resting in it one pointedly without distraction involves fixation.
	Pure dhyana is meditation in the style of skillful means, the great compassion, and prajqa without 
phenomenal complexities of subject and object  that does not abide in the two extremes.  The state described, 
with no one-sided nihilistic meditation, is connected with the natural state incomprehensible by thought, and the 
happiness and bliss attained with it.  Though miracles and higher perceptions are attained, there is no haughty 
delight and pride in them and no fixation of marks.
	Since one has to come out again from nihilistic meditation, it does not go beyond samsara.  It is obvious 
that today's meditation has strayed into the common-path meditation of the extremists etc.   Nor is it seen to have 
the intrinsic buddha qualities.

e)  What predominates in the three chief realms

As for these consciousnessses in their own place and as chief factors of other places, and contemplating the ways 
of samsara:
	
	In the realm of desire the seven consciousnesses dominate.
	In the realm of pure form it is the alaya-consciousness.
	In the formless realm there is only the non-thought of alaya.
	The other two samsaric styles are merely latent.
	Each of the levels should be known like that.
	
	In his commentary examining alaya and wisdom, Loppvn Sanje Sangwa says:

		Within the desire realm, the seven consciousnesses, the eye-consciousness and so forth 
are the principal ones, and the others exist as their retinue.  In the realm of form, the 
alayavijqana, and object-engaging consciousness are principal, and the others are their retinue.  
In the formless realm, alaya is the principle one The others exist only as latencies.

f)  How consciousness dissolves

	Here are the extensive divisions of the subject:

	Thus when we go to sleep, within the desire realm,
	Awareness of the five objects by stages dissolves into mind. 
	This dissolves within the non-thought of alaya.	
	This is a one-pointed state without apparent objects.
	This too dissolves in dharmadhatu, simplicity.
	When it develops again, from the alaya consciousness,
	There is isolated mind, known as the mind of dreaming.
	What is really nothing appears.  We affirm and negate its variety.
	This develops further and we awake from sleep.
	By entering into the objects and consciousness of the six senses,
	Various karmic formations come to be engendered.
	This is how things appear throughout the day and night.

	When beings of the desire realm go to sleep, the awareness of the five gates of the senses and klesha 
mind gradually dissolve into the mental consciousness.  As the mental consciousness dissolves into alayavijqana, 
luminous non-thought arises for a little while.  Those who recognize this and rest within it course without 
dreaming in the luminosity of dharmata.  Some teachers of the new transmission say that Alayavijqana dissolves 
entirely into the impermanent alaya.  Alaya dissolves into dharmadhatu.  On the subsiding of coarse and subtle 
grasping, the simplicity of empty and luminous dharmata arises and, if it is recognized, confusion is eliminated.  
Sangwa Yeshe says in the Compendium of the Precious Tantras says:

	After the seven consciousnesses dissolve into alaya
	Alaya dissolves in the purity of space.
	Then there is the primordial state of co-emergence,
	The natural state of wisdom, emptiness/luminosity.
	That is something that every yogin ought to know.

	Then these unfold from wisdom again:  there is alayavijqana, and by that, from the rising of the mental 
consciousness alone, various dreams arise.  At this time, objects of habitual mind are grasped as dharmas having 
their own individual nature.  Also the conceptually activated pranas and the pranas in the nadis that depend on the 
seven consciousnesses enter into the side nadis roma and kyangma, and then the central channel.  Then they are 
known as the consciousness that is not equalized with alaya.  That is because they are united with nadi and prana 
and equalized with them.  Then they enter into the central channel in one taste.  This is the time of alaya.  One 
goes into deep sleep without dreams.  Some directly experience the characteristics of dreamlessness, and rest 
there.  Then as for alaya dissolving into dharmadhatu, in the center of the central channel there is the supreme 
luminosity.  The elements of the coarse nadis do not become this, and the unmoving prana has the nature of its 
clear light.  The All-illuminator says:

	The nadi that exists in the center of the central channel
	Does not become supreme luminosity.
	The clear space of luminosity without solidity
	Is spontaneously present wisdom, the true state of everything.

	The essence of prana in the central channel is said to be awareness itself.  At the time of its entry there 
luminosity arises.  At that time the bindus of apparent luminosity, radiance, rainbows, and so forth arise.  Empty 
luminosity, mind itself free from all complexity arises.  The luminosity of union, the great wisdom that 
experiences luminous insight arises.  Then, when alaya, its consciousness and mind consciousness unfold again, 
within the life-nadi the mind prana that depends completely on memory proliferates.  Then by the entry of prana 
into the nadis that support the individual senses, we wake from sleep.  The objects that appear by day arise in the 
usual unreflective grasping and fixation.  Then if an object that seems to be form is conceptually apprehended, its 
individual divisions will be nothingness.

g)  If one divides dharmas individually

	In the level of pure form, there are the four dhyana states.
	These remain within the alaya consciousness.
	Though sometimes a subtle consciousness may grasp at objects,
	By training in samadhi, this mostly does not occur.

	At the time of the actual dhyanas, each one has its own non-thought as the principal thing.  Conceptions 
of objects are dormant and exist as a retinue.  The first second, and third dhyanas have the faults of concept, 
analysis, and a feeling of concentrated joy.   Up to the fourth some exist there with the three bases of sentient 
beings, death, transmigration, and the chance to listen to the dharma. 

h)  How continuity of mind depends on the four formless skandhas of name:

	Consciousness of the formless level is alaya.
	In its four one pointed shamathas, those on space and the rest,
	Are very subtle feelings, perceptions, formations, and consciousness,
	On these four skandhas of name, depends mind's continuity.
	We may not awake from one-pointed samadhi or a kalpa.
	When this is examined, no virtuous seeds are planted at all.

	Before death, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness dissolve into alaya.  These four are 
known as the skandhas of name.  The mental body, depending on the continuity of mind, goes into the samadhi of 
one-pointed shamatha, resting in the four states of limitless space, time, consciousness, and of neither perception 
nor non-perception.  Even after an entire kalpa, like lapsing into deep sleep, no good karma will have been 
produced.  Though no actual bad karma will have been produced either, intrinsic karmic ignorance is activated, 
and one's natural ignorance increases.

i)  How to comprehend the mind of the four formless dhyanas:

	Therefore, even this, the mind of the formless dhyanas,
	Is left on exhausting the karma of which it is the fruit.
	Because it is ignorance, its nature is neutral.
	Because it produces repeated errors of cause and effect,
	Therefore we need to be liberated from it.

	The Sutra on Being Without Suffering says:

	By the productive power of former collection of virtue,
	Fine houses of the celestial gods are reached and relinquished.
	From the formless samadhis too, when their karma is exhausted,
	Again one goes with those who are on or under the earth.

j)  In particular, how the three-fold awareness of the desire realm of same and different, by becoming familiar to 
the mind of desire, also produces the cause of liberation.
	
	As the mind of desire becomes what it is accustomed to,
	It also produces the cause of being freed from its highs and lows.

	Both the coarse and celestial levels are levels of karma.  In particular, since one can become a vessel of 
practicing the Dharma, the Objects of Mindfulness says:

	In the desire realm mind becomes coarsened by planting seeds of good and bad.  Therefore, in 
particular, we should try to work with good dharmas.

i)  What consciousness predominates during the day:

	By day the seven consciousnesses usually dominate.
	The other two natures are then the retinue of these.
	Thus the grasping of form by visual consciousness
	The luminous aspect, free from thought, is alaya-consciousness.
	The aspect of non-thought is alaya itself.
	All the other six should be known in a similar way.

	The eye seeing form is the eye-consciousness.  Clear awareness of luminosity and non-thought is 
alayavijqana. Non-thought is alaya itself.  Similarly, for sound, smell, taste, and touch, and when the mind 
apprehends a remembered object, the consciousnesses apprehend their respective individual objects.  Luminous 
awareness is alayavijqana.  Non-thought is alaya.  When there is the motionless, vivid luminosity of alayavijqana, 
individual objects are not hindered, and there is also awareness of them.  The luminosity is alayavijqana, and the 
non-thought is alaya.  Also one-pointed entering and dissolving into real alaya exist as latencies, just as the stars 
exist as latencies when the sun rises.  Here is how the Commentary Examining Mind and Wisdom explains the 
armor of buddhahood:

		Completely non-conceptual awareness rests in alaya.  Its mere clarity/luminosity is 
alayavijqana.  Apprehension of individual objects is the six consciousnesses.  Entering, 
dissolving, and non-thought are the situations of alaya.

ii)  The way in which these are the same and different

    Here is the explanation of how they are the same and different:

	Sleep is one-pointed, and when we awake from out of our dreams,
	Alaya, the alaya consciousness, and the mind,
	And then the six senses also should be known
	As successively one and two in one and all in one.

	In one-pointed sleep, all awareness is one in alaya.  It never fails to be outwardly re-emanated.  When we 
dream, from within that come alayavijqana and superimposed on that, the mind consciousness arises alone.  At 
this time of no external emanation, alaya is of one essence with the consciousness rising from it, and the mind 
consciousness.   When we wake from sleep, there is a great deal of external emanation from within alaya, but 
alaya and all of the eight consciousnesses are still of one nature.  As for these, the Secret Commentary says that 
the four elements are displayed.
	Now if the meaning is summarized very clearly, luminous mind is the support or source of all that arises. 
 Within it, samsara and nirvana are completely undivided and undifferentiated.  This natural state of changeless 
unity is sugatagarbha, the source of samsara and nirvana.  The Dohakosha says:

	Solitary mind itself is the seed of all.
	Whatever emanates as samsara and nirvana.
	It bestows the fruition of whatever is desired.
	I prostrate to mind, which is like a wish-fulfilling gem.

The Gandavyuha Sutra says:

	To describe the special cause, from which arising occurs,
	It is not without causation. It is also not without action,
	Not different from appearance; not different from alaya.

	If phenomenal appearances were different from it,
	In that case, alaya would not be something eternal.
	Unmanifested, undestroyed, and permanent,
	Alaya completely excludes the four extremes
	Existing as the purity of sugatagarbha,
	It is said to be the emanation of wisdom.
	
	It and the essence are mutually not different
	It is like a finger, pointing to the essence.
	The various levels and alaya are also sugatagarbha.
	Alaya is that essence, the Sugata has taught.
	Though the essence thus is known as alaya.
	Those whose minds are weak have no knowledge of this.

	The nature pure of causation, the kayas and wisdoms and so forth, is known as the undefiled, true alaya. 
 When it is made into the support of samsara, it is designated as the defiled alaya of the various habitual patterns. 
 The different kinds of supported dharmas are of one nature with the supporting ground.  The 
Abhisamayalankara  says:

	By particular kinds of supported dharmas
	Its divisions are completely to be expressed.

	That is the same approach.  When there is defilement, it also exists by a different name as our 
enlightened family nature or essence, in itself pure of every defilement, but needing to be purified of separable 
stains.  The above text says:

	Just as in the conception of those who do not know
	The moon is thought to wax to fullness and wane away.
	Though actually the moon neither grows nor diminishes,
	That is how it seems to people in the world.

	Similarly within the alayavijqana,
	Foolish, ignorant beings who do not know how things are
	Think that things are always growing and diminishing.
	Not thinking in this way is known as buddhahood.

	Alaya as the ground of all the various dharmas,
	Has habitual patterns of pride and all the rest
	And so is disturbed by concepts and discursive thoughts.

	If it becomes otherwise, it is undefiled.
	If it ever attains its natural non-defilement,
	Since this is eternal, it will always have it.

	The actual moon neither waxes nor wanes; but by the power of time it appears do so.  The luminous 
nature of mind itself is buddhahood.  It does not have the characteristics of joy and sorrow.  Yet samsaric beings 
see the celestial realms, the lower realms, and so forth.  If the real nature is purified, one reaches the real alaya.  
That is what is being said.
	That completes the explanation of the arising of alayavijqana and the eight consciousnesses from alaya.  
 These are included within the ignorant confusion of the mind-consciousness.  The Sutras say:

	Mind, the chief, is very quick.
	It precedes all the dharmas.

	When we do not know the changeless nature, the perfectly established, there is false conception.  Various 
kinds of impure, confused appearance arise, produced within relativity.  When these dreamlike confusions of 
samsara are eliminated, there is the perfectly established, mind itself.  By meditation on the true path of upaya and 
prajqa in the developing and perfecting stages; the primordial ground, the essence, is made to manifest and is 
realized as it is.  That completes the explanation of the ground, the support of karma.

2)  The explanation of the supported, karma,

a)  The root, ignorance:
	
	The root of karma, dependent dharmas, is ignorance.
	Its threefold essence is passion, aggression, and ignorance.
	These produce the board of samsara, black and white.

	Primordially luminous mind-itself, by not apprehending its own nature, propagates confusions of 
grasping and fixation all over the ground, so that all the sentient beings of samsara are confused.  The 
Prajqaparamitasamgatha  says:

	As many sentient beings as there are, low, middle, and high,
	They have arisen from ignorance.  So the Sugata taught.

	The lower ones are those in the lower realms.  The middle ones are human beings.  The higher ones are 
the gods.   Each experiences the joys and sorrows of their own particular kind of karma.  The root of this is 
ignorance.  They all equally possess the three poisons.  They all equally possess unwholesomeness.  In accord 
with their virtues and merits, they all produce fruitions of happiness.

The section on the producer, the wholesome or virtuous, has two divisions, the ground and divisions of 
wholesomeness.  As for the explanation of the ground: by the wholesome, happiness and the higher realms are 
established.  By the unwholesome, suffering and the lower realms are produced.

b)  The producer, unwholesomeness

	As for the explanation of the unwholesome:
	
	Since we can fall from high to low within samsara
	There are the unvirtuous actions, divided into ten.
	There are three of body, four of speech, and three of mind.

	The ten unwholesome actions that produce falling from the higher realms into the lower ones, and 
nothing but suffering are as follows:

The three unwholesome actions of body

1.  Cutting off life.
2.  Taking what is not given.
3.  Sexual transgression.

The four unwholesome actions of speech

1.  Lying.
2.  Divisive speech.
3.  Sophistic speech. 
4.  Harsh words.

The three unwholesome actions of mind

1.  Covetice.
2.  Ill-will.
3.  Wrong view.

c)  The divisions,

i)  The actions of body:
	
	Cutting off life is intentional killing of another
	Related is endangering life through beating and such.
	Taking what is not given is stealing another's goods.
	Related to this is getting them by using fraud.
	Transgressions in sex are with persons committed to others.
	Related are dharmas like improper sexual acts.
	
	Everything from maliciously killing worms and insects, knowingly cutting off their lives, and striking 
them, chopping them up, and so forth is included in cutting off life.
	Taking what is not given is stealing the wealth of others, and related is using fraud to have them given.
	 Sexual transgression, refers to another's spouse, those who are close relatives, or not in their right minds, 
or deliberately having sex at an improper place or time.  Included are intercourse in forbidden parts of the body, 
such as the hands.

  The Abhidharmakosha  says:

	Cutting off life, as we rightly think, is killing others.
	Taking what is not given makes another's wealth one's own;
	Including acquisition of it through force or deceit.
	Forbidden desires, comprise the four kinds of wrongful sex.

The commentary on the Drowa Namje says:

	What is like the actual thing, is related to it.  Having arisen similarly, it is like it; like beating 
someone with a stick and relying on magical ceremonies to that end.

ii)  The four actions of speech:
	
	Speaking false words is lying to change another's opinion.
	Related is devious words that others will receive falsely.
	Slander is speaking words that bring about dissention.
	Related is saying one thing here, another there.
	Idle talk is evil teachings and frivolous words.
	Related is disconnected or fallacious speech.
	Harsh language is abusive words that denigrate others.
	Related is gentle words that are displeasing to others.

	To make speech a gate of entering the Dharma, actions of speech are explained.  To speak words that are 
not true to change the perceptions of others is false speech.  Related to that is if one sees that another has been 
deceived by literally true words.  Saying slanderous words that bring dissension to others is divisive speech.  To 
say one thing to one person, and something else to another is related.
	To start, spread, and listen to gossip; and to talk disconnectedly and frivolously, saying various things 
that contradict dharma; is idle or sophistic speech. To say something inappropriate at the time is related.
	Harsh language is saying things unpleasant to the ears of others and insulting them.  Related is saying 
things gently to make them unhappy.  The Abhidharmakosha says:

	False words change the perception of another person
	By their understanding of their meaning of the words.
	Divisive words are those that bring dissent to others,
	These are the words of a mind that has the kleshas.
	Rough words are those that are not pleasant when they are heard.
	All that have the kleshas are words of idle talk.

The commentary says:

		True words that are deceptive, to repeat such words, to speak at a time when one 
should not, and to speak pleasantly, but make others unhappy are the related actions.

iii)  The three actions of mind:

	Covetice finds another's wealth unbearable.
	Therefore it makes an attempt to make it into one's own.
	Related is longing for others' glories, such as learning.
	Malice is the angry mind that harms another.
	Related is anger that does not want their benefit.
	Wrong views include eternalism and nihilism,
	Or the view that says that cause and effect do not exist.
	Related are errors of glorification and denigration.

	Inappropriately wishing that another's belongings were one's own is covetousness.  Getting angry at the 
learning and so forth of another and wishing it were one's own is related.  Wishing to harm another is malice.  
Being unhappy and angry with their benefits is related.  Denigrating karmic cause and effect and falling into the 
extremes of eternalism and nihilism are wrong views.  Exaggeratedly glorifying and denigrating the true dharma, 
the spiritual friends who teach it, and others who are in accord with the dharma is related.  The 
Abhidharmakosha says:

	Covetice wrongly craves another's wealth
	Malice is hostility to beings.
	Wrong views say there is no good and evil
	
The commentary on the Drowa Namje says:

		To be angry at learning and so forth and covet it,  to be angry and displeased at others' 
benefits, to disparage true spiritual friends and others according with dharma are the related 
actions.
	
	In this case, though it does not call denigration of the dharma and individuals a related action, the 
Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines says:

		Subhuti, those who accumulate the karma of depriving others of the Dharma will be 
born as beings of the lower realms or among those who have fallen into wrong views.  They will 
suffer among the beings of the great hell, the Avici Hell.  Having been contained in its fires for a 
kalpa, they will be born in the great hells of other world systems.  There too, when they have 
been contained in fire for a kalpa, It is taught that they will go to another, and so forth beyond 
measure.

The Sutra of the Miracle of Ascertaining Complete Peace says:

	For 500 kalpas they will have five hundred heads.
	Every one of these heads with not less than five hundred tongues,
	And every tongue with plows, five hundred and not less,
	Of hotly blazing iron, will be repeatedly plowed,
	And all because of the evil deed of denigration.
	
The Examination of the three Jewels says:

		Kashyapa, If some individual says that I or one like me who has grasped the Dharma and 
grasped the measure of individual beings, has not grasped the measure of the dharma and grasped the 
measure of individual beings, that individual will fall.

3) the fruition,

There are three sections

a)  The brief teaching of the nature.

	 Now the fruition of these is explained: 

	With bad object, motive, thoughts, and their application.
	As for the fruitions of the ten unwholesome actions,
	There are ripening, and according with their causes,
	power, and action.

	When these unwholesome actions are produced by an unwholesome object, motivation, thought, and 
application, a fruition ripens in accord with the causes and the dominant nature or power.  So it is said in the great 
texts, and moreover, in the oral instructions, the fruition of action is explained additionally.

b)  The four divisions

i)  The ripening of the fruition:

	The lesser fruition of the ten actions is birth as an animal.
	The middle as a preta, and the great to suffer in hell.

	The Objects of Mindfulness says:

		Of these ripenings, the lesser is to be born as an animal.  The intermediate is to be born 
as a preta.  The great is to be born among the hell beings.

ii)  Fruition according with the cause,

	There are two kinds

1))  Accord with the cause of action.

	According with the cause is said to be twofold.
	One is born in a situation like that of one's former action.
	Then there is the fruition of such a situation.

	The Hundred Actions says:

		Those who have become accustomed to unwholesome conduct, will again be dependent 
on unwholesomeness and will act unwholesomely.  They will continue in their 
unwholesomeness.

2))  Accord with the cause of experience:

	Even if such beings attain the higher realms,
	Their lives are short and they will suffer from many diseases.
	They will not be rich in possessions, and have to share them with enemies.
	Their spouses will be ugly, and still there will be rivals.
	They will be often slandered and cheated by other people.
	Their servants will always be intractable and bad.
	They will hear unpleasantness and quarrelsome words.
	No one will heed their words; their ventures will be uncertain Desire will grow. They will not know 
what is enough.
	Not acquiring benefits, they will harmed by others.
	Their views will be wrong, and therefore, they will be much deceived.

	The ten unwholesome actions have two stages of fruition
	The fruition fits the cause, then one experiences that.

	The Hundred Actions says:

	Those who cut off life can be among gods and humans, but their lives will be short with much sickness.  
Those who take what is not given will be anxious about possessions, impoverished, and have to share with 
enemies.
	Sexual transgressors will have an unpleasant spouse shared with others.  Those who speak falsely will 
often be slandered and cheated.  Divisive people will have bad servants and retinue with whom they cannot be 
reconciled.  Those who speak harshly will hear unpleasant and quarrelsome words.  Idle talkers will not have their 
words heeded and trusted.  The desires of covetous persons will increase, and they will never know what is 
enough.  Malicious people will get nothing beneficial and be objects of harm.  Those with wrong views will have 
bad views and be much deceived.

The Precious Mala says:

	For those who cut off life, their own lives will be short.
	By taking what is not given we are separated from wealth.
	Those who engage in imprudent sex will make enemies.
	Those who speak falsely thereafter will often be reviled.

	By divisiveness, we will never have companions.
	By harsh words, we will hear unpleasant things.
	By idle talk our speech will always go unheeded
	By covetice the hopes of mind will be destroyed
	By malice we will be given the gift of being destroyed.

iii)  the fruition of power

	As for the dominant result
	
	The power of the effect ripens externally.
	Here with impure dependence on the power of other,
	Takers of life will live in a place that is very drab.
	Medicinal herbs and trees, leaves and fruits and flowers,
	Food and drink and are insipid with little potency.
	Also hard to digest, they make obstacles to life.

	From taking what is not given, crops will never ripen.
	We are born in a fearful region of cold, with hail and famine.

	Sexual transgressors are born in crowded places,
	Miry swamps that are full of urine and excrement,
	Nasty places of stinking filth and sticky defilement.
	They are cramped and depressed in places without joy.

	Liars are born in inhospitable, fearful places.
	Wealth soon shifts as one is cheated by all the others.

	Slanderers are blocked by impassible heights and depths,
	Cliffs and ravines, and deep defiles block all progress
	With a unpleasant variety of irregular surfaces.

	Those who use harsh language are born among stones and thorns.
	In places that are hot or otherwise unpleasant 

	By idle talk we are born where harvests do not ripen,
	Places where the flow of seasons is disrupted.
	We cannot stay anywhere long, as things are so unstable.

	By covetice we see meager grain and copious chaff,
	Born where the better times of year are changeable.

	By malice we are born in places naturally harmful
	Crops and grain are pungent & bitter to the taste
	There are thieves and imperious rulers, savage natives and snakes.

	By wrong view we have no source of precious things.
	Medicinal herbs and trees, flowers, and grain are few.
	There is no refuge and we are without any friends or protection.

	The resolution is as presented.  The Commentary on the Center and Limit says:

	By the power of being a vessel, virtue predominates

iv)  The fruition of action:
	
	Whatever people may do, there is an unhappy result.
	Whatever is done, by its spreading, suffering is produced.
	

the Objects of Mindfulness says tersely:

	Ignorant ones who do evil deeds will do them again.
	Evil deeds proliferate, and there is tremendous suffering.

c. The final summary:
	
	In short these ten actions by their nature are unwholesome.
	They are like poison and anyone who ever performs them
	Heavy, light, or medium, will make great suffering.
	Therefore we should try to avoid them like enemies.
	
	The instructions to the noble one Gyebu Nor  in the Dulwa Lung say:

		The unwholesome is like poison, because a little produces great suffering.  It is like a 
wild man, because it destroys the assembly of wholesomeness.  Therefore it should be 
abandoned and one should try to do what is wholesome.

	The Precious Mala says:

	What is unwholesome in body, speech, and mind
	Should entirely be eliminated.
	What is wholesome should always be pursued.
	By that the above two dharmas are explained.

c.  How to eliminate the unwholesome,

There are three sections

1)  Producing the benefits of the higher realms:
	
	The ten kinds of wholesome actions lead to the higher realms.
	Their wholesome intention avoids the ten unwholesome ones.
	Cutting off life is avoided, and taking what is not given.
	Wrongful sex is avoided, and also lies and slander.
	Speech is not harsh or frivolous.  Thoughts are not covetous.
	We keep far away from malice and wrong views.

	Merely by abandoning the unwholesome actions, the ten wholesome ones will occur.  This is because 
they are related as opposites.  Therefore, the attitude that abandons the ten unwholesome actions is that of the ten 
wholesome ones, the Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

	"I have abandoned the taking of life," and so forth.  These ten are said.

2)  The ripening of their fruition:
	
	If these actions are small, we are born in the human realm.
	If more, we are born among the gods of the realm of desire.
	Great ones connect us to the samadhi of formless dhyanas.
	Thus, we can grasp the pleasures of the two higher realms.
	The four results are the opposite of the previous ones.
	The fruition should be known to be birth in the higher realms.

	By lesser wholesome conduct, we are born among the human beings and gods of the desire realm.  If it is 
great, we are born in the samadhi realms.  These are the two higher realms the realm of pure form, and the 
formless realm.  The higher realms are attained, and entrance into the lower realms is cut off.  The Precious 
Mala says:

	By these dharmas we are completely liberated
	From being a being in hell, a preta, or animal.
	After birth among gods or else among human beings
	Increasing glory and happiness is easily attained.
	One experiences the bliss of Bhrama and so forth
	Or the measureless samadhis of the formless realm.

3)  How we should choose what to accept and reject:

	Thus, by the merit of these ten wholesome actions
	We are led to happiness, but the ten of unwholesome nature
	Lead instead to falling into the lower realms.
	Accept the white cause and effect, and likewise reject the black.
	This will be the path to worldly happiness,
	Taught to be the fine vehicle of divine and human birth.
	By establishing subsequent lives in happy forms,
	We truly lay a foundation for our liberation.
	Therefore, fortunate beings should depend on doing so.
	
	The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		Subhuti, by accepting the true path of these ten wholesome actions, we are born in the 
higher realms.  By remaining on the path of the ten unwholesome actions, we are born in the 
lower realms.
	
The White Lotus of Holy Dharma says:

	The vehicle of gods and human beings has the ten virtues.

The Supreme Essence says:

	The vehicle of gods is the four dhyanas and the four formless attainments.  The vehicle of 
human beings is the ten virtues.  The latter depends on good dharmas.

	Yana means vehicle, mount, or means of conveyance.  When we ride them, each one brings us to its 
particular fruition.  The Prajqaparamitasamgatha says 304.3

	Riding them does away with the sufferings of beings.
	These vehicles are a great house, immeasurable as space.
	The highest yana produces joy, happiness, and well-being.

	Depending on different levels of mind, different vehicles are taught.  For example, one is taught for those 
who aim at complete peace.  The White Lotus says:

	That one vehicle does not have the three vehicles.
	It is taught as provisional skillful means.

Two are also taught.  the Immaculate Space Sutra says:

	In accord with the affinities of sentient beings,
	I have bestowed the teachings of the two vehicles.

These are the mahayana and hinayana.  Three are also taught.  The White Lotus says:

	Teaching how to tame the kleshas the gates of Dharma
	Are said to be eighty-four thousand, but the true intent of the buddhas
	Is the one inseparable essence.  That I have taught three vehicles
	Is explained by different capacities of sentient beings.

	In brief, the levels of mind are limitless, and not all of them perceive the true meaning.  The 
Lankavatara  Sutra says:

	Not all the minds as enter finish the vehicle.
	Once mind has done that, there is no mind nor vehicle.

	In this case the vehicle of gods and men is being discussed.  The same text says:

	Likewise I explained all the different vehicles.
	The vehicle of the shravakas, and that of the pratyekabuddhas.
	Within the vehicle of gods and human beings
	Samsaric suffering can be eliminated.
	However, what comes later is not seen at all.

2.  the second section of the extended explanation of karma and being joined to peace,

	There are six sections

a.  the general explanation of the wholesome being associated with liberation.

Now, as for the wholesome being associated with liberation, good is certainly established.  If the details are 
explained:

	The happiness of freedom puts samsara far away.
	It leads to peace beyond the game of black and white,
	Forming the array of the heights and depths of samsara.
	Included within the five paths that lead to this liberation
	Are the ten wholesome actions, and the four dhyana states of form,
	The five formless dhyana attainments, the six perfections and so on.
	Realizing that persons and dharmas have no self,
	By the happy combination of prajqa and upaya,
	Dwelling neither in samsara or nirvana,
	We shall produce great benefits for all sentient beings.
	Attaining the limitless state of the Victorious One,
	By the wholesomeness of yoga we pass beyond all worlds.

	The previously taught merit completely transcends both the good and evil associated with it.   As for the 
good which completely liberates us from defilement, the cause of being born in the cycles of samsara, the 
phenomenal accumulation of merit, the ten virtues, the first five paramitas, and so forth are relative.  The non-
phenomenal accumulation of wisdom, prajqa, does not dwell in the two extremes.  When, by the stages of the five 
paths, these are united, we apprehend the level of buddhahood beyond the world's goodness.
	Worldly goodness is grasped in terms of things and characteristics.  This is beyond things and 
characteristics.  From the very time the good action is done, it is liberated from the mind of merit and non-merit.  
It is awareness of the empty, compassionate essence.  As to the details, the Prajqaparamitasamgatha says:

	If they are able to carve a well-formed woman's image,
	Wood-workers who are skilled can make anything else as well.
	Likewise, bodhisattvas skillfully trained in prajqa
	Can do whatever is done by the wisdom of non-thought.

The Precious Mala says:

	Whoever pacifies having knowledge and being without it,
	Thereby has gone beyond both merit and evil deeds.
	Liberation from the higher and lower realms,
	Is what is explained as being truly liberated.

Also it says there:

	Having the essence of emptiness and compassion,
	One has been established in enlightenment.

	With the mind of truth, in apparent goodness
without entangling attachments, like emanations and illusions, we acts for the benefit of others.  However, if the 
space-like goodness established by prajqa does not establish the path of liberation, this will not take place.  The 
Prajqaparamitasamgatha says:
	
	If a billion blind persons with no one to lead them
	Tried to get to a city, though they did not know the way,
	Attaining the first five perfections of the Victorious One,
	Without attaining the eye of prajqa is like that.

The Essence of the Eight Instructions says:

		The time when the five first paramitas are completed by the perfection of prajqa is the 
time of entering into the city of omniscience.

	Thus, since all dharmas are natureless, the good too is natureless, and in this way beginners and those of 
inferior mind abandon it.  The Precious Mala says:

	Though these dharmas are truly good and very wholesome,
	With the air of being profound and subtle beings
	Childish individuals who are without true learning
	Will try to avoid them, so the Victorious One has said.

The Instruction on Prajqa says:

		Subhuti, All dharmas are without essence.  The six perfections are also without 
essence.  Neither examined or the examiner are found.  They are not perceived.  They are not 
really seen.  That is how it should be known.
		This should not be told to those of the families of those who have newly entered into the 
vehicle, of shravakas, and of pratyekabuddhas.
		Why?  They will be so fearful and terrified that their hair stands on end.  By this being 
said, for this reason, they will abandon this perfection of prajqa.

b.  comprehending this:  the goodness of liberation

	If it is asked what is the goodness of liberation:

	The accumulation of merit is involved with particular objects.
	The accumulation of wisdom is not.  By these combined,
	Cleansed of the two obscurations, the two kayas manifest.
	The stages of meditation and post-meditation are practiced.
	These are corruptible in ordinary beings,
	But in the noble ones they are immutable
	In meditation and the state that follows it
	By such a pattern of practice liberation will be attained.

	The five first perfections, generosity, discipline, patience, exertion, and meditation, are the accumulation 
of merit.  Prajqa is the accumulation of wisdom.  By their unification, the two kayas, dharmakaya and rupakaya 
will manifest.  The Precious Mala says:

	As for the rupakaya possessed by all the buddhas,
	It arises from the accumulation of merit.
	Dharmakaya is born, to give a brief summary,
	From accumulating the  wisdom of the conquerors.
	By these two accumulations, buddhahood is attained
	If this is what we want, we should always rely
	On these two accumulations, those of merit and of wisdom.

	The major and minor marks of the Buddha's rupakaya are established by these two accumulations in a 
way that is highly exalted.  As much merit as ordinary beings, shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas 
may have, a single body hair of the buddhas has ten times more.  A hundred times as much as exists in such a 
hair exists in the minor marks.  A hundred times the amount in each of the eighty minor marks is that of one of 
the major marks.  The merit of each of the thirty-two major marks increased by a thousand is that of the tuft 
between the eyebrows.  A hundred thousand times the collective merit of the tuft between the eyebrows is that of 
the ushnisha tuft at the top of the Buddha's head.  A thousand times the merit of the hair-tuft is taught to be that 
established by the conch of spoken dharma.  The same text says:

	As merit is beyond the scope of thought,
	So the major marks of the Buddha rise.
	The great scriptural treasury of the mahayana
	Says he is a great being like a king.

	All the merit of the pratyekabuddhas,
	All merit in the world without remainder
	That of both the learned and non-learned
	If it should be increased to ten times more,
	Would be as much as in one of the Buddha's pores.
	The hair-pores of a Buddha are all like that.

	As for all the merit of these hair-pores,
	That amount increased a hundred times,
	Would be the merit of one of the minor marks.
	That many times that same degree of merit
	Is that of each of the royal major marks.
	These merits of the thirty two major marks,
	If they are multiplied a thousand times,
	Are those of the brow-tuft like the sun and moon.

	The merits of the brow, increased by a hundred
	Would not appear as much as the tuft of the head.
	As much as is produced at the crown of the head,
	If that were made hundred times as much,
	That of the conch of dharma would still be ten times more.

	Below the supreme dharma, is the defiled, worldly dharma.  Above that is the world-transcending, 
undefiled dharma.  The border is between what is corruptible and what is immutable.  The wisdom of meditation 
is undefiled, while that of post-meditation is  defiled.  They are the corruptible and immutable paths.  The first 
five paramitas, generosity and so forth, are defiled,  and prajqa is undefiled.  They are corruptible and 
immutable goodness.

c.  How the cause of liberation is produced,

	If it is asked on what these goodnesses depend, and from what they are produced, the real goodness in 
accord with liberation, the true path, is accumulated as a cause of separation.  Therefore, it depends on the alaya 
of the various habitual patterns.  The fruition of separation attained by this cause of separation, depends on the 
gotra or the essence, which therefore, is the true cause of changeless liberation.  That is the main point:

The gotra is the support of the goodness of liberation.  In having this we have the luminous nature of mind.
	Spotless dharmadhatu is the naturally present gotra.
	In its apparent aspect this is the two rupakayas.
	These are described by the Uttaratantra's nine examples.
	This nature of compassion exists eternally.
	The Sugata has said that this is the "growable" gotra:
	Its root is the luminosity of insight-wisdom.
	Its essence is wholesomeness, that does not have the three poisons.

	This is taught as it is in final word of the true meaning sutras, the great teaching of all the buddhas.  
These are The Sutra of the Questions of King Dharantsvara, The Glorious Mala of the Lion's Roar Sutra, The 
Sutra Requested by the Girl Precious One, The Sutra Requested by the Goddess Immaculate One, The Sutra of 
the Dwarf Angulamala, The Noble Complete, Great Nirvana Sutra, The Sutra requested by Maitreya, The 
Tathagatagarbha Sutra, The Sutra of the Wheel Curing Sickness  These say that within all sentient beings is the 
primordially existing dharmadhatu, the naturally pure space which is the nature of mind.  This is tathagatagarbha. 
 It exists primordially.  It is changeless.  Its apparent aspect is rupakaya, the source of the major and minor 
marks.  Its aspect of emptiness is dharmakaya, free from all the extremes of complexity, primordially and 
spontaneously present.  Its qualities, in their spontaneous presence are exemplified by a jewel; in their 
changelessness, by space; In moistening and pervading all sentient beings, it is exemplified by pure water.  The 
Uttaratantra says: 21

	Like a jewel, space, or pure water;
	Its nature has never had the kleshas.

	At the very time it is obscured by defilements, its essence is undefiled suchness.  The nature of mind is 
primordial luminosity.  The Gyu Tongpa  says:

	Mind is not mind.  The nature of mind is luminosity.

	That is the dhatu of buddhahood, the gotra or enlightened family which all sentient beings possess. The 
Uttaratantra says:  21

	Because the perfect buddha kaya radiates
	Because of suchness being inseparable,
	And because of possessing the dhatu every sentient being
	Always possesses the very essence of buddhahood.

	This should be known to be the good dhatu of the Dharma.  It is fundamentally enlightened from the 
beginning.  The Expressor of Marks says:

	Buddhahood is without beginning and end.
	The primordial buddha is without any bias.

The Two Examinations says:

	Sentient beings are buddhas, in actuality.
	But they are obscured by incidental obscurations.
	When these are cleared away, then they are buddhas.

	Even at the time of being a sentient being, the nature of mind has the apparent buddha qualities of 
rupakaya and the buddha qualities of the emptiness aspect as dharmakaya; but since they are obscured by 
unremoved defilements, this is called the dhatu or enlightened family.  At the time of buddhahood, since mind is 
free from all defilements, it is called enlightenment.  This occurs merely by the appearance or non-appearance of 
the perfected power of the nature, mind itself.  It is not maintained that first, at the time of being a sentient being, 
the qualities are non-existent, and later they are newly produced.  This is because they are changeless.  The Sutra 
of the Supreme Appearance of the Essence says:

	The dhatu has no temporal beginning.
	It exists as the true state of all dharmas.
	Since it exists, all beings have attained nirvana.
	As it was before, it will be later.
	This is the changelessness of suchness.

	The luminous nature of mind is not obscured by the kleshas.  The Uttaratantra says:  26

	The nature of the mind is luminosity.
	It is just as changeless as the space of the sky.
	By the rising of false conceptions, desire and so forth obscure it,
	But its nature is not obscured by incidental defilements.

	The divisions are the primordial gotra and the removable gotra, whose arising depends on clearing away 
incidental defilements.
	As for their beginningless existence as dharmin and dharmata, the Nirvana Sutra says:

		O son of noble family, as for the nature of mind, naturally luminous and naturally 
essenceless, the way naturally pure mind appears is by participating in buddha qualities that 
blaze with the major and minor marks, and not being separate from them.  Nevertheless its 
empty and apparent natures are distinguished.

	The established gotra, superimposed on the primordial gotra is the incidental upaya and prajqa of the 
four paths of learning, produced by mind and so forth.  Purification occurs through the activities of the two 
accumulations of merit and wisdom.  the Gandavyuha Sutra says:

	Kye, sons of the Victorious One!  This which is called the gotra of enlightenment is genuine 
dharmadhatu
	It is vast like the sky.  When its naturally luminous nature has been seen, training in accord with 
the great accumulations of merit and wisdom is purified.

The Uttaratantra says:  39

	Like the buried treasure and the fruit
	The two aspects of the gotra should be known
	They are the beginningless natural presence
	And supremacy that has been truly received.

	As is taught, arising from these two gotras,
	The trikaya of the Buddha is attained.
	By the first arises the first of the kayas, 
	By the second arise the subsequent two. 

	All the splendor of svabhavikakaya,
	Like the precious statue of the Buddha.
	Is self-arising and therefore unproduced.
	It is a mine of precious qualities.

	Because it has great dominion over the dharmin
	It is fully expressed, like a universal monarch.
	Its phenomenal nature is like a reflection,
	With emanation-bodies like forms of gold.

	Svabhavikakaya is mind itself, the naturally existing gotra.  This is like a naturally existing jewel.  From 
within it comes the gotra with the nature of the dharmin.  Here there are the universal monarch of sambhogakaya, 
and its reflected emanation, arising in dependence on it, nirmanakaya, the supreme emanation for those who are to 
be tamed.  At the time of existing as a sentient being, these do not appear, because defilement obscures them.
	By accumulating merit through visualization and so forth, defilements that obscure rupakaya are cleared 
away.  By the accumulation of wisdom through emptiness meditation and so forth, obscurations are cleared away 
from the dharmata-svabhavikakaya, the body of the self-existing-essence, the nature of dharmas.
	The support, the naturally existing gotra, is like clear water.  Within it the supported, the established 
gotra, rises like a variety of reflections.  The two exist primordially, like reflector and reflection.
	Within the gotra that exists as the ground, as knowable objects, the incidentally established gotra exists 
as the phenomena of knowing mind.  These are respectively support and supported.
	The dharmin exists separably with dharmata, the naturally existing gotra.  As a separable fruition, it is 
non-existent.  The produced gotra is an antidote to purify defilements.  Though the two kayas exist as if they were 
produced effect and producing cause, there is no actual causation.  That gotra makes the perfect buddha qualities 
to be born as the realization of the paths of learning.  This is their liberation or ripening as the level of 
buddhahood.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	The nature and the vast extent of its blossoming;
	That these exist as support and what is supported;
	Their existence and non-existence; their buddha qualities.
	Are what should be known as the meaning of liberation.

	Sugatagarbha pervades all sentient beings.  By the nine examples it is taught to exist within the covering 
of the kleshas.  The Uttaratantra says: 31

	A buddha in a decaying lotus, bees and honey.
	Gold within a covering of an unclean nature.
	Treasure in the earth, the germ within a fruit,
	An image of the buddha that is covered with rags.
	A king within the belly of a poor and ugly woman.
	Jewels in the earth, in such a form,
	Obscured by the incidental defilements of the kleshas,
	This dhatu exists within sentient beings.

	These nine examples are related to the obscured dhatu as it exists in ordinary individuals, arhats among 
the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas dwelling on the paths of seeing and meditation.  Ordinary 
people are those who have not entered into the path; or those who have entered but their being is obscured by to 
the assembly of the four obscurations, passion, aggression, ignorance, and all of these together.  From the four 
examples of the dhatu within them, first, as for the example of how the essence exists, when it is obscured by 
propensities of desire, the Uttaratantra says:  @@@

	Existing in a lotus that is evil-colored,
	A tathagata-statue, blazing with a thousand marks,
	Having been seen with the undefiled eye of the gods,
	The statue would be removed from its mud-born lotus cover.
	For tathagatas dwelling in places without torment
	The intrinsic buddha eye sees what will later be unobscured. 
	Their intrinsic endless compassion will free them from obscuration.

	Second, the example of the dhatu existing in a covering characterized by propensities of aggression:  
@@@

	Like honey that is surrounded by a swarm of bees,
	Capable persons have a wish that they could acquire it
	Having seen it is there, by using skillful means,
	They completely separate it from the swarm of insects,

	By the all-knowing eye of the great sage himself
	Having seen the honey of the dhatu or gotra,
	Having obscurations like the swarm of bees,
	He makes them be completely abandoned and disappear.

	Third, the example of the dhatu existing in a covering characterized by propensities of stupidity:  @@@

	Just as kernels of grain still covered by their husks
	Are not usable in that form by human beings,
	They remove the grain from out of the covering husk.
	Using the part they want for food and otherwise

	Just so, mixed with defiling kleshas of sentient beings,
	As many victorious ones as there are in the three worlds,
	If they are not liberated from being mixed with these kleshas,
	So many will not be made into victorious ones.

	Fourth, the example of the essence existing in a covering manifesting kleshas characterized by the arising 
of passion, aggression and stupidity all together: @@@
	
	Just as on a journey someone's treasured gold
	In the confusion might fall into a filthy place,
	That dharmin by falling there, would not have been destroyed,
	Remaining there like that for many hundreds of years.

	By a god who had the pure eye of the gods,
	If the gold existing there was seen and found
 	People would say the god established that precious thing,
	This supremely precious thing, that actually was abandoned,

	So the buddha qualities of sentient beings.
	Have sunk and disappeared among the filth-like kleshas.
	Having been seen by the Sage, to purify them that filth,
	For all beings he caused the dharma to arise.

	As for the example of the dhatu existing in a covering of habitual patterns of ignorance, in the arhats of 
the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas: @@@

	Just as in the house of a poor man, under the floor,
	An inexhaustible treasure might be lying buried;
	But he would not know the existence of this treasure,
	Nor would the treasure say to him that it was there.

	So with the precious treasure that is within the mind,
	Spotless dharmata, with no adding or taking away,
	When it is not realized, we experience
	The poverties of suffering, continuously arising.

	if the covering is abandoned when seen, here is the first of the two examples of how the essence is:  
@@@

	Just as in a mango or in other fruits
	There are undestroyed dharmas of seed and germination,
	And then if there should be plowed earth, and water and such,
	The stuff of a king of trees will gradually be established.
	So in the fruit of the ignorance of sentient beings,
	Inside the covering skin is the good dharma-element
	Which similarly depending on the condition of goodness
	Will gradually be the stuff of the King of Sages.

As for the second example:  @@@

	As a precious statue of the Victorious One
	Might be covered up in dirty tattered rags,
	But still a divine one on the path might seen and uncover it,
	And then it would be said, "He really dwells on the path."
	
	So the sugata nature, wrapped in beginningless kleshas,
	Having once been seen, even within an animal,
	There would be a real means of by which it could be set free.

	From the two examples of how, within the covering of defilements that is to be abandoned by cultivation, 
there exists the splendor of the good dhatu of dharmas, as for the first:  @@@

	Just as an ugly woman with no one to protect her
	Staying in a shelter for the poor and homeless
	Might hold a splendid king in the confines her womb.
	And would not know this lord of men was in her belly.
	
	In the refuge mission of life within this world,
	Impure sentient beings are like that pregnant woman.
	With only what she has, she will one day have a protector.
	Gestation of the spotless dhatu is similar.

As for the second example:  @@@

	Just as gold ore that has a big nugget inside of it 
	Has a external nature that is very drab,
	Having seen it those who know it for what it is,
	In order to purify the gold that is inside,
	Undertake to remove the outer covering.
	
	Having seen the luminous nature that is within us,
	Although it has been covered up by the incidental;
	Likewise the source of seeing what is precious in sentient beings
	Removes the obscurations of supreme enlightenment.

	Though the obscurations to the pure ground are many, the same text says:  @@@

	Passion, aggression, and ignorance; active or as an imprint;
	That to be abandoned by seeing and meditation;
	The higher bhumis relatively impure and pure, 
	Many defilements are taught by the covering lotus and so forth.
	Transcending all the divisions of closely-connecting kleshas,
	

	By these defilements fools and those with the learning of arhats,
	Are meant by respectively four and one of these examples.
	Seeing and cultivation, and the pure and impure levels
	Have two and two comparisons of their impurities.

	Joining these examples of defilements and the essence to a determination of their meaning, the same text 
says:  @@@

	Just as when a lotus arises from the mud,
	When it first manifests the mind is very joyful,
	But afterward it decays and then there is no more joy.
	The joy arising from desire is like that.

	Just as delicious honey is completely crawling
	With irritated bees that sting like an army of spears;
	Just so, if aggression rises, and swarms within our minds
	Suffering will be produced within our hearts.

	Just as the essence, the kernels rice and other grain
	Is hidden by an external husk which covers it,
	So sight of the essential meaning buddhahood
	Has been obscured within the egg of ignorance.

	Just as filth is something that is unsuitable,
	So are those who have desire for these poisons
	That is because depending on the cause of their desire,
	What is like filth will be arising everywhere.
	
	Just as when wealth is hidden underneath the ground,
	One who does not know this will not attain the treasure,
	So the self-arising treasure of the nature
	Is hidden in the ground of habitual patterns of ignorance.

	Just as by gradual growing of the sprout and so forth
	The shell of the seed is cut apart and falls away,
	So by seeing the suchness of the natural state
	What is to be abandoned by seeing is reversed.

	Those who conquer the essence of transitory collections
	Through being connected to the path of the noble ones,
	Make wisdom the thing to abandon on the path of meditation.
	This is taught to be like being wrapped in rags. 

	The defilements supported by the first seven bhumis,
	Are like the defilement found in the covering of a womb.
	Non-thought is like being free of the covering of the womb,
	This completes the ripening of the insight of wisdom.

	Defilements associated with the three highest bhumis
	Should be known to like a covering of mud and clay.
	By a great being's having attained the vajra view,
	The vajra-like samadhi destroys that covering.

	Thus the many defilements of desire and so forth
	Are like the examples of a decaying lotus and so forth.

	The Enumeration of Dharmas of the Complete Passing Beyond Suffering of the Noble Ones says:

	Then the Bhagavan spoke to Kashyapa.  O son of noble family,  It is, for example, like this.  A 
wealthy king had on his forehead a vajra jewel.  With other wealthy ones, radiating power, it 
touched the heads of those other wealthy ones.
		The jewel on the forehead sunk inside his flesh, and he did not know where it had gone. 
 Because a wound arose, he asked a doctor, "Cure me."  From this instruction, a very capable 
doctor would not treat him for that wound of the jewel going into his flesh, saying these words,
		"Kye most powerful one, why are you asking about your forehead-jewel?
		That wealthy one, from aversion, would say to the doctor, "Because my forehead jewel 
should not go anywhere." he would think, "Is it an illusion that it is not there?" This would 
produce much suffering.
		Then that doctor producing joy in that wealthy one would say, "Thus do not produce 
suffering.  If you emanate power, the jewel will sink into your flesh, a mere reflection will 
appear externally.  If you emanate power, hatred will arise.  Though the power of the jewel has 
sunk into your flesh you did not feel it."
		Not believing these words that were said, the king would say, "Doctor don't lie.  If it 
sinks into my flesh, which is matter and blood that is very opaque, it is not reasonable that a 
reflection would appear."
		Then the doctor would say, "A mirror is likewise opaque, but the jewel will also clearly 
appear in it.  When you have seen that this is like that, a wondrous, marvelous perception will 
arise.
		O son of noble family, all sentient beings are like that.  Since they do not venerate the 
spiritual friend, though they have the buddha nature they cannot see it.  It is obscured by 
passion, aggression, and ignorance.  Many different beings who have so been overcome are 
within samsara and suffering.
		From that nature , O son of noble family, within the bodies of all sentient beings there 
are the ten powers, the thirty-two major marks, and the eighty excellent minor marks.

	This has been taught in many ways.  The Hevajra says:

	Within the body there exists the great wisdom
	The truth of this has abandoned all conceptions.
	Universal, it pervades all things.
	Embodied existence does not arise from the body.

	The Precious Mala says:

	I and limitless sentient beings are primordial buddhas.
	By the power of discursive thoughts there is samsara.
	From that I shall produce the supreme mind of enlightenment.

The Wisdom of the Moment of Death says:

		Since whoever realizes mind is a buddha, produce the supreme perception by not 
searching anywhere else.

The Praise of the Vajra of Mind says:

	Water that exists within the earth
	Exists there pure without defilement.
	Just so, within the covering of the kleshas,
	Wisdom exists without defilement.

The Secret Essence says:
	
	Throughout the ten directions and four times,
	Perfected buddhas are nowhere to be found.
	Except for the perfect buddha, the nature of mind,
	Do not look for any other buddha.
	The victorious ones themselves, if they should search,
	Would never find it anywhere at all.

	So it is taught, there and elsewhere.  In brief, by the example of the great billion-fold expanse of the 
three-fold thousand worlds it should be known that within all sentient beings primordially exists the kayas and 
wisdoms of buddhahood, without adding and subtracting, like the sun and its light.  That dhatu is always 
naturally pure.  Its self-nature does not change.  Its defilements are false conceptions and temporary changes.  
The commentary on the Uttaratantra says:
@@@
	O great rishi, The kleshas are darkness.  Complete purity is light.  The kleshas are weak. Clear 
seeing is powerful.  The kleshas are temporary.  Natural purity is the root.

	So it is taught there and elsewhere.  Since the dhatu is primordially without defilement, it is pure. Since it 
is changeless, it is the true self, since it always exists, it is permanent.  Though it falls into the sufferings of 
samsara, it is not overcome by them, and this is the perfection of bliss.  The Uttaratantra says:  22

	Purity, self-nature, bliss, and permanence
	Are the perfect qualities of the fruition.

	The dhatu of the tathagata pervades all sentient beings.. The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Just as space is maintained as eternal and omnipresent,
	This too is maintained to be eternal and omnipresent.
	Just as space is an aspect found within all forms,
	This too is in all the assembly of sentient beings.

	When this essence is obscured by clouds, they do not stain it, any more than when the sun is obscured by 
clouds.  At the time of primordial buddhahood, the dhatu exists indestructibly and inseparably.  The commentary 
to the Uttaratantra says

	The dhatu of the tathagata existing in the three occasions is present within all beings.  All their 
kleshas and phenomenal appearances are composed of this changeless reality.

	As regards the three occasions, the Uttaratantra says:  24

	These are the three-fold stages of impurity,
	Both pure and impure, and being completely pure.
  	They are said to be the stage of sentient beings,
	And those of bodhisattvas, and of tathagatas.

	The impure situation is that of sentient beings.  That which is both pure and impure is that of 
bodhisattvas.  Complete purity is the situation of the buddhas.  As nothing is like the gotra, it cannot be 
exemplified by anything at all.

The same text says:  @@@

	Since it is completely beyond the world
	No example is seen within the world.
	Therefore the tathagata and the dhatu
	Are taught to be similar in this respect.

	As to how it is incomparable, it is essentially single.  Therefore, to explain it by many examples from 
different situations would be merely partial characterization of it.
	It may be asked, "How can this gotra be seen as it is?  Beings who do not see the natural state are 
accepted by the spiritual friend.  Those who have devotion to the vehicles of the shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and 
bodhisattvas; and also beings dwelling on the bhumis realize it in a single way.  This realization is one with that 
of the bodhisattvas dwelling on the tenth bhumi.  As for this being the way it really is, it is not seen otherwise even 
by the buddhas themselves.  The commentary to the Uttaratantra says:

		Seeing clouds and the sun, whether from here on the earth or from the sky above the 
clouds, we have a similar apprehension.  The noble ones whose eye of the mind is pure also see 
all this very clearly.  Bhagavan, your completely pure understanding of dharmakaya sees all the 
limitless knowable objects pervading the space of the sky.

	The dhatu or essence is the buddha field of the three kayas of one's own mind itself, along with their 
wisdoms, existing as the circle of the ornament.  How is this seen?  Since this is buddhahood, it is properly 
explained in these texts.  By having faith in the paths of learning it is entirely apprehended.  The former text says:

	The absolute truth of the self-arisen ones
	Has to be realized by means of faith.
	The blazing light in the circle of the sun
	Is not seen by those who have no eyes.

The Sutra on the Essence of Buddhahood says:

		No matter what they rely on, individual sentient beings, shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, 
and bodhisattvas do not see the essence of the buddhas as it is.  For example, a blind man 
cannot see what is painted by others in oil colors.  When they say, "it is like this pillar, and he 
touches the pillar with his hands and grasps it as cold.  They say, "it is like the wings of a 
swan."  By hearing the sound of the wings of a swan the color of a pillar is grasped as a 
fluttering sound.  He asks, "what is the color of those wings like?"  "It is like a conch."  By 
touching a smooth conch, he grasps it as smooth.  Just as a blind person does not know colors 
as they are, seeing the highest nature of buddhahood is very difficult.

	It is also very hard for sentient beings to realize it.  The same text says:

		A king assembled many blind men, and having shown them an elephant.  Asked to 
describe the characteristics of an elephant, those who had touched the trunk said, "it is like a 
hook."  Those who touched the eye said, "It is like a bowl.  Those who touched the ear said, "It 
is like a winnowing basket.  Those who touched the back said, "It is like a tray.  Those who 
touched the tail said, "It is like a rope."  These blind men were not talking about anything other 
than an elephant, but they had not understood its totality.
		The buddha nature is also like that.  Those who have said different things, that it is 
emptiness, like illusion, luminous and so forth, have not realized its totality.

	Beings who are noble ones have a little realization of it, but not as it is.  The Nirvana Sutra says:

	O son of noble family For example, it is like this.  A blind man in order to have his eyes healed 
went to a capable physician.  The physician holding a gold knife removed the hindrance. Having 
cut off the opaque part that obscured the eye.  He lifted up a finger.{{328..}}  When he showed 
it, the blind man said, "I do not see it."  If he showed two or three fingers, the patient would say, 
"I see a little bit."
		O son of noble family, if this Sutra of Complete great Nirvana is not taught, as many 
are not among the bodhisattvas, even after they have perfected the ten paramitas, even when 
they exist on the tenth bhumi, they will not see the nature of buddhahood.  It is like that.  When 
this is taught by the Tathagata, they will see it a little.
		The birds soaring in the sky above must examine where the pure sky is.  If a swan is in 
the top of a tree it examines whether it is a tree or water, and thinking about the top of a ship on 
the ocean, or in space, also knowing the top of the second.  Though by such examples the 
essence is not seen, it is taught to be the manner of non-ascertaining seeing.

	If it is asked, "what is the use of teaching this essence that is subtle and difficult to examine, not seen 
with certainty while one is a sentient being?:"
	By teaching that the essence of buddhahood exists within the being of oneself and others, having reversed 
one's own discouragement, knowing that establishing liberation is not difficult, we gain confidence.
	Eliminating contempt for other sentient beings, we respect everyone equally with the teacher as buddhas.
	Having eliminated not knowing that realization of the kayas and wisdoms exists within one as true 
reality, prajqa realizes the space of the absolute.
	Knowing the natural state like that, it eliminates glorifications and deprecations of is and is not, 
eternalism and nihilism.
	Then wisdom realizes true reality, and the supreme self. Having eliminated pride and desire for anything 
more, it sees self and other as equal.
	It is taught that these are the five necessities for the arising of the great kindness for others.  The 
Uttaratantra says:  40

	Like clouds, dreams, and illusions, and the other examples
	All the dharmas of knowables are always emptiness.
	When this has been taught by victorious ones to sentient beings
	Why do they also teach them that they have the essence.

To answer that question: 

	Contempt for lesser ones and disenheartened beings,
	Joining those who grasp untruth to the truth of dharma,
  	For those who have abundant faults of ego-grasping
	It is taught so that those like that will abandon them.

	As for those who wrongly slight the body and are enslaved by the golden net of wrong view, or who 
support realization of the true meaning of the sutras and secret mantra with partialities,
their "essential meanings" are really provisional.  They teach the intention that, "If the cause occurs, the fruition 
will arise."
	It is not like that.  This is like the eternal self of the Hindu extremists.  "The two kayas of buddhahood 
arise from the two accumulations.  This should be stated as definitely true."
	O you with your lotus net of eternalism, you truly do not know the intention of saying that there were 
three turnings to the wheel of dharma.  You are truly grasping the extreme of emptiness.
	The first turning of the word, intended for beginners and those of weak mind, made the four noble truths 
and renunciation into an antidote.  This was so that these beings could eliminate samsara as a means of complete 
liberation from what is to be abandoned.
	In the second turning, intended for them eventually when they had completely abandoned this and for 
those of intermediate capacity of mind, he taught the eight examples of illusion and emptiness like space.  This 
was a means of liberating them from the bondage of grasping the antidote.
	For those who reached that goal and from the viewpoint of those of the highest powers, he taught the 
self-nature of knowables as it really is.  This is not like the self of the heretics.  Their impossible self is a 
nonexistent, exaggerated nature.  They make measures of greater and lesser, and therefore they do not maintain 
the dharmas of the kayas and wisdoms.
	It is not the true meaning that self and non-emptiness were taught simply as an antidote for you who are 
attached to egolessness and emptiness.  The Nirvana Sutra says:

		O son of noble family, moreover it is like this.  For example a woman was nursing her 
small child who was afflicted by mouth rot,  and when the child was struck by sickness, that 
woman too was tormented by suffering, and sought out a physician.  The physician gave her as 
medicine, oil and milk and shakara.  When the child was given this to drink, he instructed the 
woman with these words.  "Because we are giving medicine to this child, for a little while until 
you, the mother, are cured, it shouldn't be given your milk to drink.  So he would instruct her.
		Then so that it would not nurse, he put bile on the nipples; the child would have said 
that her nipple was smeared with poison and not suitable for sucking.  The child, tormented by 
thirst, desired the breast, but having tasted it, would not take it.
		After being treated by the physician the woman would wash her breast clean.  When 
the child cried she would go to it.  "Now take the breast and nurse," she would say.  That child, 
though tormented with thirst, because of the former taste it experienced, would not come when 
called.
		In this instance the mother would give these instructions.  "You have drunk the 
medicine I gave you before.  With this medicine, until the mother is cured, since it is not proper 
that the nipple be given for nursing, it was smeared with bile.  Now, even taking your medicine, 
the nipple will have no taste in your mouth."  When she said that, gradually approaching as 
before, it would drink.
		Son of noble family, The tathagata also, in order to liberate all sentient beings, is the 
persistent teacher of egolessness to sentient beings.  By his having persistently done that, the 
attitude of "ego" is non-existent.  Suffering is completely eliminated.  This is in order to clear 
away the bad views of the worldly charvakas.  By meditating on the dharma of egolessness, the 
body will become completely pure.
	  	Just as that woman, because of her son, smeared bile on her breast, the tathagata too is 
like that.  So that there will be emptiness meditation, he teaches that all dharmas are selfless.
		Just as that woman later washed off the bile and called her child, saying take the nipple and 
nurse, my teaching tathagatagarbha is like that.  O monks so that you will not be afraid, as the mother 
called the child, and it gradually drank her milk, O monks, you too should make a distinction. 
Tathagatagarbha should not be said to be non-existent.  In my former sayings in the prajqaparamita 
sutras, which taught emptiness, understand that the intention was merely naturelessness.  Otherwise by 
meditating on the emptiness of nothing at all, the fruition produced would accord with the cause, and the 
kayas and wisdoms would not arise.

	Emptiness expresses the idea that the apparent dharmin, from the time it appears, is empty of 
complexities grasped as one and many, and empty of individual existences, like the reflections in a mirror, that all 
extremes are completely non-existent, and that non-existent now and primordially, things are not like their 
confused appearance.  The Heart Sutra says:

		Form is emptiness. Emptiness is form.  Emptiness is nothing other than form.  From is 
nothing other than emptiness.  Similarly, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness are 
empty.

The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

	Every dharmin in its own turn is taught to be empty of essence.  But if it is formless, how will 
there be the view that form is empty?

The Uttaratantra says:
@@@
	The emptiness that has the supreme of all aspects
	Is emptiness that is expressed as form.

And also:  39-40

	Here there is nothing at all that is to be cleared away,
	And nothing that is to be added to what there is.
	Within reality the real is what is seen.
	If thus one sees the truth, one will be liberated.

	Of what has the characteristic of separability
	The dhatu, pure of the incidental, is empty.
	Of that which has the characteristic of being inseparable,
	The unsurpassable dharmas, it is not empty.

Its commentary says:

		Why is this taught here?  For the reason that it is not contradictory with saying that this 
dhatu of the tathagata is by nature completely pure from all the kleshas that are to be cleared 
away.  It is free from incidental obscurations because it is its nature to be so.  Within this there 
is nothing to be added for reasons of phenomenal appearance.  Completely undivided dharmata 
is also its nature.  Therefore, sugatagarbha having divisions and what is separable is empty of 
all the separable coverings of the kleshas.  What is indivisible and inseparable from it is the 
buddha dharmas beyond being encompassed by thought, surpassing the grains of sand in the 
Ganges.  They are not empty.
	
	When something does not exist in something, the latter is said to be empty of the former but we must 
subsequently assert that whatever remains there eternally exists and is known truly as it is.
	Though obscurations of the two primordial kayas of buddhahood,  are cleared away by the two 
accumulations, they are not producing cause and produced effect.  If they were, dharmakaya and sambhogakaya 
would be composite productions, and hence impermanent. However, dharmakaya is changeless.  The 
Madhyamakavatara says:

	The kaya of peace is like a wish fulfilling tree,
	Like a wish-fulfilling, gem it is inconceivable.
	Till beings are liberated, it is always in the world,
	And it will appear without complexity.

The Uttaratantra says: 52

	The Mara of death has been conquered by the lord of Dharma.
	Being without essence, he is the permanent lord of the world.

Contradicting this idea that it has cause and effect it also says: 11

	Uncompounded and self-existing,
	Not realized by other conditions,
	Having wise and compassionate power,
	Buddhahood has the two benefits.

	That refutes its having a producing cause and produced effect.  Saying it is "egoless," "emptiness," "non-
dual," and so forth  should be understood in this way.  The Great Nirvana of the Noble Ones says:

	The secret essence of the tathagata is shown to be the completely pure buddha nature that neither 
changes nor transmigrates.  If it so exists, it is unreasonable for those who are skilled in prajqa not to 
maintain that.  To say it is non-existent would be false speaking, and likewise that it has development or 
succession.  Those of the race of fools espouse nihilism, not knowing the secret essence of the tathagata.
		If it is said to suffer, the blissful nature could not be within the body.  Stupid fools 
think, "All bodies are impermanent."  This is like sending the freshness of awareness into clay.  
Those who are skilled in prajqa make distinctions.  They do not say that everything is 
impermanent in every way.  Why?  Because within our bodies there exists the seed of buddha 
nature.  Stupid fools grasp the thought that all the dharmas of buddhahood are selfless.  For 
those skilled in prajqa, selflessness is just an abstract label.  It should be discriminated as having 
no true existence.  Knowing this, one will produce no doubts about the matter.  When someone 
says that tathagatagarbha is empty, stupid fools give rise to views of nihilism and non-existence. 
 Those who are skilled in prajqa make a distinction.  Within human beings there is the single 
tathagata.  It is said to be eternally existent, unchanging, and does not transmigrate.
		If by the condition of ignorance, composite things are said to arise, stupid fools when 
they have heard this think that insight and ignorance are to be distinguished as two.  Those who 
are skilled in prajqa realize that their natures are non-dual.  That which is non-dual is reality.
		When someone says that by formations consciousness arises, stupid fools grasp 
formations and consciousness as two.  Those who are skilled in prajqa realize their natures as 
non-dual.  Non-duality is purity.
		All dharmas have no self, and tathagatagarbha also has no self.  When this is said, 
stupid fools grasp it dualistically.  Those who are skilled in prajqa realize that their natures are 
non-dual.  Self and selflessness are intrinsically non-dual.  Tathagatagarbha has been supremely 
praised by the buddha bhagavats as immeasurable, beyond evaluation, and limitless.  I too have 
taught this in all the sutras about the qualities it possesses.

	So it should be known.  The  Sutra of Miraculous Display says:

		Those who have wrong craving have the characteristic of never transcending suffering.

	When this is taught regarding these and those of the cut off family, we may think that not all beings are 
pervaded by the garbha; but it is not like that.  The intention is that those with wrong craving who abandon the 
mahayana dharma will not be liberated for a long time.  Those who are reversed from the path are only 
temporarily cut off from the family of those in whom the path is established.  They are not cut off from the dhatu, 
the luminous nature of mind.  The commentary to the Uttaratantra says:

		"Those who have wrong craving have the characteristic of never transcending 
suffering."  This teaches that wrong craving causes hostility towards the dharma of the 
mahayana.  This is said with the intention that this hostility to the mahayana dharma will be 
reversed at another time.  Because the dhatu exists with a nature that is completely pure, it is not 
proper to say that some will never become pure.  Therefore the bhagavat's intention was that all 
sentient beings without distinction are capable of being completely purified.  Though samsara is 
beginningless, it does have an end.  The naturally pure and eternal is obscured by a covering of 
beginningless obscurations, and therefore not seen, just as gold might be hidden.

	Since within the dhatu of dharmas all goodness exists, it can always be purified.  Though, samsara is 
beginningless, it has an end.  By that is it established.

	The reasons that the two gotras are awakened are two.  As for the reason that dharmakaya, the naturally-
existing gotra, is awakened, the Madhyamakavatara says:

	When someone hears about emptiness, as an ordinary person,
	The highest joy will arise within them again and again.
	Their eyes are wet with tears that flow because of this joy.
	The hairs of their body arise with wonder and stand on end.

	Within them the seed of attaining buddhahood exists
	They have become the vessels of direct and straightforward teachings.
	Now the absolute truth has really been taught to them.

	As for the reason that the dharmin-gotra of rupakaya is awakened, the Mahayanasutralankara says:

	As for why one becomes a connected vessel,
	Practicing compassion, and devotion,
	And dedication to what is truly good
	Is truly explained as being due to the gotra.

	Regarding the benefits of awakening the gotra, the same text says:

	The lower realms are far off, and liberation is quick.
	When that occurs, one experiences little suffering.
	By sadness sentient beings will then be quickly ripened.

	Once the gotra is awakened, from then on one is liberated from the lower realms like growing jasmine 
naturally falling to the ground.  There is little suffering.  By strong weariness sentient beings will be ripened.
	If there were no such gotra within sentient beings, no matter what sufferings arose, they would not be 
saddened.  The attitude that aspires to nirvana and rejects samsara would not arise.  The attitude of desiring 
liberation could also not arise.  That in some, without being taught by anyone, compassion for the suffering of 
others arises, and that some who experience suffering develop renunciation and so forth is due to the power of 
goodness of the beginningless dhatu of dharmas.  The Uttaratantra says:  23

	If there were no dhatu of buddhahood,
	Suffering would never make us sad.
	There would be no desire for nirvana,
	Or effort and aspiration to that goal.

	Being able to see the comparative attractiveness of samsara and nirvana, seeing their faults and virtues is 
therefore due to the existence of the gotra.  If the gotra did not exist, neither would these.
	Thus from the extensive teaching that by having the gotra the essence of buddhahood exists within us, 
now some summary verses are interposed:

	Without exception all sentient beings have sugatagarbha.
	In the covering veil of incidental obscurations,
	Exists the primordial lamp, the luminous dhatu of dharmas.
	This is the kayas and wisdoms, this itself is the Dharma.
	Within it nothing is added, and nothing is taken away.

	Existing within us, this itself is self-existing.
	By devoting ourselves to this essence of emptiness and compassion,
	Having attained this dhatu, called by the name "enlightenment,"
	We will benefit all the host of beings without remainder.

 	Primordially self-arising, like the sun in space,
	When it is obscured by clouds, temporarily dimming the daylight,
	Then we experience the dreamlike sufferings of samsara.
	So make a powerful effort to clear away obscuration.

	Confused incidental appearance, appearances of the six realms,
	Are emanated like dreams, from habitual patterns and karma,
	Appearing as what never was, nor is, and shall not be.
	The spontaneous presence of wisdom primordially exists.
	It always exists, but nevertheless it is not seen.

	As what we perceive in sleep, is not seen to be within us.
	Dharmas defiled with false conceptions are vain and futile.
	Do not grasp them, but train in the luminous nature of mind.
	Grasp the two benefits, bringing wealth to oneself and others.

	"If this gotra exists in everyone, why, pray tell, are we wandering in samsara?"  We exist this way, not 
knowing our own face, because of the futile grasping of a meaningless ego.  As lineage-holders of our kleshas 
from earlier to later, we are in bad company.  We have poverty-mentality.  Conditioning is produced by relative 
reference point.   This is samsara. The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Well-practiced in our kleshas, and in bad company.
	With impoverished attitude, and relative reference point;
	Briefly stated, these are the four that should be known.
	These are the degradations that have defiled the gotra.

The Details of Light says:

	Primordial luminosity itself is ignorant.
	So-called "rising" of mind produces attachment to ego.
	By these objects having been grasped as so-called "others,"
	Beings become confused, within the realm of samsara.
	Because of their karma of inappropriate joys and sorrows,
	They have the experience of individual beings.

The All-Creating King says

	This phenomenal play, which is wonderful and marvelous,
	Is actionless existence, like the space of the sky.
	Ignorance without apprehension of anything,
	Rises immediately from nothing but itself.

	This is the path that is alike for everyone.
	This is the nature as it is within all beings.
	Defiled by the removable, it therefore is confused.

Also it says there:

	By gathering in the light that exists in all directions
	To the limits of the four directions, above and below,
	In an unpredictable rainbow whose colors are not fixed
	The different kinds of gotra will manifest in appearance.
	Suchness moves and particles never move at all.
	This is the principle one of all the five elements.

	The primordial, luminous nature of mind, empty/luminous self-arising wisdom, is in essence emptiness 
like the sky.  Its nature is luminosity like the sun and moon.  The radiance of its compassion arises ceaselessly, 
like reflections in the surface of an untarnished mirror.  The natures of dharmakaya, sambhogakaya, and 
nirmanakaya come from within sugatagarbha, which is entirely without bias and partiality.  The empty essence is 
also the accommodating space of arising.  The luminous nature naturally abides as the five lights, and these 
naturally appear as objects.  Arising as compassion, cognitive knowledge of insight-wisdom is maintained to be 
confusion.  The Secret Essence says:

	E MA HO! from out of sugatagarbha,
	From out of our karmic relationships comes confusion.

	At this time, the aspect that does not know its intrinsic wisdom to be its own nature is co-emergent 
ignorance.  The aspect that fixates its own projections as other is the ignorance of false conception.  Because of 
not knowing that all this has arisen within the natural state, by the power of attachment of ego-fixation to its 
objects, habitual patterns of the vessel, the external world, ripen as body.  Habitual patterns of the essence, 
sentient beings within the world, ripen as mind.  This is confusion, the various phenomena of the five poisons.  
The All-Creating King says

	When the nature of me, the doer of all, is not realized,
	The dharmas created by me are imputed with fixed existence.
	By the power of desire and craving, apparent things exist.
	And so their impermanent nature as illusion is destroyed.
	The partless nature becomes like colors to the blind.

	The root of confusion is not knowing what we are.  The Prajqapramitsamgatha says:

	As many sentient beings as there may be,
	Of lesser, middle, or of higher rank,
	All of these have arisen from ignorance.
	So it has been taught by the Sugata.

The Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines teaches that confusion is conditioned by dualistic grasping:

	Grasping an I and a mine, beings whirl in samsara.

The Prajqaparamita in Twenty Thousand Lines says:

		Childish sentient beings perceive the non-existence of skandhas as skandhas.  They 
perceive the non-existence of ayatanas as ayatanas.  They perceive the non-existence of things 
that arise interdependently as interdependent arising.  Therefore, they are completely within the 
grasp of the ripening karma of all these dharmas that are wrongly perceived as interdependent 
arising.
		As to how these dharmas arise, from the two ignorances come samsaric formations.  
From that comes the succession of births of individual beings.  Name and form are established.  
When the body has been established by the embryonic stages from an oval to birth, there are 
contact, perception, feeling, the six ayatanas, and old age and death.  So with the twelve links of 
interdependent arising, we cycle in samsara.

	"The primordial natural state does not exist within samsara.  It is not proper that sugatagarbha should be 
samsaric."

	Not so!  It is like clear, unmuddied water becoming solid rock-like ice, in a transparent winter wind.  
From the primordial state, conditioned by the arising of grasping and fixation, confused appearance displays itself 
as a variety of solid things.  A song from the Dohakosha says:

	When the wind gets into water and thereby stirs it up
	The softness of the water becomes as hard as rock.
	Having been stupefied through being disturbed by concepts,
	What was formless becomes completely hard and solid.

	Sugatagarbha is the primordially pure, changeless essence,  dharmakaya, designated as the alaya of 
reality.  When this becomes confused, it and the connected wealth of the nature of mind, rupakaya and the buddha 
fields, the perfect entities of wisdom, are obscured through the confused grasping and fixation of ignorance.  This 
is the due to the alaya of the various habitual patterns.  Within this, since beginningless time, have been planted 
the various seeds or habitual patterns of confusion.  Their great power becomes individual experiences of the 
higher and lower realms, and so forth.  When we are within dream-like samsara, fixating I and ego, experiencing 
desire, aggression, and the five poisons, collecting karma and kleshas, from meaningless confusion, we live with a 
variety of attachments to truly existing entities.
	Day and night the wheel of confused appearance continuously turns, and since its succession is 
groundless,  we are never liberated from it.  It is like the confusion of a dream.  Wandering because of kleshas, 
because of good and evil, is like a prince wandering along a road, separated from his kingdom.  It is intrinsically a 
time of suffering.  Since he was born into a royal family, the happiness of true wealth is naturally within him; but 
now he suffers temporarily.  As to what is taught by this example, the Song of the Oral Instruction of the 
Inexhaustible Treasury, says:

	Beings bound in samsara, as if they were tangled in vines,
	In the desert of ego-grasping are completely mad with thirst:
	Like a prince without a kingdom, separate from his father,
	Without a chance for happiness, he gives in to despair.

	As to the way that tathagatagarbha exists at this time of wandering futilely on the plan of samsara, the 
Tathagatagarbha Sutra says:

		Kye, Son of the Victorious One, it is like this.  For example, the measure of a three-fold 
thousand world system is one billion. That billion perfectly records the number of all worlds of 
the three-fold great thousand world system.  Similarly the measure of the great surrounding wall 
of the world is written "the great surrounding wall of the world." The measure of characteristics 
is written "characteristics."  The measure of the second or middle thousand world realms is "the 
second or middle thousand world realm." The measure a thousand world realms, is "a thousand 
world realms."  The fourth thousand world realms is "the fourth thousand world realms."  The 
measure of the great ocean is "the great ocean."  The measure of Jambuling is "Jambuling."  
The measure of the eastern continent Videha is "Videha." The measure of the western continent, 
Aparagodaniya is "Aparagodaniya."  The measure of the northern continent Kurava is 
"Kurava."  The measure of mount Meru is "Mount Meru."  The measure of the palaces of the 
gods of the terrestrial realm is written "the palaces of the gods of the terrestrial realm."  The 
measure of the palaces of the gods of the desire realm is "the palaces of the gods of the desire 
realm."  The measure of the palaces of the gods who course in the form-realm is written "the 
palaces of the gods who course in the form-realm."
			A billion is the measure of worlds in a threefold-thousand world system.  A 
billion is also the measure of such worlds that enter into an atom. Just as an atom enters into 
those billion worlds, similarly all the particles of atoms without remainder enter into the measure 
of that billion.
		Then living, active beings are born on middle earth, learned and wise with clear minds. 
 Their eye is the divine eye.  Everything is completely pure and luminous.  By their divine eye 
they view phenomena, seeing those billion within this small atom.  Some sentient beings cannot 
fully understand that. They think, "Kye ma, by what mother, by great force of effort was this 
billion later put in this atom?"  All such beings, thinking that, invented a powerful agent.  They 
thought that atom particle had been opened by a subtle vajra to that billion-fold world system in 
which all sentient beings lived.  From one like that, the rest did the same.
		Kye Son of the Victorious One, like that the measureless wisdom of the Tathagata 
dwells within all sentient beings.  Within the mind-continuum of all sentient beings it dwells 
without deception.  These mental continuums of sentient beings do not have a measure like that 
of the wisdom of the Tathagata. Fools bound by grasping perception do not know the wisdom of 
the Tathagata.  They do not know it at all.  They have never experienced or manifested it.  
Seeing how each sentient being is within dharmadhatu is the perception of a master, the 
desireless wisdom of the Tathagata.  Kye ma, these sentient beings do not know the wisdom of 
the Tathagata as it is.  Those sentient beings in whom the Tathagata's wisdom continues to 
function were directly taught the path of the noble ones.  All the perception-created bonds were 
cleared away.  They were eliminated.

d.  How by awakening the gotras liberation is attained:
	
	The wakening of these gotras arouses the two bodhicittas.
	Establishing the manifestations of compassion
	As accumulation of merit, within the relative.
	This is the three abhishekas of the pure developing stage.
	Establishing realization of the nature of emptiness
	Is accumulation of wisdom, within the absolute.
	This is the fourth empowerment, fulfillment, and mahamudra.
	When we meditate well, by the growing of the two stages,
	Kleshas turn into wisdom.  Happiness grows and grows.
	By this the obscurations of dharmadhatu are cleansed.
	The sun of dharmakaya and rupakaya is seen.

		In naturally pure and essentially spotless mind itself, the holy wisdom of buddhahood, the 
primordially existing spontaneous presence of the luminous nature of mind, the apparent aspect, exists as the 
qualities of the rupakaya of buddhahood.  This is taught by many examples.  The qualities of the aspect of 
emptiness, dharmakaya, are explained everywhere in the sutras and tantras by the example "being like space."
	The inseparability of these two is the good dhatu of dharmas.  Since it is changeless it is the "naturally 
existing gotra."  After its defilements are purified, by manifesting its full-blown buddha qualities, it is called the 
"developed gotra."  Its root, self-awareness wisdom, is luminosity.
	When those two gotras are awakened, by the two accumulations being accumulated, defilements of the 
two gotras are purified.  The buddha qualities are made capable of appearing.  Ultimate rupakaya with its buddha 
qualities is attained.
	Just as the six perfections are classified in terms of the two accumulations, so are the stages of 
development and fulfillment.  The Net of Illusion says:

	Development and fulfillment are the two accumulations,
	Those of merit and wisdom, as well as the three empowerments,
	Plus the fourth, which is the nature of suchness itself.
	There are other ways of dividing beyond all measure.

	The first three empowerments, or abhishekas, are the vase, secret, and prajqajqana abhishekas.  
Producing the purity of the developing stage, these are the accumulation of merit.  The developing stage includes 
all meditations with complexity on the mandalas of deities and so forth.
	The fourth, the precious word-empowerment, producing the purity of the fulfillment stage, is the 
accumulation of wisdom.  The fulfillment stage includes all meditations on luminosity and so forth that are 
without complexity.
	By these purifying defilements of the gotra, as the sun emerges from dark clouds, self-existing 
buddhahood comes forth from the coverings of the kleshas.
	As for the extensive explanation, the gotras were previously taught.  The stages of secret mantra will be 
explained below, so we shall not deal with them here.

e.  The related explanation of the virtues

	There are three sections

1)  How the unification of the two accumulations is perfected

	The actions of the ten virtues are the best dharmas in the world
	The formed and formless dhyanas are part of gathering merit,
	That is concerned with relativity and appearance.
	What is completely without the complexities of the world
	Is accumulation of wisdom, which is the absolute.
	These are the objects of meditation and post-meditation.
	By practicing the unification of these two,
	Everything that is excellent will be established.
	
	As previously taught, the ten virtues, dhyanas, and formless attainments are in accord with merit; but 
when a being has aroused bodhicitta and attained prajqa and upaya; the ten virtues, dhyanas, formless 
attainments, and so forth become causes of liberation.  The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		O Subhuti, those who develop the conduct of the ten virtues, the four samadhis, and the 
four formless attainments, when they also arouse bodhicitta, aspiration to unsurpassable 
enlightenment, at that time, since this is in accord with liberation, it becomes a cause of 
omniscience.  This should be performed.  By being mastered, this should be established.

2)  How one does not dwell in samsara or nirvana:
	
	Just like wholesome actions that are samsaric formations,
	Formations of nirvana are explained as karmic actions.
	But since the latter are a means of transcending samsara,
	They are also a means of liberation from karma.

	The ten wholesome actions that accord with merit are samsaric confusions.  However, if one thinks that 
with these, we will become confused, it is not so.  These activities lead to liberation when we know that karma is 
natureless, as is taught by similar examples.  Insofar as these activities are a means of being liberated from 
samsara, they do not produce samsaric formations.  In any case, the great compassion by which we become 
saddened with samsara exists within samsara without being covered by its defects.  While it knows all dharmas to 
be unborn, and by skillful means, the great compassion does not fall into one-sided peace.  The 
Abhisamsayalankara says:

	By knowledge we do not dwell within samsara,
	By compassion we do not dwell in peace.

The Precious Mala says:

	Exponents of nothingness go to the lower realms.
	Exponents of being will go to the higher ones.
	By knowing reality exactly as it is,
	Without dualistic dependence, we will be liberated.

	And that is how it is.

3)  The explanation of the fruition

	From the brief and extended teachings,

a)  The brief teachings

	Now the fruition of entering into the ten virtues of the path is explained:
	
	For those who are on the path, the fruit of the ten wholesome actions
	Has ripening, concordant cause, the power, and action.

	These are its four aspects.

b)  The extensive explanation,

	There are nine sections

i)  Ripening

	As for the fruition of ripening:
	
	Depending on whether such practice is small, between, or great,
	We will be born as human beings or as gods,
	Elsewhere we will attain to ultimate truth and goodness.

	The aspect according with merit is not exhausted.  Temporally we experience the happiness of gods and 
human beings.  Ultimately, we will attain the level of buddhahood. The Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines 
says:

		O noble Shariputra, what is gained by virtuous roots is that after going among gods 
and human beings, we become unsurpassably enlightened.  What are virtuous roots?  There are 
the ten virtues, which possess the single arousal of bodhicitta, the aspiration to supreme 
enlightenment, the four dhyanas, the four formless attainments, and the six paramitas.  These 
never have any gaps and never become non-existent.

ii)  Karmic fruition that accords with the cause

	As for the fruition according with the cause:
	
	Actions that have compatibility with the cause
	Are those of one who is by nature inclined to the wholesome.
	Experience of this is of long life and great enjoyment.
	We have a compatible consort and is without enemies.
	We is not reviled.  Relationships are friendly.
	Our words are taken to heart, and people gladly hear them.
	Satisfied, we are kind to others, and have good views.

	The Sutra Teaching the Ten Purities says:

		Because of the karma of these ten virtues, the field is ennobled by our efforts.  Our 
lives are lengthened.  Our enjoyments are greater.  We have compatible spouses and no enemies. 
 We are not disparaged.  Everyone is pleasant to us.  Our words are considered worthy of being 
heeded.  Everyone is glad to hear them.  We become contented.  There is mutual kindness.  
There are good views.

iii)  The fruition of its power

	As for mastery or power:
	
	We are born by its power in rich and brilliant countries.
	Potent food, drink, and herbs are easily digested.
	We are born in clean places of medicinal herbs and such.
	The odor and atmosphere is good and agreeable.
	Others do not cheat us, and we are not in fear.
	There are no harmful obstacles or danger to our lives.
	People suit us and contact with them is very happy.
	The flow of the seasons is good, and grain is plentiful.
	We live in level places, adorned by lakes and ponds.
	The many flourishing flowers and fruits are very good.
	Vegetables, fruits, and herbs are delicious with fine aromas.
	Everything grows well and there are friends and protectors.
	
	By giving up cutting off life, we are born in good and pleasant countries.  By giving up taking what is 
not given, we are born in places where food and drink are good-tasting and easily digested and medicinal herbs 
are potently effective.  By abandoning inappropriate sex, we are born in clean and good-smelling places.  
	By abandoning false speaking, the places in which we are born are without danger of harm from 
enemies, thieves, and so on, and we are not deceived.
	By abandoning divisive speaking, we are born in places with many compatible people, with few rocks, 
stones, and thorns.  By abandoning harsh language, we are born in a place where the seasons are regular, and 
grain ripens at a good time.  By abandoning sophistic speech, we are born in level places ornamented with lakes 
and ponds.
	By abandoning covetice we are born with places where many flowers and fruits and abundant good 
harvests are seen.  We have excellent protectors, relatives, and friends.  This is taught in the Sutra of the Ten 
Purities

iv)  The fruition of action:
	
	The actions of beings spread happiness on happiness.
	All good thoughts are established just as one desires.
	
	The Vast Play says:

	By good behavior one's stock of merit is increased.
	We are made holders of that which is excellent,
	The supreme accumulation of enlightenment.

The Excellent Action says:

	These excellencies occur even within this human life.

v)  The fruition of the six perfections:
	
	Generosity brings enjoyment, and discipline happiness.
	Patience brings beauty, and diligence brilliant qualities.
	Meditation beings peace of mind, and prajqa liberation.

	The accomplishments of bodhicitta are that possessiveness is renounced, harmful behavior is checked, 
anger is abandoned, we exert ourselves in what is wholesome, the mind is one-pointed in virtue, and the nature of 
the two truths is known.  By good actions of the six paramitas, true fruition is attained.  The Precious Mala says:

	Generosity, discipline, patience, and exertion
	Meditation and prajqa, and compassion are cultivated.
	Generosity completely bestows our intrinsic wealth.
	Discipline performs beneficial actions for others.
	Patience is the way that we abandon aggression.
	Exertion is enthusiastic, wholesome action.
	Meditation is one-pointedness, without the kleshas.
	Prajqa is resolving the meaning of the truth.
	Compassion is a heartfelt noble identification
	With all other sentient beings as of one taste with ourselves.
	Generosity beings enjoyment, discipline happiness;
	Patience radiance and exertion brilliancy.
	Meditation brings peace, and prajqa liberation.
	Their essential kindness is the accomplishing of all goals.
	When all of these seven activities, without remainder,
	Have been brought to complete perfection all at once,
	There is the sphere of wisdom beyond the compass of thought.
	We have attained the being of a world-honored one.

	The six paramitas are essentially kindness.  This is the accomplisher of the deeds of bodhicitta.  The 
extensive explanation is below.

vi)  The fruition of the Four Immeasurables

	As for the benefits of the four immeasurables:
	
	Kindness makes us pleasant, and compassion beneficial.
	Joy fulfills, and equanimity makes us sublime.
	In short the ultimate fruit of the two accumulations
	Is that incidentally higher states are manifested.
	Ultimately truth and goodness are established.
	This excellent path is the chariot of the mahayana.
	It establishes the perfection of the buddhas of the three times.

	Through kindness, we are pleasant to everyone.  Through compassion we perform limitless benefits.  Joy 
brings perfect wealth.  Equanimity makes the mind workable.  The sutras say:

	By having kindness mind is vast, the seven activities have been performed.   One's knowledge 
is certain.  Shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and extraordinary ones will attain the pleasures of gods 
and human beings and be colorfully adorned.

The Precious Mala says:

	Food of fish for three hundred
	Offered three times each day
	Cannot match the pure merit
	Of just a minute of kindness

	Kind ones will be gods and humans.
	They will be well-restrained.
	Unharmed by poison and weapons,
	Their minds will be good and happy.
	Born in the world of Bhrama,
	Their success will be effortless,

	Even if not liberated,
	They will attain the eight qualities. 
    	Beings will be made to produce
	The mind of bodhicitta.

	Having relied on that,
	They will become as solid
	As the lord of mountains.
	Within them bodhicitta
	Will be forever attained.

	It will never happen
	That they have no chance for faith.
	By custom becoming excellent,
	By emptiness and so forth,
	Without desiring dharmas,
	Carefully they will attain
	To everything that is wholesome.
	By their motionlessness,
	They will gain mindfulness.


	Producing discursive thoughts
	They will gain intellect.
	By offering and homage,
	they will realize the meaning.

	By carefully guarding Dharma
	They will develop prajqa.
	Those listeners to the Dharma
	Who have the gift of faith,

	By having no obscurations,
	Will accompany the buddhas.
	Everything they wish for
	Will quickly be obtained.

	Without even wanting to do so
	They will accomplish their goals.
	As they are not miserly,
	Enjoyments will increase.
	Since they have no pride,
	They will be principal ones.
	By patience in the Dharma,
	They will grasp its power.

	With essential generosity
      And fearless generosity
	Unharmed by all the maras.
	They will gain the highest powers.

	Stupas strung with lamps,
	Lamps to those in darkness
	By these generous lamps and ships
	The divine eye will be gained.

	By offerings of stupas,
	Services, music, and bells,
	Excellent yak tails and conches,
	The divine ear will be gained.

	Not discussing confusions of others,
	Not mentioning injured limbs,
	Because they guard their minds,
	They know the minds of others.

	Giving boots and horses,
	Growing humble and reverent,
	Giving mounts to the guru,
	They gain miraculous power
	
	For the sake of Dharma and such
	They remember the meanings of texts.
	By spotless generous Dharma
	Remembering former lives.

	Knowing things as they are,
	They know that things are essenceless.
	They gain the six higher perceptions,
	Exhausting all defilements.

	To accomplish the liberation
	Of limitless sentient beings,
	They possess equanimity,
	Knowing the nature of suchness,

	Because their meditation
	Is moistened with compassion,
	Having the supreme aspects,
	They are victorious ones.

	By various pure aspirations,
	The buddha field is purified.
	Giving precious things to the sages,
	They emanate limitless light

	With such pure karma and fruit,
	Always thinking of beings,
	They will always do benefit.
	That will benefit you.

	Just those are the realm means of crossing over to the level of buddhahood.  The Succession of Beings 
says:

	Of the two accumulations of merit and wisdom
	The highest fruit is entering holy liberation
	No other way of entering was ever known to exist.
	Descending from the gathering clouds of purity
	Make the cool rain of excellent dharmas now appear.

vii)  The fruition of the two truths:

	
	Thus the formative actions of samsara and nirvana
	Depend on mind whose nature is luminosity.
	Simplicity like the sky, it does not think of a doer,
	The meaning of both the two truths is dependent origination.


	All karma depends on mind; if we examine mind, it is essenceless and luminous.  The supreme 
distinction of the relative and absolute truths, because of the nature of interdependent arising is completely pure.  
The Shri-Samadhiraja Sutra says:

	At that time without evil deeds, and with the ten powers,
	There is the supreme samadhi of the Victorious One.
	Beings in samsara are like beings in a dream.
	None of them is ever born or ever dies.

	Though in transmigration we go to other worlds,
	None our karmic actions is ever left behind.
	Within samsara their black and white fruitions ripen.
	They are not permanent, nor are they nothingness.

	Without any gathered karma, there would be no pure lands.
	Even if they were created, they could not be reached.
	If another produced them, they could not be seen.
	Without any transmigration, there is no rebirth.

	Nothing at all exists, and nothing is non-existent,
	Or it would not be pure to enter the natural state.
	There would be no entering perfect pacification
	Of all the activities of deluded sentient beings.

	The three worlds like a dream are utterly essenceless.
	Quickly vanishing, they are impermanent like illusion.
	Because there is no coming, there also is no going.
	Constant things, eternally empty, have no marks.

	This is what is realized by the sugatas--
	With the excellent buddha qualities of the victorious ones,
	The markless natural state is the peace of the unborn.
	Its powers and strengths are powers of buddha qualities.

	This itself is the Buddha, supreme among all leaders.
	By collecting the qualities of excellent white dharmas
	We attain the power of wisdom and buddha qualities
	And the excellences of miracle and higher perception.

viii)  The individual fruitions of virtue and evil deeds

	Appearing even while it is nothingness, karma is explained by the example of being like a dream:

	Primordial purity appearing as nothingness,
	Like a painter, karma produces everything.
	It follows us everywhere, as a shadow does the body.
	Like physical pleasure and pain, it never slips away.
	Like a waterfall, it is difficult to deflect.
	Making beings rise or fall, it is like the ruler of beings.
	It is extremely vast, like the endless space of the sky.
	Whether black or white, it never changes at all,
	Any more than the white kunda lotus becomes the blue utpala.
	
	Though karmas and kleshas are natureless, they ceaselessly appear.  Therefore, they depend on 
ignorance as their root.  The condition is the arising of objects.  The cause is connection with the three poisons.  
The Objects of Mindfulness says:

		The ground of karma is ignorance, and if there is insight, one will not come into the 
power of karma.  It is like a skilled and confident painter, who produces a variety of works.  The 
condition is thoughts of objects.  like a monkey, it is very active.  Like a fish, it dwells in the 
ocean of samsara.  Like a householder, it collects a variety of habitual patterns.  Like illusion, 
something that does not exist still appears.  Like a shadow, it always follows us.  Like joy and 
sorrow, it does not transmigrate.  Like a river, it is hard to turn back.  Like a king, it can 
exchange happiness and unhappiness.  Like the sky, it is vast.  Like utpala and kumut lotuses, 
one does not become another.

ix)  The fruition of profound interdependent arising:
		
	Though examining karmas, they have no nature at all,
	Like dreams they are still creators of various joys and sorrows.
	Except as mere projections, they have no substance or quality.
	Profound dependent arising, infallible cause and effect,
	Neither existent nor nothing, they are non-duality.
	They ripen as something like the action that was done.
	This is the vision of things in their nature and extent.
	As it was well-taught by the Omniscient One.

	The inner and outer realms are false conceptions.  If they are analyzed, even if we look for them, no 
karma and kleshas are found.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 4.47

	If the kleshas are not in objects, the senses, between, or elsewhere,
	Where are these harmers of beings? They are like illusion.
	Abandon the fear in your heart and try to rely on prajqa.

	In the absolute there is no karma; but here in the dream-like relative, there is happiness and unhappiness 
and joy and sorrow are distinguished.  If it is discriminated and examined by the mind, karma, beyond existence 
and non-existence, is like space.  Since there is no karma to be accumulated, do not accumulate karma by the 
mind being confused over and over again.  That is the instruction.  This presentation is known and taught only by 
the Omniscient One, and not by the traditions of others.  The teacher Bhajya says in his Precious Lamp of 
Madhyamaka:

	Karmas with non-deceptive cause and effect,
	As it has been taught, are like a dream.
	Bhagavan this is taught by you alone.
	Aside from that, it is not explained in treatises.

f.  Refuting other wrong conceptions,

There are four sections

1)  Eliminating denial of cause and effect.

	Now other sorts of wrong conceptions are eliminated:

	Those who deny the validity of cause and effect
	Are students of the heretics and the nihilists.
	Whoever has confidence merely in emptiness
	Falls into the extreme of the nihilistic view.
	These go lower and lower upon an evil path.
	Never liberated from the lower states of being,
	They are ever more distant from the happy ones.

	Such fools are conspicuous in their pride.  Some who do not know the intent of the Dharma say there is 
no karma and no fruition of karma--within suchness like space they do not exist at all.  Giving up virtue, they 
practice the evil deeds that are natural to them.  The Good Army Sutra says: 

		Those who say there is no karma and no ripening of karma are fools who have only the 
literal meaning.  Those who say this and rely on a great collection of unwholesomeness may 
promise this Dharma with their mouths, but are not within this Dharma.  They rely on the path 
of the worldly charvakas.  They say, "It should be understood as a delusion of Mara."

The Precious Mala says:

	In short, a view like this is nihilism.
	They say there is no such thing as fruition of karma.
	Having no merit, they go to the lower realms.
	They are said to be persons with wrong view.

Also it says:

	Nihilists like these will go to the lower realms.

2)  Refuting the view of emptiness.

	Some also say:
	
	"Cause, and effect, and compassion, and the gathering of merit.
	With these childish literal Dharmas one will never get enlightened."
	They do not speak the truth, whose meaning is like the sky.
	The story great yogins tell is "Go and do your practice!"

	As for those who say such words:
	
	Such a view is more nihilistic than nihilism.
	They are on a path that goes ever lower and lower.
	To deny the cause and affirm the effect is very strange!

	Even such outsider materialist extremists as the charvaka nihilists  do not say that perceived appearances 
are without cause and effect; you deny a cause of liberation, but still maintain the effect.  This is strange.  You do 
this by maintaining that there is liberation because of actionless meditation.

3)  Refuting those having the mind of the summit of samsara

	When people claim, "it is like space," we should say:
	
	If space is reality, why do we need to meditate?
	If not, then meditation is useless drudgery.
	If liberation is gained by meditating on nothingness,
	Those who have a vacuous mind will get enlightened.
	But proclaiming such meditation establishes cause and effect.
	Therefore, put aside this bad and inferior path.
	
	Some people claim, "It is like space."  If so, and if it is already established, we do not need to meditate.  
If it is not established, meditation will be of no use.  This non-existent thing will never become an existent thing, 
just as empty space will not later become something else.  This is a reply to those who say, "Liberation from the 
kleshas is attainment of liberation altogether."
	Saying it is attained by this alone, postulates that this occurs by cause and effect.  Therefore, they cannot 
say that there is no cause and effect.  If it is maintained that there is liberation by meditating on nothingness, even 
worldly hedonists could be liberated by doing that.  The Dohakosha says:

	Someone who says, "I have been pierced by an arrow,"
	Will never be liberated by having a mind like space.

	This refutes such a view, so do not think like that.

4)  The true explanation of cause and effect.

	Now the true meaning is explained:

	The genuine path has interdependence and cause and effect.
	This is spontaneous union of prajqa and upaya.
	Using the means of apparent but natureless cause and effect,
	There is the apparent natureless path of meditation.
	And thus the apparent natureless fruit can be attained.
	Apparent but natureless benefit for sentient beings
	Is produced in a way that is apparent but natureless.
	This is pure cause and effect, profound in its interdependence.
	Therefore, the essence of sutras and tantras of the true meaning
	Is that by having united the two accumulations,
	And by the two stages of development and completion,
	Perfect buddhahood will quickly be established.
	
	From the two accumulations, whose illusion-like appearance is natureless, buddhahood is established.  
The  Knowledge of Illusion Sutra Requested by Supreme Goodness Lady says:

	By gathering the illusion-like accumulations,
	There will be illusion-like enlightenment.
	There will be a performance that is like illusion
	Of illusion-like benefits for the sake of sentient beings.

	The sutras of the true meaning and all the tantras explain it in the same way.  In the tantras, the stages of 
development and fulfillment establish the two accumulations, and by that one becomes enlightened within the 
mandala.

C.  the final summary:

	Therefore, abandon all the aspects of cause and fruition
	That have a part in constructing formations of samsara.
	But then we should produce with wholehearted diligence
	The cause and fruition of the state of liberation.
	By that the highest truth and goodness will manifest,
	There will be the establishment of enlightenment.
	
	All virtues are to be established.  All evil deeds are to be left behind.  The goal of life must be made to 
exist, since one should quickly go to it.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	With many harms, this life is blown away on the wind.
	If even a river of water is impermanent,
	Exhaling and inhaling, when we go to sleep,
	That we ever awake is really miraculous.

	For that reason to do evil to oneself and others is not suitable.  To go so far as to do evil deeds for the 
sake of khenpos, loppvns, and the three jewels, is senseless,  since by the evil ripening within us, we will not be 
able to participate in them. The same text says:

	Practice virtue.  For the sake of brahmins and gods
	For feasting,  fathers and mothers, queen and retinue,
	Even for their sake do not do evil deeds,
	You will get no reward but ripening in hell.

	As for doing any sort of evil deeds,
	If this is not cut off at once, as if with a weapon,
	When the time of death arrives, then there will manifest
	The karmic fruition of all these various evil deeds.

	Therefore, even with the elimination of evil actions,  it also says:

	As for the seeds of these unwholesome activities,
	By purifying defilements of body, speech, and mind,
	We should earnestly strive with all our present skill.
	Not to create an atom of these for any reason,

	This cannot be established by anything other than our own powers, or by any association with others.  
Accepting good and rejecting evil must come from themselves alone.  It is said:

	As for liberation depending on oneself,
	It does not come from association with another,
	If we have learning, discipline, and meditation,
	A purified world will thus attain to happiness.
	Let us attain a happiness like that of the Bhrama realms.

	Completely abandoning through practice of the four dhyanas,
	The happiness and sorrow of desiring and acting,
	Let us make an effort in the four noble truths.

As to how this should be done, it says:

	The proper noble master always day and night
	Transcends the ordinary kind of highs and lows.
	Not without fruition even in the womb,
	By being mindful, anything else will become weaker.
	One will always experience kindness, joy, and compassion.
	And always meditate in genuine absorption.

	Even if it does not please superior ones,
	May we attain the happiness of the Bhrama realms.
	The happiness and sorrow of desiring and acting,
	Completely being abandoned through practice of the four dhyanas,
	May purity, radiance, and happiness increase,
	And our fortune of fruition be equal to the gods.
	
	Without conception, without attachment and antidotes,
	Having the principal virtues of the four dhyana states,
	As for the five great virtues and the five non-virtues,
	Let us strive to perform the ones that are virtuous.

	In a bit of water, a bit of salt will change its taste;
	But this is not the case with the stream of the river Ganges.
	Similarly, though our evil deeds are very few,
	They will be known within the scope of our virtuous roots.

	Wild discursiveness and sinking in sluggish depression
	Are states that will be harmful to dark and murky minds.
	Sleepiness and doubt and yearning with desire,
	These five obscurations are thieves of happiness.
	
	However as for faith, pure effort, and mindfulness
	The supreme dharmas of samadhi, and the five good prajqas
	We should make an effort to manifest all of these.
	Then there will be the highest powers and faculties. 

	In that way much that is to be transcended will be transcended, and good dharmas that are true and 
excellent will be established.

D.  the dedication of the merit of this extensive explanation of the aspects of the meaning and what is proper:
	
	Thus with the cooling Dharma rain of mahasukha
	May the two accumulations, merit and wisdom,
	Grow and flourish widely within the fertile soil,
	Of well-manured minds of limitless sentient beings.
	Here in samsara, completely filled with karma and kleshas,
	May the weary nature of mind today find ease from fatigue.

	That is the good aspiration.  By the cooling dharma rain of words and meaning, in the field of the minds 
of sentient beings, by the increase of the good harvest of happiness, may whatever kleshas there may be cleared 
away, removing the impoverishment of those who have been deprived with accumulating happiness.  By the 
wealth of the sky-treasury of buddha qualities, may our weariness be eased.

	By these present teachings the gates of Dharma are opened.
	The profound and precious meaning is there to be received.
	With the thought that they would benefit others, this was composed.
	By them may all sentient beings encounter supreme enlightenment.

	Within the sky of mind, the planets and stars of the kleshas,
	Improper mental creations, produce the white glow or appearance.
	By merit overcoming their luminous/empty nature,
	May there come the daylight of the dawn of wisdom.

	May the wishes of beings for joy and happiness be fulfilled.
	May we cross over the ocean of karma and the kleshas.
	May there be effortless increase of all that is good and happy.


Chapter V: Relying on the Spiritual Friend

	By the four ordinary preliminaries, one's continuum of mind has been made workable, and by the 
explanation of the qualities of our enlightened family, the gotra, joy has been produced. Now there is the fifth 
chapter on the spiritual friend, the one who properly teaches their meaning.  Here there are six sections:

A.  Fully relating to the one who teaches the path without error.
B.  The source of all truth and goodness.
C.  The instruction to rely on the holy ones and abandon what is evil.
D.  Avoiding those to be avoided, with those associated with them
E.  Knowing what to accept and reject, and how siddhi is to be received.
F.  The dedication of the merit of the situation.

A. fully relating to the one who teaches the path without error.

	Now there is the teaching of the characteristics of the spiritual friend who teaches the way of doing what 
has just been explained:

	Thus the unerring cause and effect of the excellent path
	Arises from relating to the holy ones.

	Knowing Dharma and adharma, and wholesome and unwholesome, comes from relying on the spiritual 
friend, or in Sanskrit kalyana mitra.  The Sutra of the Display of Noble Ones says:

		Kye, O son of noble family, by you the spiritual friend should be pleased.  Since he 
completely knows the collections of merit and non-merit, when there is samsara, he completely 
clears away its causes.

B.  the source of all truth and goodness:

	Thus the unerring cause and effect of the excellent path
	Arises from relating to the holy ones.
	Attainment of the three kinds of enlightenment,
	That of victorious ones, together with their sons,
	That of the shravakas, and that of the pratyekabuddhas,
	Arises from a relationship to spiritual friends.
	Also the higher manifestations of samsara,
	And whatever happiness may be involved in them,
	Arises from relating to the holy ones.
	Therefore, we should rely upon the holy ones.

	The Sutra requested by Maitreya says:

		The liberation of those who are shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and supremely 
enlightened ones, and as many with the skandha of wisdom as there may be, all these should be 
understood to arise from relying on the spiritual friend.

Maitreya says:

		Moreover, as much benefit and happiness as there may be for sentient beings, it all arises from 
one's virtuous roots.  This should also be understood to arise from the spiritual friend.

C. The instruction to rely on the holy ones and abandon what is evil,

Within this section there are

1.  the brief teaching
2.  the extended explanation.

1.  the brief teaching

	Now there is the instruction to rely on the spiritual friend and abandon evil:

	As vines that grow on a sandalwood tree assume its odor,
	By relating with holy ones, we ourselves become holy.
	Like kusha grass that has its roots in a putrid swamp,
	By keeping to bad company, we ourselves go bad.
	Therefore sincerely try to relate with holy persons.
	And also to abandon evil spiritual friends.
	
	A vine that clings to a sandalwood tree, because of that is tall and fragrant.  Kusha grass growing in filth 
of decayed fish and so on itself becomes nasty.  Just so, having seen the benefit and harm that come from relying 
on holy and unholy ones, as for the instruction to rely on holy ones, the Vinaya says:

	As a vine that relies on a sala tree
	Will grow to be strong with an aromatic smell
	The person who relies on the holy ones
	Will be embraced by goodness and shine with splendor.

Also it says there:

	When kusha grass is entwined with rotten fish,
	And they have not been kept quite far away,
	The kusha too will begin to be like the fish.
	And similarly what people will become
	Relying on unholy persons is like that.

2.  The extended explanation

	There are three sections.

a.  The characteristics of the one to be relied upon;
b.  how one should rely on such a person;
c.  the characteristics of the student who is to be accepted.

a.  the characteristics of the one to be relied upon,

	
	There are eight sections.

1)  the characteristics of the spiritual friend in general,

	Briefly, as for the characteristics of spiritual friends, if it is asked what they should properly be like, first 
generally, and then in the paramita tradition

	What is the proper manner of these holy ones?
	As leaders of the world, they cooperate with all.
	In going beyond the world, they cooperate with nothing.
	In actions of the three gates, they are more noble than anyone.
	
	The Gandavyuha Sutra says:

		If it is asked what spiritual friends should be like, insofar as they are perfect leaders of 
many sentient beings, if they are seen, it is not inappropriate.  Since they are beyond the world, 
they have nothing in common with anything.  Since what they undertake is always beneficial, 
they accomplish immeasurable benefit.

2)  Their virtues

If it is asked what their virtues are like:

	They are peaceful in body, their actions pure and faultless.
	They are skilled in cutting through doubt.  Their speech is faultless and pleasant.
	Their deep and peaceful minds are a treasury of omniscience.
	Compassionate and learned, they are limitless in their virtues.
	Vast in q, their vision and action are like the sky.
	In their buddha activity they are limitless.
	All who have a connection with them are benefited.
	In kindness they abandon sadness and fatigue,
	And for that reason they are constantly diligent.
	Beings rely on spiritual friends as ennobling guides.

	They benefit sentient beings by many virtues of body, speech, and mind.  Their prajqa and realization are 
as deep as space.  The undertakings of their Buddha activity plant seeds of liberation in all who are connected 
with them.  By their compassion they look on every one of them like an only child.  By the wealth of good 
qualities of the teachings, they turn the wheel of Dharma of any vehicle to which someone may have devotion.  
The Madhyamakalankara says:

	Spiritual friends are tamed and peaceful--very peaceful.
	Replete with effort and qualities, they are rich in teachings.
	Having supremely realized these, they are skilled in speech.
	Guarding the nature of kindness, they rely on renunciation.

3)  Their particular characteristics.

	In addition to these qualities, among others that they have, the guru of secret mantra also has these:
		
	In particular, as for the marks of gurus of secret mantra,
	They keep their empowerments, vows, and samayas pure and unbroken.
	They reach the other shore of the ocean of tantric instructions.
	They have mastered the four aspects of sadhana
	Propitiation, practice, transforming,  and buddha activity.
	They have perfected view, meditation, action, and fruit,
	And the nyams, the signs, and heat that accompany realization.
	Very kind, with an excellent grasp of skillful means,
	They establish students in ripening and liberation.
	They are undiminishing cloud-banks of the rain of lineage blessings.
	Rely on such a skilled and accomplished, glorious guru.
	The commentary of the great teacher Vimalamitra, The Mirror-like Net of Miracles says:

		Such gurus also have completely attained the empowerments of the outer and inner 
mandalas.  Their vows and samayas are pure.  They are learned in the individual meanings of 
the tantras.  They have trained in propitiation and practice, together with the karmic 
applications.  Their view of realization is not obscured.  In their meditation, they are familiar 
with the experiences of the nyams.  They are connected to a variety of actions.  By compassion 
they lead students.  They have these eight characteristics.

	The guru, in addition, because the lineage is unbroken, diffuses an atmosphere of blessings.  Therefore 
this ninth characteristic is taught.

4)  The praise by means of examples,

	If it is asked how many virtues such a guru has, this is the explanation:
	
	Their buddha qualities are utterly limitless.
	To give only part of the praise that is due to such friends of beings,
	They steer the great ship that crosses the ocean of samsara.
	Incomparable captains of those who journey on that path.
	They remove poverty, like wish fulfilling gems.
	They are the amrita that puts out the fire of karma and kleshas.
	They are the excellent clouds of the cooling rain of Dharma.
	They are celestial thunder, delighting all sentient beings.
	Kings of physicians, they cure the sickness of the three poisons.
	They are a radiant lamp, dispelling the darkness of ignorance.
	They are like a great tree that can fulfill all wishes.
	All the joy of sentient beings arises from them.
	Like an "excellent vase"  or a wish-fulfilling gem,
	They spontaneously grant whatever is desired.
	They are the measureless rays that shine from the sun of kindness.
	Removing affliction, they are the light of the moon of benefits.
	
	The Gandavyuha Sutra  says:

		Kye, O son of noble family, moreover, because they liberate from the ocean of 
samsara, they are like ships.  They are like captains of those who dwell on the path of liberation. 
 Since they clear away the deteriorations of samsara, they are like a king of wish-fulfilling gems. 
 Since they remove the fires of karma and the kleshas, they are like a river.  Since they cause the 
great rain of Dharma to descend, they are like excellent clouds.  Since they make all beings 
rejoice, they are like the great drum of the gods.  Because they clear away the sickness of the 
kleshas, they are like a king of physicians.  Because they clear away all the darkness of 
ignorance, they are like a lamp.  Because they fulfill the hopes of all desires, they are like a 
wish-fulfilling tree.  Because they accomplish all that is wished for, they are like an excellent 
wishing vase.  By their measureless kindness they are like the disk of the sun.  Since they cool 
the torment of the kleshas, they are like the disk of the moon.  Since they bestow the wealth of 
the buddha qualities, they are like the god of wealth Vaishravana.

5)  The praise of their being in accord with the goal.
	
	Vast in realization, they are like an unbroken sky.
	Like planets and stars, their samadhi is self-luminous.
	The ocean of their kindness is utterly measureless.
	Their great waves of compassion flow like the stream of a river.
	They are like a snow mountain in their immovable splendor.
	They are supremely immovable, like the mass of Mount Meru.
	Like lotuses growing in mud, they are not obscured by samsara.
	They are kind and loving like a father or mother,
	With equanimity toward every sentient being.

	Their limitless qualities are a precious treasury.
	As leaders of the world, they resemble powerful kings.
	
	The sutra of the supremely vast garland of buddhahood, the Avatamsaka Sutra says:

		Kye, sons of the Victorious one, these virtues arising from the spiritual friend are 
measureless.  Since they arise because of opportunities for compassion, they are like the sky.  
Their collection of many samadhis and dharanis is like the stars.  Their immeasurable 
compassion is like a great, full ocean.  Their loving-kindness is immeasurable like a river.  
Never disturbed by agitation, they are like a snow mountain.  Not being moved from suchness, 
they are like Mount Meru.  Since, even when they exist within samsara, they are not obscured 
by defilements, they are like a great lotus.  In the equality of unobscured compassion, they are 
like a father or mother.  Because of their immeasurable buddha qualities, they are like a 
precious treasure source.  Since they completely liberate from all wandering within samsara, 
they are like the Tathagata.  This host of their buddha qualities is beyond measure and limit.

6)  The summary.

As for further qualities:
	
	Wherever these gurus dwell, who are the lords of Dharma,
	They are the equals of all the buddhas of the world.
	By seeing, hearing, or contact, or by remembering them,
	Samsara will be subsequently overthrown.
	In the immensity of their great waves of buddha activity,
	Their burden, like the great earth, supports all sentient beings.

	When buddhas arrive in the world, all who see, hear, or remember them, will eventually be established in 
happiness.  Since this is also established by those gurus, they are have the same kind of buddha activity.  As 
emanations of the Victorious One, they are explained in the same way.  The Great Drum Sutra says:

	Do not produce any suffering, be all-joyful.
	Do not wail laments, but be all-joyful.
	I in later time, will emanate
	In the form of the spiritual friend himself,
	Producing benefits for you and others.

The Tantra of the Vajra Mirror says:

	Chief of the Vajrasattva mandala,
	The guru is the equal of all the buddhas.

	Without sadness and weariness, like the earth, they produce benefits for sentient beings.  Though they 
see peace, the benefit for oneself, they are not concerned with it, undertaking the benefit of others, even when it is 
very difficult.  The Letter to Students says:

	These who strive to do benefits for other persons
	Those beings are attentive in their majesty;
	They are noble ones who have the power to make beings happy.
	Riding on the horse of the splendid, radiant sun,
	Those who are bringers of light, proceed in such a way.

	Though not piling up burdens, the earth supports the world;
	Such, without self-benefit, is the nature of the great ones,
	Regarding the tastes of happiness and benefit as one.

	By heaped dark clouds of ignorance, beings are disturbed.
	Seeing them fall helpless into blazing fires of suffering,
	Attentively striving as if those fires flared on their foreheads,
	In such matters this those persons are also very skilled.
	They know how to benefit other sentient beings.

	Even in the Avici Hell, full of tongues of flame,
	They enter as joyfully, as if it were snow and moonlight.
	As if they swam in a pleasant lake of lotus blossoms
	They burn with longing for these collected tongues of flame.

	Those who are skilled in Dharmic benefits for others,
	Have comfort even in a grove with leaves of swords.
	The company of divine maidens in a pleasure grove,
	Would not produce such happiness as a moment of this.

	In order that beings who cannot cross over may cross over,
	Entering into the unfordable river Vaitravani 
	By being touched by the flowing waves of a heavenly river
	They would not get the nature of such happiness.

	Ornamented by such jewels of good conduct,
	In luminosity radiant, with the amrita of peace
	Producing the joy of joys, unremembered and hard to find,
	Auspiciousness of auspiciousness, they keep the cause of peace.
	The flower of speech of the Sugata is always reliable.
	From the flower of that tree arises a vast fruition.
	The flowers of the Sugata's speech can be relied on.
	As bees on honey, they depend on producing joy.

7)  The Buddhas' supreme view

	The buddha-guru is a fourth to the three jewels.
	The guru is Sri Heruka, lord of the mandala.
	In benefits of taming beings of this dark age,
	Even better than the Buddha, for beings to be tamed.
	The vajra master is the root of all the siddhis.
	Bow the three gates purely, without hypocrisy.
	
	The Unified Sameness of the Continuums of All the Buddhas says:

	With the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha
	The guru is a fourth.

The Universal Secret says:

	The heruka who is the lord of the mandala,
	The supreme guru's siddhi is very great.

The Immaculate Sky Sutra says:

		Ananda, though the sugatas do not appear to all sentient beings, spiritual friends have appeared 
everywhere, teaching the Dharma and sowing seeds of liberation.  Therefore, think of spiritual friends as 
better than the sugatas.

The Dohakosha says:

	The root of all the siddhis is the vajra master himself.

The Great Display of the Wish-fulfilling Gem says:

	Thus with devotion and fear to the holy guru,
	Always offering all the offerings,
	By pleasing him, let us serve the truth itself.

8)  the benefits attending on this service

	If it is asked what other benefits it has:
	
	Having blocked the path that leads to the lower realms,
	They establish us in the fortune of the higher realms.
	They benefit us within this life and those to come.
	They bless our minds, and so reveal reality.
	We are set on the path that ripens and frees within this life.
	Therefore with a faith that is always firm and changeless
	Always rely on the guru, without fatigue or regret.

		They block the lower realms and teach the higher realms.  They lead to the level of buddhahood 
and are always the source of all buddha qualities without deceit or pretence, without holding back or reversing.  If 
one is respectful and reverent to them, special qualities will arise within this life.  The Tantra of Subtle Wisdom 
says:

	By always being without hypocrisy
	To gurus having all excellent qualities,
	If even small offerings are made to them,
	This life will be long, and one will have no sickness,
	Having excellent and pleasant enjoyments.
	Later liberation will be mastered.

The Song of the Oral Instructions of the Inexhaustible Treasury says
	E ma!  The secret teaching of the dakinis.
	All the various Dharmas have but a single meaning.
	Embodied in the teacher, the holy guru himself.
	Like the lips of faith  this supreme Jetsun,
	With devoted mind should be received on the heads of virtuous ones. 

	The guru points to mind collected into one.

	What is pointed out is the essence of students themselves.
	By realizing all this as suffering in an instant
	As for that these conquering heroes by their kindness
	See the possible benefit, to actualize their kindness
	We should always hold to these kings of all physicians.

	From the ocean of samsara so very deep and wide,
	There is no other excellent ship that liberates.
	Having relied on that holy ship of excellent bliss
	The motionless antidote which is esteemed by all.

	By the pure rays of the light of wisdom like the sun,
	Such an excellent being makes ignorance into insight.
	Transforming all dharmas to bliss, like changing grass to gold
	Always rely on the guru's wheel turning upaya.

	By their mind like rivers dualistic views are overcome.
	If we never abandon anything at all,
	Unobscured wisdom will thereby fully be possessed.
	Resting in uncontrived mind and its phenomena.
	Arises from the amrita-presence of the guru.

	What to convention is only mind and mental events
	These labeled designations in the companions of yogins
	Undergo transformation in the guru's lotus presence.
	All who abandon the tantras by conventional thinking
	Will never know the secret teaching of all the Buddhas

	The oral instructions are actually visible to the eye.
	They completely pervade the realm of the physical senses.
	If one merely touches the dust of the guru's feet,
	One will later gain understanding of all wisdom.

	The guru releases a thousand  arrows of piercing dharmas
	A thousand empty apparent transforming skillful actions.
	By prajqa appearances to be comprehended  are seen
	As for that prajqa, it arises from the pure master.

	The kleshas are supremely transformed by skillful means
	Any tormenting thoughts that cannot be transformed
	From the essence instructions are able to be renounced.
	This too will be attained by the power of the Jetsun.
	Therefore whatever lineage blessings we may have,
	Let us always rely on them with skillful means.

b.  how one should rely on the guru

	There are two sections,

the teaching by example:

1)  If it is asked why one should rely on such a guru:

	Just as those who are ill are in need of a king of physicians,
	As the people need a ruler, and travelers need companions,
	As merchants needs captains, and different sailors need each other.
	In order to calm the kleshas and render evil harmless,
	So that birth and death will be annihilated,
	So that the two benefits are established spontaneously,
	So that we can cross the ocean of samsara,
	Therefore we should place our reliance on the guru.
	
	As in sickness we rely on a physician, we rely on the guru pacify the illness arising from the kleshas; As 
ordinary people rely on a king, the guru guards against harm.  As travelers rely on a guide, the guru liberates 
from the dangers of birth and death.  As merchants rely on a ship-captain, the guru accomplishes benefit for self 
and other.  As mariners rely on companions, the guru helps beings cross the river of samsara.

2)  The explanation of how one should rely one the guru

	in relying on the guru as on a physician, first as for relying on the guru as one relies on a physician 
because of illness:
		
	The physician is the guru; the medicine of instructions,
	Should be applied to the sickness of our samsaric perception.
	Serious effort is the way of using it.
	Peace and happiness are the fruit of curing the illness.
	Such a way of reliance is of higher measure than others.
	Therefore, rely on the guru with these four comprehensions.
	
	The Gandavyuha Sutra says:

		O son of noble family, you should guard yourself from perception of disease.  
Perception of the medicine of Dharma should be guarded.  The perception should be produced 
that in diligent practice, the disease is completely cured.  Perception of the spiritual friend as a 
capable physician should be produced.
		Also, son of noble family, you should produce the perception of yourself as ordinary.  
You should produce the perception of fearlessness in the Dharma.  You should produce the 
perception that in diligent practice, torments are completely pacified.  You should produce the 
perception of the spiritual friend as a king.  	Also, son of noble family, You should produce the 
perception of yourself as a traveler.  You should produce perception of the gift of fearlessness in 
the Dharma.  You should produce the perception that in diligent practice you are liberated from 
all fear.  You should produce the perception of the spiritual friend as a warrior-escort.
		Also, son of noble family, you should produce the perception of yourself as a merchant. 
 You should produce the perception of the Dharma as your wares.  You should produce the 
perception that in diligent practice you are making great profits.  You should produce the 
perception of the spiritual friend as your ship-captain.
		Also, son of noble family, you should perceive yourself as a ship-passenger.  You 
should perceive the Dharma as a ship.  You should perceive that in diligent practice you reach 
the other shore of the river.  You should produce the perception of the spiritual friend as a 
skillful friend.

Also it says there:

		Son of noble family, with all reverence toward the spiritual friend, produce a mind 
immune to sadness like the earth, a mind like vajra, which is not susceptible to any harm, a mind 
like a student who never closes the mind against any speech, the mind of a servant who does not 
go against any command that is heard, and produce a mind without arrogance like cutting off 
the horns of a bull.

Of these the Bodhicharyavatara says:  5.102

	As for spiritual friends, who are ever-virtuous
	They are skilled in the meaning of mahayana
	And the excellent discipline of a bodhisattva
	Even to save one's life, one should never forsake them.

	Within the Biography of Shri Sambhava
	It is taught how we should rely upon the guru...
	
c.	the characteristics of students that are to be accepted

	There are two sections concerning


1)  Students to be rejected
2)  Students to be accepted.

1)  Students to be rejected

	There are two topics.

a)  those who are bad vessels:
	
	On the other hand, Ill-starred disciples will be the ground of all evils.
	They are without shame and they are without faith.
	Having no decency, they have but little compassion.
	Both by nature and nurture, their behavior is ill-starred.
	Their actions, thoughts, and emotions are coarsened by the five poisons.
	With crazed distortions of Dharma, Adharma, good, and evil.
	Not keeping their vows and samayas, they have no antidote.
	Utterly stupid, all but mindless, nearly insatiable,
	Their angry words and hostility are forever-increasing.
	They relate to gurus with five perverted perceptions.
	They see the gurus as musk-deer, and Dharma as musk.
	They see themselves as hunters.  Their efforts are shot like arrows.
	As for the fruition of having accomplished Dharma,
	They think they will profit by selling their prize to someone else.
	But without samaya, they will suffer here and hereafter.
	
	Students of bad fortune are vessels of many defilements.  They have little shame or faith.  They have 
little decency or compassion.  Their family and nature are bad.  Their conduct and fortune are bad.  Their minds 
and kleshas are coarse.  They reverse virtue and vice and turn the instructions upside down.  They do not keep 
their vows and samayas.  Not shutting the doors of the kleshas, they obscure the antidotes.  With little prajqa, 
they are hard to please.  Their anger, harsh speech, and selfish attitudes always increase.  They strive in adharmic 
actions.  They shame the Buddha.  They disgrace the Dharma.  Their secret mutilations of the Sangha undermines 
the life of the guru.  Completely unpacified, they endanger everyone.  In particular, in their murderousness, they 
are like hunters.  They receive precepts from the loppvn with this approach alone, if there are others, they think " 
With this and that faults, they are like animals."  Saying, "that Dharma is one I have heard over and over," they 
think they are better than anyone else, and regard it as like musk.  They delight in shaming others who are not 
perfect in the learning of that Dharma and especially in killing them.  Because they have few resources they sell 
and barter so that this life is not auspicious for them.  Later they wander in the lower realms.

The commentary to the Tantra of the Presentation of Samaya says:

	They disparage the vajra master of the secret mantra
	They like to sell the Dharma for power, food, and wealth.
	By their family nature, they do not keep samaya.
	For them this life will be short, as they damage glory and fortune.
	By the dakinis' retribution, they will suffer.
	Later they will fall into the lower realms.

b.  What occurs if there is no examining .

Also if students are ill-starred:
	
	Some enter students at random, without examination.
	At first they speak virtuously; but later they disparage.
	With black-motivated mixtures of public and private actions,
	They deviously slander the retinue of the guru.
	In fruition they will go to the Avici Hell.
	
	Without first examining the continuum of student and guru, a teacher may accept such students.  When 
they are newly associated, they speak reverently and respectfully.  Then, angered by some little slight, they blame, 
speak harshly, and when alone, they indulge in frivolous faults.  They disparage everyone in the guru's retinue.  
Some publicly make a false display of praise and respect, but mentally nurse their lack of faith and respect.  As 
they revile the guru with hidden agendas and deceitful wiles, there is immeasurable harm.  The Fifty Verses on 
the Guru says:

	In the Avici Hell and similar fearful places
	Those unfortunate beings inhabiting such hells
	Are those who have denigrated and cursed the guru
	That they stay there long is well and truly taught.

2)  students who should be accepted.

There are twelve sections about the characteristics of good students

a)  Those who are special vessels:

	Students of good fortune live in faith and prajqa.
	Diligent and careful, always conscious of evil.
	Not going beyond the command, guarding their vows and samayas.
	The three gates, body, speech, and mind, are tamed.
	They are always very compassionate in their thoughts.
	Spacious, forbearing, and generous; great in sacred outlook.
	
	Steadfast and very devoted, the benefits of their having pleased the guru are measureless.  The Sutra of 
the Ornament of the Wisdom of Maitreya says:

		O sons or daughters of noble family, some who have excellent faith, if they have 
reverence for the guru, have an immeasurable heap of merit more limitless than that of those 
who have made offerings to all the buddhas for as many kalpas as there are grains of sand in the 
Ganges River.

The Holy Wisdom Tantra says:

	Compared to offering to the buddhas for kalpas,
	If part of a single body-hair of the guru
	is anointed with a single drop of oil,
	The heap of merit is much higher than that.

	This is because the guru is a special object.  The Embodiment of the Intention says

	More than the buddhas of a thousand kalpas
	The guru should be known to be a friend.
	Why?  Because All of the buddhas of those kalpas
	Arise in dependence on the guru's virtues.
	Previously, before there was a guru,
	Even the name of "Buddha" did not exist.

b)  Thinking of the guru's virtues, confessing, and vowing to refrain

	Such students:
	
	They are always mindful of the virtues of the teacher.
	They never think of the teacher as having any faults.
	Even if they see some, they think of them as virtues.
	They think from their hearts that surely these are their projections,
	Confession and vows to refrain serve as their antidote.
	
	If there is the slightest non-faith, they think of it as a projection with the nature of a dream.  They think 
that certainly the guru does not really have these faults.  If even in a dream they do not have faith in the conduct 
of the guru, as soon as they awaken from sleep they confess it.  The Play of the Waterfall of Samsara says:

	If even in a dream, faults are seen in the guru,
	As soon as one awakes, if one does not confess,
	This will proliferate as the cause of the Avici Hell.

	If such thoughts arise during the day, instantly, or within a minute or a day, one should confess.  Then 
for every fault in one's mind one should think of a hundred virtues.  Likewise one should express them all.

c)  Abandoning what does not please the guru and asking what is to be done

What does not please the guru and anything like it should be abandoned.  One should try to do what will be 
pleasing:
	
	They reject every aspect of what does not please the guru.
	And try to please the teacher in any way they can.
	Neither do they ever break the teacher's command.
	They always treat the teacher's retinue like the teacher.
	They do so even in cases where they are personally lower.
	They do not take these or the teacher's servants as their students.
	Instead they request empowerments and explanations of Dharma.
	
	They abandon what does not please the teacher and accomplish what does.  What is taught by these 
words must be done.  The former text says:

	Even if one has faults, if one's acts accord with these words
	There will be real benefit.  Why mention this should be done?  	In the retinue even those who one 
would say are below one
	Are treated like the guru.  They are not gathered as students.  	Instead one asks them for 
Dharma-teachings and empowerments , 	Requesting ordinations, fire-offerings, and such.

Another text says:

	The lesser ones of the guru, are treated like the guru

	It is as is said here and elsewhere.

As for the discipline of bodily behavior in his presence,

d)  Their behavior:
	
	Their body, speech, and mind are controlled before the teacher.
	They sit respectfully and never turn their backs
	They smile and do not show any black and angry looks.

	The Three Stages says:

	In the guru's presence, proper bodily action
	Is to sit cross-legged and never turn one's back.
	Faces should be smiling, never angry or sinister.
	In brief we should be mindful of our every action.

e)  They control all faults of speech.

	Moreover, as for frivolous speech and so forth:
	
	They do not speak frivolously, nor utter lies and slander.
	They do not tell others' faults with harsh and unpleasant speech,
	Nor speak any words that are not considered or to the point.
	
	They have nothing to do with joking and humorous banter and idle chatter, repeating rumors, divisive 
false words, running down other people and so forth.  Even if these are true, the speaker will attain great 
unhappiness.  Why so?  The guru will condemn them, and there will be quarrels.  By quarrelling with the guru, 
even momentarily, great damage will be produced.  The same text says:

	Anything connected with careless words
	Should not ever be said before the guru.
	An ordinary person, if he is angered,
	Will fall by that into the occasional hells.

	Whoever contradicts the mind of the guru
	Will be boiled in deep black utter darkness
	For a hundred thousand times ten million kalpas.

As for controlling wrong conceptions in their motivation

f)  As for mind:
		
	They are not covetous about the teachers things.
	They sheathe the claws of any kind of harmful thoughts.
	The various miracles of the guru's actions and conduct
	Are not conceived to be a hypocritical sham.
	They reject wrong views of the slightest faults and defects
	That would be in contradiction with such a view,
	By thinking, "This is not right, but the teacher still is doing it.":
	
	They do not greedily think, "if only this which is the guru's were mine!  They do not say anything 
harmful about the guru's retinue, students, patrons, and so forth, since if this came to attention of the guru 
himself, it would not please him.  They are not hypocritical about actions done for the guru's purposes, whether 
peaceful or harsh, or whether or not they are in accord with worldly convention.  They do not think, "This is 
wrong,"  or "That is not the proper way," or that the guru's earlier and later words and actions have even the 
slightest contradiction.  The Root Tantra Establishing Wisdom says:

	Covetice for the gurus things and retinue
	And refuting his close retinue is abandoned.
	For sentient beings all his various actions
	As beneficial upaya are great miracles.
	For the limitless ocean of his intentions and actions
	Put aside wrong views, since they do harm.

g)  examining one's own faults

	Respectfully meditating, reflections arise that because of being unmindful, such actions were done 
through one's own faults:
		
	Whenever they have shown any anger toward the teacher,
	Certain that they have faults, they, therefore examine themselves.
	Having confessed their faults they vow to abandon them
	Bowing their heads in meditation, they supplicate.
	Pleasing the teacher thus, they quickly become accomplished.
	
	Anger toward true spiritual friends is not good.  Since when we does evil deeds the spiritual friend is not 
pleased, thinking, "how did we go wrong," we examines ourselves.  We confess and strongly vow to refrain.  
Generally, anger at anyone certainly depends on ourselves.  If we did not exist, this would not arise, like the anger 
of the people of our continent Jambuling and the northern continent Kurava.  Since they see and hear each other 
and so forth, they are like a drum and a stick.  Anger is not proper.  One will become the eye-condition of others' 
evil deeds, and by one's own anger and hatred always arising the seed of hell will be produced.
	Therefore, if we are angry with anyone, we should meditate on them above the head.  In a few days 
anger and obscuration will certainly be purified.  In particular when there has been improper feelings toward the 
guru, meditate on him on the top of the head.  Having done prostrations and offerings, with complete repentance, 
shed tears and joining the palms saying, "Kye, kye precious guru,

	For me there is no other hope but you.
	I supplicate you to look down on me
	With your eye of kindness and compassion.
	I am oppressed by confusions of ignorance.

	Why mention that the three gates are impaired
	With complete remorse and repentance I confess.
	My three vows have been transgressed and broken.
	My mind is covered with damaging defilements

	May you purify that by your compassion.
	As for me, by unknowing stupidity,
	Though I did not seek to, I did wrong,
	Previously too I wandered in samsara.

	Now by you who are the compassionate guru,
	May all my obscurations be cleared away.
	For such an unknowing fool as I am now
	If when you have seen my abundant faults,
	I am not part of your intended kindness,
	What other intention could arise for me?

	Former victorious ones beyond all counting
	Abandoned us and went to liberation.
	Now the victorious ones of the ten directions
	Having urged you, for our benefit,
	When you have emanated as the guru,
	If you reject us now and abandon us
	Who live as if seduced to a fearful place,
	You today will fail us terribly.
	Or like a precious wish-fulfilling gem
	If we make our supplication to you,
	Will you grant whatever is desired?
	You are very kind and skilled in means.
	Why do not look on us with kindness?
	Offerings are made even to flesh-eating demons.
      As soon as our true words have been expressed,
	If even former anger is put aside,
	As for you, compassionate father of beings,
	With devoted homage, overwhelmed with longing,
	If I confess my faults with sincerity,
	Will you not consider me with compassion?
	Not all my evil deeds are purified.
	If I should go on to other lives,
	I shall only burn in the fires of hell.
	If you do not purify these deeds,
	Compassionate master, how will it be done?
	Kye ma Kye 'ud these faults and evil deeds
	I supplicate you, purify them all
	Instantly when viewed by your compassion
	I will receive empowerment and blessing.
	The supreme and worldly siddhis will be bestowed.
	Obstructing spirits and agents of perversion
	And obstacles will all be cleared away,
	Establishing all my wishes in this life,
	Free from suffering at the moment of death
	Immediately when life has been cut off,
	I will be free from the terrors of the bardo.
	If I do not rectify transgressions,
	There will not be this main point of the teachings.

h)  Adopting pure and respectful conduct

Further, regarding conduct:
	
	When they see the teacher they arise and prostrate.
	They offer the teacher a seat or whatever else is needed.
	Joining their palms they praise the teacher with pleasant speech.
	Everyone arises as the teacher is departing.
	To face in the teacher's direction as a way of showing respect.
	
	They spread out the guru's seat and praise him and join their palms, and when he enters and departs they 
rise and go to meet him and see him off.  This is said in the Vinaya of Holy Dharma

		As soon as the preceptor  is seen, they should rise from their seats.  If they do not rise, 
they will be born as serpents or creeping things for five hundred generations.  This is said in 
hundreds of places.  If  they rise and serve him even moderately well they will attain the major 
and minor marks.

The commentary to the Abhisamayalankara says:

	By going to meet the guru, seeing him off, and so forth, they will possess the marks such as the 
palms of the hands and soles of the feet being marked with wheels.

As for practicing mindfulness and careful attention

As for practicing mindfulness and careful attention

i)  when they are with the guru:
	
	Always mindful, very careful, fully aware
	With apprehensive awe they stay devotedly,
	As shy before the teacher as a new bride with her husband.
	Uplifted and not disturbed by an agitated mind,
	Not biased and partial, Not seeking profit or fame.
	They are not deceitful nor are they dishonest.
	By the same token they are not hypocritical.
	They do not act differently in private and in public.
	They are not pleasant to those who are close, disparaging others.

	In the guru's presence, they are completely mindful.  They control infractions of body, speech, and mind. 
 Their minds watch their minds, keeping careful control so that they do not become lost in the power of the 
kleshas.  Tamed and peaceful like a new bride or a new monk, their wishes will be established.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says:  5.40

	As for the drunken elephant of mind,
	To the great pillar of contemplating Dharma
	Tie it so that it does not escape.
	With such an effort examine everything.

	Keep mind one-pointed any way you can 
	Not losing it for even the space of an instant,
	Analyze just what the mind is like;
	Thus the mind will be discriminated.


And also: 5.23

	As for those who wish to guard the mind,
	As for being mindful and aware,
	May I guard them even if I die. 
	Thus I join my palms in supplication.

	Even alone in one's own house, one should not behave carelessly.  One should keep mindful and aware.  
The buddhas who have the divine eye see us even when we are hidden.  The same text says: 5-31-2

	The buddhas and their sons the bodhisattvas
	Have unobstructed vision of everything.
	In the five eyes  of these I shall remain.

	Thinking that, I feel shame, and reverence,
	As well as fear, and these remain with me.
	
	Even at other times and occasions the mind should not move from virtue.  The same text says:  5.45ff

	As for frivolous talk, there are various kinds.
	There are many kinds of wondrous shows. 
	If we enter into every one
	Desire  for that will surely be abandoned.

	Uselessly digging the ground will cut the roots 
	If questions and so forth furrow up the earth,
	Having remembered the precepts of the Sugata,
	We will surely let them go from fear. 

	When we want to fidget and move around
	Also if we have a desire to talk,
	First having examined our own minds,
	We should be stable in the proper way. 

	When the mind has any kind of wishes
	Or it wants to be angry, at that time,
	We should not act and should not speak at all.
	We should stay there like a piece of wood.

	When we have wildness and discursiveness 
	If we have pride and self-infatuation,
	And secret negative thoughts are cultivated,
	Or if there is an deceptiveness  and cunning.

	When we become preoccupied with self-praise,
	Or there is disparagement of others,
	When we become regretful  of such abuse,
	We should stay there like a piece of wood.

	If we desire possessions, rank, and fame,
	If we aspires to servants and retinue,
	Or when the mind desires to be served,
	we should stay there like a piece of wood.

	Wishing decrease or rejection of others' good
	And cultivation of our benefit,
	When a thought of speaking out arises,
	We should stay there like a piece of wood.

	When there is fear of impatience or laziness
	Similarly of shamelessness, or nonsense,
	Or mind attached to partialities,
	We should stay there like a piece of wood.

	Having examined thoroughly the mind
	Of bitter kleshas and useless meaningless struggle,
	Then heroically by the antidote,
	One should hold the mind completely steady. 

	Completely certain and completely faithful,
	Trustworthy,  devoted, and respectful.
	Having shame and modesty and fear, 
	Try to be peaceful, bringing joy to others.

	Not saddened at the mutual discord
	Of the desires of children and of fools,
	Think, "Produced by kleshas these arise."
	Then we feel kindness for these people.

	Having in our mouths no senseless thing
	Able to handle oneself and sentient beings,
	We should always firmly keep the mind. 
	As if it were a selfless emanation. 

	"After so long this is the highest freedom,"
	Thinking again and again of that attainment,
	Such a mind, remaining like Mount Meru,
	Should hold to that completely motionless.

	Adharma should not move us from this even for an instant.   Since one is devoted to the practice of 
Dharma because of the guru, one's companions, the khenpo's instructions, fear of the lower realms, and the 
misery of samsara; by one's effort, mindfulness, awareness, conscientiousness, and many virtues will arise.  The 
same text says:  5.30

	Through association with the guru,
	And all that has been taught by the preceptor
	And devotion coming from the good fortune of fear,
	Mindfulness will easily arise.

	Having produced virtue and veneration for the guru, and eliminated partiality, desire for wealth and 
fame, hypocrisy, deceitfulness, and saying different things when people are near and far away, one will always be 
the same to everyone. Therefore one will perfect the accumulations and purify the obscurations without 
distinction.

j)  Showing reverence by the three pleasings:
	
	If they are wealthy, they make offerings to the guru
	Otherwise serving with body and speech, respect and reverence.
	They abandon this life's values and please the teacher with practice.
	
	The best is to serve with practice.  The intermediate with body and speech, and the lesser with material 
things.  One should truly do any of these that are appropriate.

They reverse the strayings of others though skillful means:

	If others insult the guru, they refute their words.
	If they cannot, they think of his virtues again and again.
	They cover their ears, but try to benefit these with compassion.
	They will not gladly speak any words that do not support him.
	
	If anyone says something bad, they reverse it through skillful means.  If they do not have the power to do 
so, they think of the guru's virtues, and covering their ears with their fingers,  they will not attend, listen, or ask 
about it.  The Tantra of the Arising of Amrita says:

	If people should insult the vajra master,
	By peaceful or wrathful action they reverse it.
	If they do not have the power to do so,
	They will cover their ears with mindfulness.
	They do not pay attention or talk with them.
	If they ask any questions about these things,
	They will be boiled in the lower realms.

As for telling the benefits of having done this

These are the benefits:
	
	Thus they accomplish benefits in all their lives.
	They meet with holy persons and hear the highest Dharma.
	They are perfectly filled with the wealth of various qualities
Of the paths and bhumis, dharanis, and samadhis,
	Providing beings with a feast of happiness and peace.
	
	The Gandavyuha Sutra says:

		Kye, son of noble family, because one is supported by the spiritual friend, one always 
feels reverence, and therefore there is mindfulness.  For the host of sentient beings benefit and 
happiness is produced.  Spiritual friends are encountered.  The holy bhumis, paths, and 
samadhis are accomplished.

D.  Beings to be avoided, along with those associated with them 

	There are six sections.  

1.  the instruction to abandon evil spiritual friends.

	Now there is the instruction to abandon evil spiritual friends together with those associated with them:
	
	Thus by proper relationship with holy persons,
	Abandon all evil people and evil spiritual friends.
	A teacher without the qualities described above
	Gone wrong because of faults, breaking vows and samayas,
	With little kindness, compassion, prajqa or learned knowledge,
	Is indolent and lazy, unaware and ignorant.
	Proud and arrogant, with harsh and vicious disdain,
	They are coarsened by kleshas and venomous with the five poisons.
	Concerned with this life only, they throw the next away.
	Although they may seem to be teachers of the holy Dharma,
	In fact they are of the deceitful family of adharma.
	As bees are driven far away by a heap of filth,
	Such gurus drive students, however many, far away.
	Trusting them leads on perverted paths to the lower realms.
	Whoever wants liberation should not rely on them.

	Such persons break their vows and samayas and have little compassion or learning.  They are as lazy as 
they are proud.  Their jealous disdain and five poisons are rude and coarse.  They seek retinue, possessions, and 
fame in this life.  Even when they stay alone, a rain of distracting activities and kleshas falls around them 
everywhere.  They throw concern with the next life far away.  They disparage everyone but themselves, and all 
dharmas but their own.  Their language is that of the Dharma, and they make a display of being extremely skilful, 
but in reality, no one's mind is benefited.  Therefore, both their words and sense are in error.  Theirs is the family 
of charlatans.  Like someone piling up a dung heap, they collect a numerous retinue like bees.  However since 
they lead those who have faith and want liberation to the lower realms, give them a wide berth.  The Sutra of the 
Treasury of Buddhahood says:

		Worldly enemies only rob us of our lives.  We only lose our bodies, and do not also fall 
into the lower realms.  Ignorant persons who dwell on wrong paths lead those who aspire to 
virtue into hell for a thousand kalpas.  Why so?  Because practicing a Dharma of things and 
characteristics, they teach a mistaken Dharma.
		They take the lives of all sentient beings, and when they teach their mistaken Dharma, 
they do great evil.

2.  Abandoning friends and associates who are evil-doers

	Following that is the instruction to abandon evil friends:
	
	Evil-doer companions should also be abandoned.
	The more we are their companions, the farther evil spreads.
	The wholesome is obscured, and kleshas fall like rain.
	The upper realms are blocked and the lower cultivated.
	Holy ones are reviled with hatred for white Dharmas.
	Evil is praised and there is reliance on black Dharmas.
	They praise those who are equal to them in the fortune of evil.
	They always lead on perverted paths to the lower realms.
	Those who have sense and vision should keep them far away.
	
	To the extent one deals with them, evil deeds increase, and evil-doers are supported and praised.  Since 
these people have left virtue far behind, they will fall into the lower realms, and so they must be abandoned.  The 
Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

		What are evil companions?  They are those who decrease virtue and are joined to non-
virtue.  One should not associate with them.  One should not attend on them.  One should not 
even see them.

Also it says there:

	The shravakas are those who benefit themselves.
	In benefiting themselves they abandon others' benefit.
	Attending them will lead to materialistic gathering.
	This will never produce accumulation of Dharma.
	Those are bad spiritual friends and their students bad companions.
	One should abandon them, and keep them far away.

3.  The benefits of abandoning evil spiritual friends and companions

	Here are the benefits of abandoning and not associating with them:
	
	By abandoning evil companions and evil spiritual friends,
	Happy and virtuous qualities are established here and hereafter.
	Happiness never diminishes, but always increases farther.
	The path of profundity, liberation, is completed.
	We will never see any persons who are evil.
	But instead will see the lord sugatas, with their retinue of their sons.
	Thinking of us considerately, they will give us blessings.
	When we live a wholesome, life we go to the higher realms.
	Having such qualities as thought cannot encompass.
	
	The Instruction in 8,000 Lines says:

		Subhuti, the virtues of abandoning evil companions are beyond the scope of thought.  
Virtue will always be performed.  Tathagatas will be seen.  Happiness will be produced during 
our lives.  Afterwards we shall be born in the higher celestial realms.  In all our lives, we will 
never be separated from apprehension of bodhicitta.  Unsurpassable, complete, perfect 
enlightenment will manifest continually.

4.  The summary:
	
	We should always relate with virtuous and holy friends.
	Because of them our wholesome karma will increase.
	Karma and kleshas diminish and evil will be stopped.
	We reach the end of samsara, and higher things manifest.
	Then what is good and true will come to be established.
	In this life there is happiness, and afterwards fruition.
	We are ever-successful leaders of gods and human beings.
	
	The Vinaya says:

		Conduct like that of Bhrama is holy association.  One reaches the activity of Bhrama.  
By the increase of virtuous roots, there will be a cause according with complete liberation.  
There will be respect from those who possess life.

And along with that:

	One should attend them with fear.

The Sutra on Going to Mindfulness of Dharma says:

	 	By relying on spiritual friends, mindfulness and awareness will be completely pure.  
The virtuous roots will be completely perfected.

5.  The instruction to attend on spiritual companions:
	
	By relying on wholesome companions and wholesome spiritual friends,
	Wholesomeness increases and wholesome fruitions are gained.
	One is not afraid of samsara, having measureless benefits.
	The limitless wealth of beings' two benefits is established.
	A leader is emanated by the victorious one,
	Having such an appearance in this time of the dark age.
	Therefore, until we attain the essence of enlightenment,
	We should rely on holy persons, such as these.

	The Sutra on Supreme Ultimate Samadhi

		O son of noble family, Moreover, in later lives, at a later time, I myself, will emanate as 
spiritual friends and display these samadhis.  Therefore, since the spiritual friend is your 
teacher, until being within the complete essence of enlightenment, one should rely on the 
spiritual friend, offering respect and due ceremony.

6.  The explanation of the virtues of properly relying on them

	As for the virtues of this:
	
	By that unbiased sacred outlook will arise.
	We will be versed in kindness, compassion and bodhicitta.  	There will be increase of the 
nyams and realization.
	Whatever measureless benefits for others one can think of
	Will thereby be accomplished in the proper way.
	
	The Sutra requested by Jewel-Crown says:

		O son of the gods, by attending on the spiritual friend and showing him veneration, all 
the buddha fields will be seen.  The holy samadhi of the great compassion will be attained.  One 
will become inseparable from the prajqaparamita.  One will completely ripen sentient beings.  
One will attain complete accomplishment of all hopes.

	By these teaching one should know how to rely on the nature of the guru.

E.  Knowing what is to be abandoned and accepted, and how the siddhis are received.

	There are five sections:  

1.  How to practice,
2.  How to propitiate, 
3.  The accumulation of action,
4.  The particular details,
5.  The benefits.  

1.  How to practice.

a.  how, after this is known, the siddhis are received:

	Here is how to supplicate and meditate:
	We should constantly gather the two accumulations.
	Also the two obscurations should constantly be cleansed.
	By day on top of the head, at night within the heart,
	Mentally offer and make supplications to the root guru,
	Ornamented with all the major and minor marks,
	As being non-dual with the yidam that you venerate
	And with the assembly of the dakinis.
	Surrounded by lineage gurus, dakas, and dakinis.
	
	The Embodiment of Everything Precious Tantra says:

	More than one who for a hundred thousand kalpas
	Meditates on a hundred thousand deities
	It is better to think of the guru just a little.
	The merit of this is utterly limitless.

	The great master Padmasambhava bestowed this teaching as an oral instruction.  As to how this should 
be done, if one continually supplicates, the unity of guru, yidam, and dakini will be established.  The guru there 
blesses.  The yidam bestows supreme siddhi.  The dakinis remove obstacles and are the chief establishers of the 
ordinary siddhis.
	Sitting on a comfortable seat, after taking refuge and arousing bodhicitta, from emptiness visualize 
yourself vividly as your yidam.  Adorning the crown of the head, on a lion, sun, and moon throne, is the root 
guru, blazing with radiance and splendor, surrounded by the gurus of the ultimate lineage and all who have a 
Dharma connection with it.  Visualize that heaps of clouds of dakinis gather.   When one has rejoiced in the 
elaborations, invite the jqanasattvas, make offerings and praises, and confess evil deeds.  In brief:

	Guru, you who are the precious Buddha
	Yidam, with the host of dakinis,
	Devotedly we prostrate and go for refuge.
	We make the outer, inner, and secret offerings.
	We confess our evil deeds without remainder.
	We rejoice in all the host of virtues,
	We ask the turning of the wheel of dharma.
	We ask the gurus not to pass into nirvana.
	And to bestow the supreme and worldly siddhis.
	Clear away geks and agents of perversion.
	May complete enlightenment be established.

say that three times.

b.  The manner of propitiation.

	Then when one recites the mantra:

	First say O_ and then the guru's Sanskrit name.
	Next say AH H__, followed by what it is you want.

	OM AH H__, are the primordial, spontaneous presence of the essence of the body, speech, and mind of 
all the buddhas.  After inserting this into your meditation, recite it.  If you know how to translate the guru's name 
into Sanskrit, do so.  If you do not know, having inserted the name itself, afterward say what you wish for.
	For pacifying say SHANTI_ KU RU YE SVAHA; for enriching PUSTI_ KURU YE SVAHA; for 
magnetizing, VASHA_ KURU YE SVAHA; for destroying MARAYA PHAT.  For example, for guru 
Padmasambhava and enriching you would say:  OM VAJRA GURU PADMASAMBHAVA A H__ KARMA 
PUSTI_ KURU YE SVAHA.  Moreover practice externally for peaceful; innerly for semi-wrathful, and secretly 
for wrathful practice.  The intention is nirmanakaya, sambhogakaya, and dharmakaya.

c.  The activity practices 

	Within the activity practices are pacifying, cultivating and enriching, magnetizing and drawing in, and 
destroying, with their visualizations, post-meditation, and signs of accomplishment.

1)  Pacifying

	As for the first, now from the teachings of applying the four karmas, as for the first:
	
	To pacify sickness and dvns, obscurations and evil deeds,
	Visualize that you emanate white light rays everywhere.
	Think that the desired siddhi has been attained,
	While everything that is contrary has been pacified.

 		At the time of pacifying, from white gurus, from all points emanate white light rays.  Gurus and 
yidams fill the sky.  By the murmur of mantra, think that the siddhi of pacifying is attained.

2)  Enriching:

	For the karma that increases splendor, life, and wealth,
	Visualize yellow rain that falls as all you desire.

	Think of everything as yellow.  A rain of wealth, life, and so forth falls.  Thinking that our dwelling 
places and bodies are pervaded, do the recitation.

3)  Magnetizing:

	As for the powers that can summon and magnetize,
	Visualize rays of a vivid red in the shape of hooks.

	For subjugating, drawing in, making enter, and all such powers of magnetizing, light rays of karma like 
hooks invite whatever one desires.  Thinking that they are beneath one's feet, recite the mantra.

4)  Destroying:
	
	For the action of destroying geks and harm,
	Visualize blue-black rays, that emanate as weapons
	Or a conquering wheel of fire that has a thousand spokes.

	If obstructions of dvns, geks and so forth arise, blue-black light rays emanating everywhere as a 
collection of weapons make the dvns and geks into dust.  Where you are, in the space of the sky visualize a wheel 
of fire with a thousand radiating spokes.  Having heaped up and drawn in the harmful spirits, it pulverizes them 
into dust.

5)  In particular:

	Visualize that the billion worlds are in trembling motion,
	Quaking with the vibration of the recitation of mantra.
	Perform the appropriate practice of the developing stage,
	To facilitate and accomplish these various desired karmas.

	Visualize that by the self-existing vibration of the sound of mantra roaring like fire or water all the 
worlds tremble and are disrupted.  This should accord with the particular complete visualization of the developing 
stage for the individual one of the four karmas being practiced.

6)  Afterward:

	At the end collect the details in conceptionless emptiness.
	Then you should relax for just a little while,
	Dedicating the merit to enlightenment.
	
	The external world is gathered into the form of the deity.  That is gathered into oneself.  Oneself is 
gathered into the guru on top of the head.  That too rests in the conceptionless state of the mere completion stage. 
 After that the merit is dedicated to enlightenment.
	At night, one meditates within the essence, so that afterwards the confused dreams of sleep will arise as 
luminosity.

7)  How by meditating in this way signs of with the individual karmas arise:
	
	For each of the karmas, there are particular signs of success.
	This is the path of profundity, ocean of mahasukha.

	The signs of sickness and dvns being pacified are dreams of bathing, dripping pus and blood, wearing 
white clothes, and so forth.  The signs of enriched life are  heaps of grain, good harvests, the sun and moon rising, 
and so forth.  The signs of increasing enjoyment are a rain of jewels, symbols of birth, harvest and so forth.  The 
signs of magnetizing are many people prostrating, praises and so forth.  The signs of pacifying harm are great 
blazing fires, sentient beings being killed and boiled, victory in battle, and so forth.  In reality, what accords with 
what one wants actually arises.

4.  The particular details.

	There are six sections.  

a.  Emanating the buddha field.

	Now from the explanation of the particular details, in particular, when sickness, dvns, obstacles, and 
premonitions of death arise:
	
	In particular, when you encounter sickness and dvns,
	When obstacles arise or premonitions of death,
	Visualize the guru in the space in front,
	Inseparable from the Buddha, with a radiantly smiling face.
	Seated on a lotus throne supported by lions,
	Which arouses within one a state of fearlessness,
	The guru is surrounded by the teachers of the lineage,
	As well as by the dakinis and bodhisattvas.
	Below the affectionate and compassionate lord guru
	Are the various the samsaric beings within the six realms,
	Who throughout the three times have been ones fathers and mothers.
	
       When one sees one's death or when strong attacks of sickness or dvns occur, visualize the guru in the space 
in front of you, inseparable from the Buddha, surrounded by the lineage gurus and hosts of dakas and dakinis.  
Below them are the beings of the six realms who have been one's fathers and mothers, together with the harmful 
dvns and geks.  Invite the jqanasattvas.  Perform abbreviated offerings and praises.

b.  increasing and purifying the substances:
	
	A syllable H__ at the crown of the head is one's own mind.
	From it there emerges the body of a heruka.
	Holding in his hands a razor-knife and a skull cup.
	He cuts off one's skull, beginning with the forehead,
	By the little tuft of hair that grows between the brows.
	It is placed on a hearth that is made of a tripod of skulls,
	And then it is filled with one's body's flesh and blood and bones.
	From above falls a rain of amrita; below a fire blazes.
	The skull fills up with amrita, that equals the billion worlds.
	
	Visualize that from a white syllable H__ at the top of the head, which is one's own mind, emerges a 
white heruka.  In his right hand is a sword, and in his left a skull cup.  With the sword, he cuts one's body in two, 
starting from between the eyes.  The skull is placed on a hearth made from a tripod of skulls and filled with the 
body's flesh and blood.  Below, from YA_, wind stirs.  From RA_ fire blazes so that the contents of the skull boil. 
 From above, amrita continuously falls, equaling the billion worlds.

c.  Inviting the guests:
	
	One's own mind by emanating countless herukas,
	Distributes amrita to all at once, from out of the skull.
	When the enlightened guests have all been satisfied,
	The accumulations are perfect and siddhi is attained.
	When the samsaric guests have all been satisfied,
	The beginningless production of samsara is pacified.
	In particular when the harmful dvns are satisfied,
	The blockage of obstacles will be pacified.
	As all-satisfying light rays penetrate into oneself,
	Sickness and dvns are pacified, and obstacles, just as they are.
	One thinks that death is thwarted, and siddhi is attained.
	
	Visualize that one emanates as many graceful hands as there are guests, and by making offerings to all of 
them at once they enjoy it.  The buddhas and so forth beyond the world are pleased, and siddhi is attained.  The 
six lokas are pleased and karmic debts are paid.  Dvns are pleased and their afflictions cease.  By the light rays of 
the enjoyment of all these beings penetrating oneself, all sickness, dvns, and obstacles are pacified.

d.  The dedication:

	Afterwards rest the mind in objectless meditation
	In dharmadhatu, the state of mind without conception,
	Let things go into their natural purity as illusion.

	The guests, the offerings, and the one who offers are all one's own mind.  Just so, when one knows that 
all dharmas are not other than the simplicity of one's own mind, one should meditate and let all dharmas go into  
to their illusion-like state.

e.  The virtues of this inner feast offering of the kusulu yogins:
	
	By this unfavorable conditions are pacified.
	We perfect the accumulations, and remove the obscurations.
	Limitless blessings and realizations are born within us.
	With no grasping ego, the mind renounces and focuses
	Everything that one has wished for has been accomplished.
	Now the phenomenal world arises as the guru.
	With sickness annihilated, there is clear luminosity
	The realized state of the moment of death has been established.
	One is liberated within the bardo-state,
	And the wealth of the two benefits have been perfected.
	Therefore, wholeheartedly try to establish this realm of the guru.

	That is the instruction.  As for other benefits, all violations are appeased.  The supreme divine offering 
occurs.  Since the mind of ego-grasping is removed, the destruction of the confusions of dualistic grasping is 
immeasurable.

f.  The reason,

	Now, to set forth the reason for these great benefits:
	
	It has been said that remembering the guru for a moment,
	Is better than a kalpa of the developing stage.

  The Play of the Perfected Sphere says:

	Though some person for ten million kalpas
	Meditates on the bodies of deities,
	One who remembers the guru, the master of all,
	Is still better, so it is explained.

5.  The benefits, 

a.  Since the guru is the ground of all virtues, there is the admonishment rely on him

	This is the instruction to rely on such a guru:

	This is the actual basis of splendor and of wealth,
	From which arise clouds of benefit and happiness.
	Whoever wants amrita-rain throughout the three levels,
	Should rely on those who are compassionate.
	
	The omniscient Buddhas are the true glory of themselves and others.  By the deathless wealth of Dharma 
they protect beings, and they possess limitless good qualities.  From these numerous clouds of benefit and 
happiness in the three realms falls the rain of the three turnings of the wheel of Dharma.  Those who wish to 
obtain this should rely on the spiritual friend.  The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

	Subhuti, Those who wish to attain omniscience should rely on the spiritual friend.

The Prajqaparamitasamgatha says:

	Why should one always rely on competent gurus?
	The qualities of competence rise from them.

	As for the three turnings, the Buddha Bhagavat taught these dharmas after seven weeks of seven days.  
The first week he merely sat in cross-legged posture.  The second, he saw the field of the essence, enlightenment.  
The third he trod nearby upon Jambuling.  The fourth, he trod far away on the billion worlds.  The fifth, he went 
to the dwelling of the king of nagas, Grasping and Rejecting.  The sixth he remained in the grove of the field to be 
liberated.

	Uncompounded, profound, peaceful, simple, and clear.
 	This amrita-like dharma I have obtained.
	There is no one who will understand it.
	Not speaking, I shall remain alone in the forest.

	So he said and remained there.  Bhrama offered him a melon and honey, but he did not take the vessel.  
Four kings offered four stone begging bowls at one time, and were blessed.  After he ate, he spoke only words of 
auspiciousness.  On the seventh day, Bhrama and Indra supplicated him, and then when he had gone to Varanasi, 
for the five excellent disciples he turned the wheel of the four noble truths together with the instructions on the 
divine eight-fold path.
  	At last in the dwellings of the gods and nagas, and the cities Kumuda Saljin and so forth he turned the 
wheel of the dharma of true meaning.
	These three turnings were taught at various uncertain places.  They were intended for those of lesser, 
intermediate and greater powers; or for those first entering the path, while they remained on it, and those who had 
the final goal, the essence.  The three pitakas were taught in the style of the expressor and the three trainings of 
disciplines, samadhi, and prajqa are the three subjects of learning expressed.
	Some teachers say he turned the three wheels of dharma at one time, and in different appearances to 
different individual beings.  That the sutras of existence and non-existence were explained in separate years is not 
right.  The particular great treasury of explanation, is maintained to have continued until he was eighty years old. 
  The Buddha' parinirvana or passing is claimed to have been at the age of eighty years and three months.  The 
Chvrten Gyepa  says:

	Three months after he was supplicated by Tsunda
	I prostrated to the nirvana-made chvrten.

	Some other teachers maintain that it was at eighty-two.  That really it was three months and eighty years 
is taught in many sutras.  As for the eighty, the Treasury of Explanation says:

	The places of the turnings,
	The city of Vaishali,
	Sakarchen  and the heavens,
	Jipasvn  and Kaushambhi,
	In verdant Highland pastures,
	By stupas and in mountains,
	At Radiant Grove and Drarche 
	The city of Kapalivastu.
	In these Buddha Shakyamuni,
	the most excellent of beings
	Dwelt from year to year.
	Two in the Blazing Cave,
	Three in the Medicine Grove.
	Five in the royal court.
	Six in ascetic practice.
	Twenty three in Shravasti.
	Twenty nine in elegance.
	After eighty years,
	The Victorious One, the Sage,
	The Supreme One went beyond suffering.
	To those places of merit 
	The dwellings of omniscience,
	Ceaselessly offering bows
	In body, speech and mind,
	Devotedly I prostrate.

b.  The instruction to do as was done formerly:
	
	To pacify the kleshas in the space of mind,
	Accustomed to their torment from beginningless time,
	We should seek the dharma, as formerly was done
	by Sadaprarudita and Sudhana.
	Abandoning sorrow and weariness, rely on spiritual friends.
	
	Until we are without karma and the kleshas, in order to pacify these we need to attend on a guru better 
than ourselves.  This is because we need higher qualities.  As to how this is done, in the city "Arising Place of 
Happiness," was a master merchant Nor Rabtu Ten  who had a son Sudhana who from his southern lineage 
went to all southern places.  By his always seeking the Dharma, it was prophesied that he would become the 
Prince of Jambuling and so forth, and so he was blessed by fifty-four gurus.  Afterwards he was taught by fifty-
four more gurus, so he relied on a hundred and eight.
	The bodhisattva Sadaprarudita when he was seeking the prajqaparamita squeezed his body.  He stayed 
in a chariot with five hundred merchants' daughters.  When they had come to the eastern city of Possessing 
Incense he made offerings to the bodhisattva Noble Dharma.  We should do such reverence.

F.  The dedication of the merit to sentient beings:

	Wearied by the misfortune of following paths that are wrong,
	Worse than those of good fortune falling to the amrita
	Of the thousand stringed instrument of the lord of the gods,
	Calling us to enjoyment of heavenly delights,
	May the mind today come to rest in its suchness.
	
	As for the well-arranged garland arising from the teaching-lineage of true spiritual friends who practice 
the true meaning, the host of beings for a long time have attended bad and defective spiritual friends, and are 
worn out by samsara.  In the pleasure grove of the Buddha Bhagavat, the guru of gods and human beings, by 
wishing clouds may their weariness be cured.

	Attending these spiritual friends who are not genuine,
	May the numerous throng who have long gone wrong in samsara.
	These many beings who long have wearied their own minds,
	Rely on mahasukha, the level of the Conqueror.

	Possessing a glorious body like the moon in its fullness,
	Beautiful in a wreath of deities stars and planets,
	With a beneficial white light clearing the kleshas' torment,
	May all beings come to rely on that perfect glory.



The Commentary on the Sixth Chapter of the Great Perfection, the Nature of Mind, the Easer of Weariness,  "Going to 
Refuge."

	That is the purpose of depending on the authentic spiritual friend, the beginning or foundation of the whole path 
of the mahayana.

VI  Going for Refuge

	There are three sections.

A.  The stages of entering the path of mahayana
B.  The particular objects of refuge
C.  The dedication of the merit of going for refuge.

A.  The stages of entering the path of mahayana,

	Now from the teachings I have composed, there are the stages of how to enter into the path of the mahayana.  
First we should learn a bit about these:

	Having properly relied upon a spiritual friend,
	We should learn the stages of the path to liberation.

	Why?  Because it is not workable to enter all at once.  If the lower virtues of the path have not arisen, it is 
impossible to obtain the higher ones.  Therefore, if one does not ascend gradually, the higher ones will not be reached.  
The Nirvana Sutra says:

	Just like the steps of a staircase,
	My profound teachings likewise
	Should be gradually thoroughly learned
	Rather than all at once.

	Just as for little children
	Standing straight is gradually mastered,
	We gradually enter this Dharma
	Until it is perfected.

B.  The particular objects of refuge

	There are three parts.

1.  The causal refuge,
2.  The fruition refuge
3.  The benefits of taking refuge.

1.  The causal refuge

	There are four parts.

a)  For individual beings who take refuge, there is the teaching of the individual kinds of foundation of their paths.

	Taking refuge is the ground of every path.
	Lesser people do so fearing the lower realms.
	The two intermediate kinds are afraid of the state of samsara.
	The greatest have seen all the aspects of samsaric suffering,
	Finding others' suffering to be unbearable.
	They fear the happiness of a personal nirvana.
	In entering on the great vehicle of the buddha-sons,
	There are three ways of taking refuge with three kinds of intention.
	These are the unsurpassed, the excellent, and the common.
	
	If we do not take refuge, the vow will not arise.  If we do not bind ourselves with the vow, there will be no path.  
Therefore, it is the foundation of the path.  The Seventy Verses on Refuge says:

	Even if we have taken all the vows,
	If we have not gone to refuge, they have no power.

	Beings are of three kinds.  The lesser, desiring the fruition of samsaric happiness, are afraid of the lower realms. 
 Such persons, when they take refuge with their gods or with the three jewels, do not enter into the doctrine.  Even if they 
enter, they are not Buddhists.  Even if they are included among Buddhists and have faith in the three jewels, they are not 
able to enter the path.  The Sutra of the Ultimate Victory Banner says:

	As for persons terrified by fear,
	They take refuge on mountains and in groves,
	Or in temples and stupas, or in trees.
	These are not the principal refuges.
	They are not the excellent refuges.
	With the foundation of such refuges,
	They will not be fully liberated.

	It is taught that they found their path in external gods in the desire of happiness.  The Vinaya says:

Ananda asked, "Is it explained by the approach of a bhramin's daughter taking refuge in the virtues of the 
celestial realms?"
		Then the Bhagavan spoke.  "Ananda, that is not it.  Such aspiration to samsaric happiness is 
known as the refuge of vulgar persons.  Therefore, profess the true qualities of liberation.

	This also explains the lesser sort of refuge in the three jewels, which has impure motivation.
	As for the middle kind, those of the families of shravakas and pratyekabuddhas, afraid of samsara, go to refuge 
because they seek nirvana as a personal benefit.  The Ngama Denyi says:

	Whoever, at any time, should go to refuge
	In the buddha, dharma, and the Sangha
	Is a possessor of the four noble truths:
	Suffering, and the cause of suffering,
	Truly passing beyond all suffering,
	And the noble path with its eight branches
	That leads to the condition of nirvana.

	If they produce the divine eye of true prajqa,
	Those will be the principal refuges.
	They are the refuges that are excellent.
	Relying upon those very refuges
	Completely liberates from suffering.

	As for the greater kind, having become afraid of peace and happiness, one goes to refuge for the benefit of others. 
 The Great Liberation says:

		Some become afraid of personal peace and completely abandon it for the sake of those who 
have fallen into the river of samsara.  Such refuge is known as that of excellent beings, the holy guides.

	These three kinds of persons are distinguished on the basis of three kinds of mind.  The Lamp of the Path of 
Enlightenment says:

	By there being lesser, middle, and great,
	It should be known that there are three kinds of beings.
	Whoever, by whatever means is used,
	Tries to accomplish only samsaric benefits
	Such a being is known as being lesser.

	Those who turn their backs on samsaric pleasures,
	People who reverse all evil karma,
	And try to attain the personal peace of nirvana,
	Are those who are known as beings of the middle kind.

	Those who, truly realizing their own suffering,
	Wish to end all sufferings of others.
	Those are beings designated as excellent.

	Lesser ones, by practicing external cleanliness, non-injury, and Dharma go to the celestial realms.  Having gone 
to refuge with the inner three jewels, by their minimal merits, they cross to the celestial realms.
	Second, those who do that should also act in accord with the meritorious ten virtues and practice formless 
samadhi.  Otherwise they will not cross to the celestial realms.

b)  The time of going to refuge

	Since the beings who rely in this way, will establish their three fruitions, when they go to refuge, they have three 
kinds of intention, ordinary, excellent, and unsurpassed.  What are these?
 		
	The length of refuge accords with these various intentions.
	Lesser ones do so until the happiness of the next life.
	For the middle two it is as long as they live,
	Or until they attain to the ultimate fruition
	Of the path of the shravakas or pratyekabuddhas.
	For the highest it is forever, or until they are enlightened,
	Attaining the wisdom beyond all thought and evaluation.
	

	Ordinary people take refuge until they get what they want from their gods, and in particular until they attain the 
celestial realms.  The time is small, like the scope of their Dharma.  With the middle two kinds, it is until they die, or 
attain their final goal of becoming arhats.  The great ones do so until enlightenment or attainment of the wisdom of 
buddhahood.

c.  The objects of refuge,

	There are two parts

1. The general teaching of the ordinary and extraordinary objects of refuge

	Now, regarding the supports or objects:
	
	The two objects of refuge are the ordinary and causal,
	And the extraordinary, when there is the fruition.
	As for the vows that are thus concerned with cause and fruition,
	The causal vehicles have a fruition established later.
	But it is held by the different divisions of vajrayana
	That fruition exists right now, in the form of one's own mind.
	Only the name is common with the refuge teachings
	That are found in the vehicles of characteristics.
	
	The objects of refuge are of two kinds, ordinary and extraordinary.  The objects of lower and intermediate beings 
are ordinary.  Those of the greater ones are extraordinary.
Why?  The lesser objects involve a personal bias.  Those proclaimed as the support of the middle two kinds are temporary, 
and so they grasp only a temporary ultimate.  The higher ones grasp the mahayana.  Its buddhadharmakaya is not grasped 
by the lesser and middle ones.  There is the Dharma of the mahayana.  There is the Sangha of bodhisattvas.
	In the causal refuge, one is brought to the fruition.  In the fruition-refuge, it is maintained that the three jewels 
are really already established within one's being.  The rites and compassion accompanying both are equal.  The 
Mahayanasutralankara says:

	These proclaim a wish for the real thing, and so their compassion too should be understood.

	In the vehicles of characteristics, desiring to attain buddhahood after three lives, countless lives, or whatever, one 
goes to refuge.  Desiring to attain dharmakaya within one's own being is the fruition refuge.  Until that is attained, one 
goes for refuge to the three jewels, as the transitional, temporary refuge.  This is called the causal refuge, because it is the 
cause of obtaining the other.  Here people wish to take refuge temporarily in the three jewels, as distinguished from the 
ultimate singularity, the buddhadharmakaya.  Rupakaya, and the dharmas of scripture and realization that are involved in 
the four paths of a spiritual warrior, the two cessations of the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas, the four states of noble 
beings, stream-enterers etc, and the path of bodhisattvas dwelling on the ten bhumis of the mahayana are not ultimate 
objects of refuge.  This is because they are relative, and have not reached the ultimate, and because such persons must still 
rely on others in attaining enlightenment.
	Because rupakaya is relative, and because the dharmas of realization gathered within the being of shravakas, 
pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas are other than the buddhas' realization, having human signs of accomplishing and 
gain, they are deceptive.  They and all the Dharmas of scripture have to be abandoned at the time of seeing.  Having 
become afraid of the Sangha with its obscurations and habitual tendencies, one therefore becomes afraid of being 
dependent on the Buddha as well.  The Uttaratantra says:

	Since it they are abandoned, and have deceptive dharmas;
	Since they do not exist, and because of having fear
	These two Dharmas and the assembly of noble ones
	Are not to be taken as permanent places of refuge.

	Where is there such a refuge?  Ultimately only in dharmakaya.
  The same text says:

	The refuge is the singleness of buddhahood.
	Because the Sage, the Buddha, exists as dharmakaya,
	The assembly of the Sangha is also that ultimate.

The Sutra Clearing away Memory says:

	The venerable ones asked, "To what Buddha should we go for refuge?
The Buddha spoke, saying, "There is refuge in the dharmakaya, but not in the rupakaya.  They asked, "To what 
Dharma should we go for refuge?"
		The Buddha spoke, saying, "There is refuge in the  absolute dharma, but not in the relative 
dharma.
		They asked, "To what Sangha should we go for refuge?"
		The Buddha spoke, saying, "There is refuge in the absolute Sangha, but not in the relative 
Sangha.

	In brief, those who wish to attain the three enlightenments of shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, or bodhisattvas, 
within their being, proclaim one of those goals and take a casual refuge.  In the sense that what is to be accomplished by 
the causal refuge is the ultimate, it to can also be said to be ultimate refuge.
	Fearful of the teachings of productive activity of the protector-teachers of the path, Shakyamuni and so forth, as 
external buddhas who arrive and are established within one's being; and fearful of the Dharma taught by these, the 
productive activity of the path that crosses over to fearlessness, and fearful of the Sangha, the companions who produce 
the activity of being liberated from fear, one abandons the temporary causal situation.  This is the situation of establishing 
within one's being the establishing cause of enlightenment, the three jewels.  The reason for establishing it is that if this 
latter kind of Dharma, also taught by the Buddha, is practiced with one's companions in the Sangha, one will be liberated 
from fear.
	Some gurus say that by the mahayana that which protects from subtle obscuration, and even subtle fear, is only 
the buddhadharmakaya, so that is postulated as the fruition refuge.
In the pratyekabuddha yana, the self-arising of the three jewels realized within one's being is the fruition.  Then the 
fruition objects of refuge are established.
In the shravaka yana, whose adherents will arise as pratyekabuddhas in the future, the Sangha of arhats is postulated as 
the fruition object of refuge.
	The fruition refuge objects of each of the three vehicles are different.  The mahayana proclaims that if one is 
enlightened one's essence is one with the nature of trikaya.  How is it suitable that the dharma and Sangha should not 
arise?
  	Both the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas maintain that the two cessations are ultimately attained, and hence that 
their respective versions of absolute truth, supreme enlightenment and dharmakaya, come about as the goal; so how can 
the buddha and dharma jewels be non-existent for the shravakas?  For the pratyekabuddhas too cessation is proclaimed as 
dharmata and enlightenment, and it is maintained that only the Dharma jewel is eliminated.  Therefore, for both what 
exists in the case of the fruition is maintained to be their particular version of enlightenment.  So the ultimate three jewels 
are attained, and these are said to be the fruition refuge.  The Sutra requested by the Householder Drakshulchen says:

		In going to the Buddha for refuge, it is maintained that buddhahood is attained.  In going to 
the Dharma for refuge, it is maintained that the Dharma is attained.  In going to the Sangha for refuge, 
it is maintained that the Sangha is attained.

	With the goal of establishing the nature of the two truths, going to the three jewels for refuge is the causal refuge. 
 The Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

		O monks,  whether this was done for the sake of self or others, so that oneself might be 
liberated from fear and torment, you are persons who have gone to refuge.  That and that, which you 
wish and hope for, will be completely perfected.

	As for the secret mantra, wishing to see manifestly that the nature of one's mind exists as buddhahood which is 
even now intrinsic to one, one goes to refuge with the ordinary, external three jewels.  Because of that, one rests in the 
extraordinary nature of one's own mind, the primordial unborn.
	Thus, both the three jewels of the individual tantric mandalas and the three jewels of the general teachings are 
maintained to be causal objects of refuge.   The nature of one's own mind, self-arising wisdom, is the primordially 
existing three jewels.  This is the object of fruition-refuge.  Resting in that without accepting and rejecting or defilements 
of artificiality is the fruition refuge.  Though indeed, for the sake of that, as its cause, grasping refuge in terms of 
proclamation is esteemable, since chiefly it exists intrinsically and spontaneously, resting within that without adulteration 
is the fruition refuge.  The external causal refuges are a corresponding condition for establishing that.  The Existence of 
Wisdom says:

	All the masters of the three mandalas 
	Have a desire to gain that other perfection,
	Therefore they also aspire to have its cause.
	As for the luminous nature of the mind,
	For the masters of the three mandalas,
	Having realized that, they meditate
	Within its one pointed equanimity.

	This is truly explained as the supreme fruition.

	Regarding these two ways of identifying the two refuges, in the lesser, ordinary vehicles, the Buddha is the 
supreme nirmanakaya.  The Dharma is the twelve kinds of scripture of the Master of the Dharmas of scripture and 
realization  and the paths of the individual continuum, the samadhis and so on.  The two Sanghas are those of ordinary 
beings and noble ones.  The lesser Sangha of ordinary beings is that of male and female getsuls and genyens.   This is 
the field of merit of beings.  The greater are those who have taken full ordination, the great Sangha of monks and nuns.  
The Sangha altogether includes these four above.  Among the noble ones are stream-enterers, once-returners, non-
returners, and arhats.  The main point is buddhahood.
	As it is told within the mahayana, there is also the nature of the three kayas of buddhahood, possessing the two 
purities of nature and the incidental, the ultimate in which the two benefits are perfected.  The Mahayanottaratantra says:

	It is uncompounded and self-existing
	It is not realized by external conditions.
	It possesses knowledge, kindness, and power.
	This is Buddhahood with the two benefits.

	The essence of Dharma is inexpressible by speech or thought.  Its nature is the path or antidote that leads to 
buddhahood.  Its aspects are the characteristics of the five paths and two cessations of the Dharma of the meaning and the 
twelve limbs of the Buddha's verbal teachings.  The same text says:

	Without discursive thought, duality, and concept,
	There are the clear and luminous aspects of the antidote,
	Wherever anyone is free from all desire,
	That is known as possession of the authentic two truths.
	That is the Dharma.  The two desirelessnesses,
	Comprise the state of cessation and the truth of the path.

	In the two cessations, former defilements are cleared away by the antidote.  These two are:

1.)  cessation of discriminating awareness without complexity
2.)  cessation of discriminating awareness that rests in the natureless meaning in which defilements or complexities are 
like the sky.
	On the path, there is realization of the aspects of accumulation, unification, seeing, and meditation.  
Comprehending the characteristics of the two truths involves all the Dharmas of scripture and realization.
	The Sangha is the newly seen meaning of the luminous nature of mind of those dwelling on the ten bhumis.  The 
same text says:

	Because of the inner meaning of nature and extent,
	Apprehended in the pure vision that is seen by wisdom,
	The assembly who are non-returning through this mind,
	Have possession of all the virtues that are without mind.

	What is maintained about the extraordinary topic of the vajrayana, differs in the individual tantras.
	The Kriya and Charya tantras say that the Buddha Jewel is the five wisdoms, and pure dharmata, the nature of 
the three or four kayas, along with its emanations and blessing-bestowing deities.  These are gathered under three 
families, tathagata,  padma, and vajra.  The deities of the greater and lesser mandalas possess respectively the peaceful 
and wrathful accoutrements of sambhogakaya and nirmanakaya.
	The Dharma Jewel is as before, adding the particular individual texts of each yana.  The Sangha Jewel is the 
three-fold Sangha of shravakas, bodhisattvas, and vidyadharas.
	In yoga tantra the Buddha Jewel is the five wisdoms and the pure dharmata of nirvana or the three kayas.  This 
includes the continuity of the mandala which gathers all the peaceful and wrathful appearances of the five families and 
trikaya under Vajrasattva as the master of all mandalas.  It also includes the ratna, padma, karma, and tathagata families, 
along with their chief deities, retinues, and root mandalas with their one or many deities, divided into the samaya, 
dharma, and karma mandalas; the four seals or mudras, samayamudra, dharmamudra, karmamudra, and mahamudra, 
and all the great and lesser mandalas developed in one or more stages.
	The Dharma and Sangha Jewels, are as already explained.
	In mahayoga, the Buddha Jewel is the Bhagavan's great buddha activity, dwelling inseparably with the vajra 
nature of the body, speech, and mind of all the tathagatas as the chief deity.  There is also the retinue, as one, many, or 
deity-clusters, dwelling within the monolithic abundance of Gandavyuha, and all the many emanations emanated by them.
	The Dharma Jewel is all that was previously taught.  There is also the unsurpassable Sangha Jewel, blazing with 
the major and minor marks, whose nature is inseparable from that of the three jewels.
	As to why they are called the rare and excellent three jewels,  the Mahayanottaratantra says:

	Since they arise rarely and since they are undefiled;
	Since they are powerful and ornament the world;
	Since they are superior, and since they are excellent,
	They are called the rare and excellent triple gem.

Because of these six similarities to precious gems, the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, are known as "the three jewels," and 
said to be like precious jewels.

	1)  The similarity of rare occurrence

	This is because even in the changes of many kalpas, their virtuous roots are not established and not encountered.

	2)  The similarity of being undefiled

	This is because they are always free from defilement.

	3)  The similarity of being powerful

	This is because the six consciousnesses and so forth have powerful virtues beyond the scope of thought.

	4)  The similarity of being the ornament of the world

	This is because they are the cause of the wholesome thoughts of all beings.

	5)  The similarity of superiority to artificial gems

	This is because they are beyond the world.

	6)  The similarity of being changeless by praise and blame and so forth

	This is because their nature is uncompounded.

As for the three-fold classification, the Mahayanottaratantra says:

	By the meaning of teacher, the teaching, and the students,
	From the viewpoint of those persons who have devotion
	For the three vehicles and the three activities,
	The three occasions are presented.
	
	1)  the good qualities of the teacher, the meaning of the teachings of such a teacher, the individuals of the 
bodhisattva vehicle trying to enter into the reality of buddhahood, and the supreme activity of buddhahood, from the 
viewpoint of those who are devoted to it, is the occasion of Buddha, the most excellent of those with two legs.  So it is 
taught and presented.
	2)  The good qualities taught by the teacher, as the meaning of the teaching, consist of the profound Dharma, 
through their own auspicious coincidence, since they are afterwards thought of as constituting it.  From the viewpoint of 
individuals within the pratyekabuddha yana and those who have devotion for the production of supreme buddhahood, 
these are the occasion of the Dharma.  This is because those who are free from desire are supreme.  So it is taught and 
presented.
	3)  The good qualities of the students who enter into the teachings taught by the teacher, are that because they 
hear the meaning from others and they later understand it, they enter into it.  For beings of the shravakayana and from the 
viewpoint of those who have devotion for making the Sangha supreme, this is the occasion of the Sangha, since these are 
the supreme ones of the assembly.  So it has been taught and presented.
	In brief, the temporary refuge is the three jewels.  The ultimate refuge is the singularity of buddhahood.  The 
same text says:

	The holy truth which is the refuge of beings
	Is the singularity of buddhahood.
	Because the Sage possesses dharmakaya,
	This is also the Sangha and its goal.

	The occasion of fruition, the ultimate goal, is like that.  So it is explained.

2.  The particulars of the causal object

	There are three sections.

a.  The general teaching of the three jewels

	Now where proclaimers of the ordinary refuge have the power to take refuge, they request a refuge because they 
are afraid of themselves.  It is explained that because they are worthy of the support of what the ritual of taking refuge 
proclaims, its nature was therefore taught:

	The causal object is the three jewels concretely conceived.
	Here the Buddha means the supreme nirmanakaya.
	He is ornamented with the major and minor marks.
	There are two kinds of Dharma: The dharma of spotless meaning, And also its reflection in a written 
form.
	The meaning of sutras and tantras in the various vehicles.
	Is a reflection in letters of the ultimate teaching.

	In the great and lesser vehicles, in particular the three jewels as the support of refuge are 

1.  The nirmanakaya ornamented with the major and minor marks
2.  The Dharma, including the words and meanings of the sutras and tantras, and all their reflections in letters.
3.  All perfect enjoyments.

b.  the Dharma jewel

From the two Dharmas of scripture and realization, there are two sections

1)  Scripture, the causal Dharma:

a)  Sutra

There are twelve divisions of the sutra teachings
General teachings, hymns and praises, and prophecies.
Verses and aphorisms, and pragmatic narratives.
Biographical stories and former events as examples.
Stories of former births, and the extensive teachings.
Narratives of marvels, and teachings of profound doctrines,

	The Noble Moon Lamp Sutra says:

		There are the following:

	1)  Sutras or general teachings.
	2)  Verse summaries.
	3)  Prophecies.
	4)  Verse-teachings.
	5)  Exhortations.
	6)  Biographical tales of realization.
	7)  Narratives of former examples.
	8)  Conditional Declarations.
	9)  Extensive teachings.
	10) Narratives of former births, jataka tales.
	11) Resolution teachings.
	12) Narratives of miraculous events.

		1)  All that is part of these various divisions taken together is known as the sutras.
		2)  The final summary in verse of what has first been taught in full is called verse summary.
		3)  The prophecies of the Buddha and others are the prophecy-teachings.
		4)  Verses that occur alone are verse-teachings.
		5)  Teachings that exhort the ones who listen to the Dharma are called exhortations.
		6)  Blessings by particular persons' auto-biographical accounts of their own realization, are 
called biographical tales of realization.
		7)  Teachings about former generations are called narratives of former examples.
		8)  When some topic is associated with its conditions, that is called conditional declarations.
		9)  When a topic is presented very extensively that is called extensive teachings.
		10)  Tales of how the Buddha was faithful and so forth in previous births are called jataka 
tales.
		11)  When after a subject is briefly taught, a commentary on that is taught, that is called 
resolution-teachings.
	  	12)  Wondrous teachings of the heart essence are called miraculous teachings.

b)  The fruition Dharma, tantra

	Moreover, aside from the sutras:
	
Kriya charya and yoga are the external tantras
	Within the mahayoga of the inner mantra
	Are included the father, mother, and non-dual tantras,
	These have non-duality of prajqa and upaya.
	The volumes where these are written are also known as tantras.
	
	The chief, powerful, or external tantras establish enlightenment in dependence on external purification.  
Belonging to this class are kriya yoga, upa or charya yoga, and yoga tantra.
	The inner tantras are the three in which buddhahood is established by being beyond accepting and rejecting, and 
upaya and prajqa are non-dual.  All six of the above are called tantras, as are their literary manifestations. 

2)  The Dharma of Realization,

	There are four sections

a)  The general teaching of the stages of development and completion

As for the nature of the meaning:

	In the dharma of realization are the paths and bhumis.
	There are also the stages of developing and fulfillment.
	
	Dharani  and samadhi having the essence of wisdom.
	Of the nature of compassion, their upaya is without limit.
	
b)  the teaching of the ten bodhisattva levels or bhumis

	The support of these is the bhumis:
	
	The bhumis are Supremely Joyful, and the Spotless,
	Illumining, Radiant, and the Difficult to Conquer,
	The Manifest, the Far-going, Immovable, and Good Intellect. 	The highest of these ten is known as Clouds 
of Dharma.
	
	The Great Commentary on the Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines says:

		It is explained that these are called the bhumis or "grounds" from their being the ground or 
support of the virtuous qualities.  There are eight bhumis of the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas, and 
ten of the bodhisattvas.

As for the first, the Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

	The eight of the level of the family, seeing, restraint, desirelessness, and realization of what was done, are known 
as the bhumis of shravakas and pratyekabuddhas.

	The Precious Mala says:

	Just as within the shravakayana
	Shravaka bhumis are listed as eight
	Similarly in the mahayana
	There are ten bhumis of bodhisattvas.

	First, the path of preparation is called the family level, since it is individually described in each of these three 
yanas.  The Prajqaparamita in Twenty Thousand Lines says:

		The explanation of the bhumi of seeing the white aspect is that dharmas are seen as white.
		Entering the stream, entering the fruition, continuous remaining, and remaining within the 
fruition, make up the eight levels up to arhatship, called the eight bhumis.  Here, by being liberated 
from the many defilements of the one bhumi of desire, the four dhyanas of form, and the four formless 
attainments, one becomes an arhat.
		The first fruition of wholesome practice includes entering the stream of seeing and resting 
within the fruition.  These two are the bhumi of seeing.
		Renouncing ones familiar relationships with the desire realm for the most part, one becomes 
restrained  in the bhumi of a once returner. These two are called [entering into and resting in] the 
bhumi of restraint.
		Free of the desire of the desire realm, one becomes a non-returner.  These two are called 
[entering into and resting in] the bhumi of freedom from desire.
		By doing what one has to do, one is an arhat.  These two are called [entering into and resting 
in] the bhumi of realizing what has to be done.

	The three levels preceding entering into being an arhat are known as the shravaka-bhumis.  Their purpose is 
differently understood within the different yanas.  By the pratyekabuddhas, these bhumis are called the four fruitions of 
pratyekabuddhas.

	In this case, the explanation of the bodhisattva bhumis is that by the renunciations of seeing and of meditation 
one is protected from fear of the innumerable evil spirits of the kleshas.  They are called levels or bhumis because one goes 
successively higher and higher.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Since one is without the fear of innumerable evil spirits,
	Since one travels ever farther and higher than that,
	These are therefore maintained to be the levels or bhumis.

	Moreover, in dependence on eliminating miserliness and so forth, the ten inappropriate partialities, we are 
placed within the ten bhumis.  The Avatamsaka Sutra says:

		Kye, sons of the Victorious One, for these ten bhumis to arise, the ten inappropriate 
partialities must be cleared away.  therefore, they are revealed by the ten perfections.
		On the first bhumi, one chiefly practices the paramita of generosity, but if the others too are 
not practiced insofar as one can, that is not it...

	Up to the tenth paramita, wisdom, the corresponding point is taught.  Moreover, regarding the ten paramitas, the 
Center and Limit says:

	Generosity, discipline, patience and energy,
	Meditation and also perfection of prajqa or knowledge.
	Skilful means and power, aspiration and wisdom
	These are what are said to be the ten perfections.

	The ten to be abandoned by these are miserliness, broken discipline, aggression, laziness, distractedness, 
confused prajqa, unskillful means, diminished power, unsuccessful aspiration, and the obscuration of knowables.
	As for the ten bhumis whose revelation depends on these being cleared away:

1.)  regarding the first bhumi, supremely joyful, the Mahayanasutralankara says:

	We approach enlightenment
	And see how to benefit beings.
	As supreme joy rises from this,
	It is known The Supremely Joyful.

The Ratnavali says:

	The first of these is called Supremely Joyful.
	Since the bodhisattva produces joy,
	Thereafter the three fetters are abandoned. 
	We are born within the tathagata family.
	By the ripening of that, generosity is supreme.
	We are able to move a hundred world realms.
	We become great lords in Jambuling.
	
	We view the faces of a hundred buddhas in an instant, know how to be blessed by a hundred buddhas, send forth 
a hundred emanations, teach for a hundred kalpas, enter into a hundred visions of wisdoms, arouse and stabilize a 
hundred samadhis, ripen a hundred sentient beings, move a hundred buddha fields, open a hundred gates of Dharma, 
multiply our bodies a hundred times, and each of these bodies teaches surrounded by a perfect retinue of a hundred.  We 
are able to take birth as a lord within Jambuling.

2.)  As for the second bhumi, the former text says:

	Because these ten aspects are completely undefiled,
	Therefore, they stay that way entirely by themselves.
	The ripening of that is perfection of discipline.
	We possess the seven glorious royal possessions 
	We turn the wheel of benefit for sentient beings.

	Because of being without the ten unwholesome actions, we practice the ten virtues.  We attain in an instant 
twelve thousand of the good qualities described above.  We take birth as a universal monarch ruling a world system of four 
continents.

3.)	As for the third bhumi, the Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Because the great light of Dharma is produced,
	It is called the Producer of Radiance.

The Ratnavali says:

	As for the third bhumi, Producer of Radiance,
	Since the light of wisdom arises on this level,
	Meditation and higher perceptions will arise,
	Since all greed and aggression are completely exhausted,
	As for the perfect ripening of the exhaustion of these,
	We practice with the highest patience and energy.
	We become great and skilful lords among the gods.
	The greed and lust of desire is totally reversed.
	We will have twelve hundred thousand good qualities,
	Taking birth as Indra, the king of the thirty-three gods.

4.)	As for the fourth bhumi, the Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Thus the Dharma that accords with enlightenment,
	Is like a torch with fiercely blazing light.
	Because we now possess that, as for this fourth bhumi,
	By burning duality, it greatly illuminates.

The Ratnavali says:

	The fourth is called, Possessing Emanation of Light.
	Because the genuine light of wisdom now arises,
	All accords with enlightenment without remainder.
	In particular, when this fully ripens in meditation,
	We become completely limitless kings of the gods.
	We have the proper view of transitory collections.
	We are skillful, and therefore we are all-victorious.

	We attain a hundred and twenty million of the above qualities and take birth as a king of the twin gods.

5.)  As for the fifth bhumi, the Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Because we completely ripen sentient beings,
	We are also able to guard our minds,
	For the wise this conquest is difficult,
	Hence the name the Difficult to Conquer.

The Ratnavali says:

	The fifth is called The One that is Difficult to Conquer,
	Since all the maras are difficult to overcome.
	Because skillful knowledge arises in our being
	Of the subtle meaning of the four noble truths and such,
	As for the full ripening of this good arising,
	We will be born as kings of the Tushita gods.

	 A hundred and twenty billion good qualities arise, and one is made the king of the gods of the Tushita heaven.

6.)	As for the sixth bhumi, the former text says:

	Because with the support of the perfection of prajqa
	Samsara and nirvana both manifest at this time,
	This is therefore called the Bhumi of Manifestation.

The Ratnavali says:

	The sixth is called The Place of Manifestation.
	Because the dharmas of buddhahood manifest.
	By practice of shamatha and vipashyana,
	Cessation blossoms, and by its ripening,
	We take birth as kings of the Nirmanarati gods. 

	We have ten million times twelve hundred thousand good qualities and becomes king of the Nirmanarati gods.

7.)  As for the seventh bhumi, the former text says:

	Related to the path of crossing all at once,
	This seventh bhumi is called, "the one that is far-going."

The latter says:

	The seventh is The Far Going.  They way in which it goes far,
	Is by entering the equilibrium of cessation
	By the ripening of that instant entering,
	We become lords of the Para-nirmita-vasavartin gods. 

	We have twelve times ten hundred million thousand good qualities and are made kings of the 
Paranirmitavasavartin gods.

8.)  As for the eighth bhumi, the former text says:

	Because it is not moved by dualistic perception,
	It is rightly known as The Unmoving One.

The latter text says:

	Similarly the eighth is called the kumara level 
	It is unmoving because it is complete non-thought.
	Body, speech, and mind, which are the whole of one's being,
	Are motionlessness in a way beyond the scope of thought.
	By the ripening of that, we are born as Bhrama,
	The lord of realm whose number of worlds is a thousand cubed.

	Bhrama in general is lord of the first dhyana form gods in a number of heavens.  As for good qualities, we see 
the faces of as many buddhas as there are particles in a hundred thousand thousand-fold world systems and so forth.

9.)  As for the ninth bhumi, the former text says:

	With good understanding that truly knows individual things
	This ninth bhumi is called "the one with good understanding."
	
The latter says:

	The ninth bhumi, "good understanding," is like a regent.
	Since it truly knows individual things,
	By this we attain good understanding.
	As the ripening of this we are mahabhrama,
	Lord of two three-thousand fold realms of worlds. 
	In inquiring about the wishes of sentient beings
	By arhatship he is not ravished away.

	As for good qualities, those on this bhumi see as many buddhas as there are particles in a hundred thousand 
countless three-thousand-fold world systems and so forth.

10.)  As for the tenth bhumi, the former text says:

	Since it pervades like clouds the realm of dualistic space,
	This, the tenth bhumi, is therefore known as "The Cloud of Dharma."

The latter says:

	The tenth of the bhumis is known as "The Cloud of Dharma."
	Because the rain of holy Dharma falls,
	And because the bodhisattvas are empowered,
	By the light rays of the power of buddhahood.
	As for the ripening, one is a lord of gods
	In inconceivably countless wisdom realms

	This is the excellence of Maheshvara.  As for the good qualities, every instant we see twelve times as many 
buddhas as there are inexpressible numbers of atoms in the also inexpressible number of buddha fields and so forth.
	In the first bhumi, by realizing that the same luminous essence of mind pervades all sentient beings, we realize 
the equality of oneself and others as bodhicitta, the mind of enlightenment.
	In the second, realizing the excellence of those who can realize this, we work to purify the defilements of the 
dhatu.
  	In the third, realizing that learning this is the cause according with dharmadhatu, going beyond even a three 
thousand fold world system, becoming a single tongue of flame, one listens to the Dharma.
	In the fourth, we realize that this is without ego grasping, and desire for the Dharma is abandoned.
	In the fifth, realizing that this dhatu exists without difference in the being of oneself and others, we realize 
equality with all the buddhas by means of the ten pure thoughts 
	In the sixth, realizing that the dhatu is naturally completely pure, we eliminate all grasping that accepts nirvana 
and rejects samsara.
	In the seventh, realizing that the dhatu has no differences at all, grasping of characteristics is eliminated.
	In the eighth, realizing that the garbha has no faults or virtues, no decrease and increase, the unborn patience of 
unborn Dharma becomes utterly and completely pure.
	In the ninth realizing that within the dhatu as its intrinsic attribute is the peace of the four modes of genuine 
individual awareness  we produce the empowerment of wisdom.
	In the tenth, by realizing that the dhatu is the source of perfect buddha activity, we attain autonomy in the four 
empowerments.  As for these four empowerments, the Center and Limit says:

	The all pervasive meaning, the supreme meaning,
	The excellent meaning according with the cause;
	The meaning of complete non-grasping;
	The meaning of non-difference;
	And the meaning of non-decreasing and non-increasing;
	These are the topics of the four empowerments.

If one still is asking what those might be, the Mahayanasutralankara says:

	They are for the sake of transformation
	Of mind, fixation, discursive thought, and non-thought.
	When these become fields and wisdom pure of karma,
	These are then the four empowerments.

	As for these, the four empowerments
	In the three bhumis of motionlessness  and so on,
	In oneness they are other than duality,
	So each of the empowerments is maintained.

1  By transforming the klesha-mind we attain the empowerment of complete non-thought.
2  By transforming fixation, the consciousness of the five gates, we attain the empowerment of the pure buddha fields.  
This second is the eighth bhumi.
3  By transforming the mind-consciousness we attain mastery of the four modes of genuine individual awareness, and by 
attaining the empowerment of perfect buddha activity, we ripen sentient beings.  This is the ninth bhumi.
4  By transforming alayavijqana, the basis of arising of concepts and the mind consciousness, within the tenth bhumi, we 
attain the empowerment of the mirror-like wisdom.  by the great buddha activity, buddhahood and the buddha activity 
existing in the sphere of activity become reconcilable.  The Mahayanottaratantra says:

	As for this manner of the bodhisattvas,
	With the tathagatas in post meditation
	And true liberation of beings
	In the world they are equal.

	In the eighth bhumi there are the wisdoms of equality and discriminating awareness.  In the ninth there is all-
accomplishing wisdom.  In the tenth, having attained the mirror-like wisdom and fourth empowerment, at the end the 
alaya of the basis of all the various habitual patterns is transformed in the empowerment of dharmadhatu wisdom.  Then 
one is enlightened.  The tenth bhumi is empowerment in the great final  light rays.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Having attained this final familiarity,
	By the great light rays we are then empowered.
	By realizing the vajra-like samadhi,
	Indestructibility is gained.
	That is the end of other transformations.
	Undefiled by any obscurations
	To benefit all beings everywhere,
	We produce supreme accomplishment.
	We attain omniscience, the highest level.

	As soon as a great offering has been made to the buddhas of the ten directions by those dwelling on the ten 
bhumis, from the tuft of hair between the eyebrows of all the buddhas of the ten directions arise hosts of light rays.  By 
their sinking into the foreheads of those bodhisattvas, the vajra-like samadhi and countless hundreds of thousands of 
others that they have not attained before are attained.  The subtle obscuration of knowables has been purified, and then 
they are enlightened.

c.  The outer and inner divisions

How?:
	
	Coming after these, which are the ten levels of learning,
	Is the level of total illumination, prabhasvara.
	For the causal vehicles this is the level of nirmanakaya.
	Vajrayana divisions go on by family and quality.
	There are a twelfth and other levels beyond all measure.
	
	For the vehicle of the perfections, at that time the former dhatus become enlightened.  All dharmas are gathered 
into non-defilement and the wisdom of non-thought alone.  The Establishment of Trikaya says:

	Except undefiled suchness
	And the wisdom of non-thought,
	For the buddhas other dharmas
	Do not exist at all.

	The undefiled kaya is dharmata-svabhavikakaya.  Though it has that nature, it also has aspects of the wisdom of 
non-thought, the powers, and so forth, and this is called dharmakaya.  That same wisdom, appearing ornamented with the 
major and minor marks, for the sattvas of the ten bhumis, is sambhogakaya.  That same wisdom, appearing to students as 
other, taming whatever needs to be tamed, is nirmanakaya.  That same wisdom continuous and unbroken, as long as 
samsara lasts, spontaneously doing benefit for others is buddha activity.  As for svabhavikakaya, the Abhisamayalankara 
says:

	As for the svabhavikakaya of the Sage,
	Whatever undefiled dharmas are attained
	These will always be complete in purity.
	These will always have the true and genuine nature

	As for dharmakaya, the same text says: [see categories below]

	Measureless aspects come with enlightenment.
	There are all the natures of the nine dhyanas,
	As well as those of ultimate liberation, 
	The various natures of the ten exhaustions,
	And the eight-fold set of conquered ayatanas.

	Being without kleshas and knowing one's aspirations,
	Each higher perception is truly apprehended,
	Along with the four ever-present purities,
      The ten powers of a buddha and the ten masteries,
	The four kinds of fearlessnesses and the three non-guardings
	As well as the three pillars of mindfulness.

	Awareness of dharmata that is never-bewildered 
	By the true enemy habitual patterns.
	There is arising of the great compassion,
	And the 18 unshared dharmas of only the Sage
	And the all pervading knowledge of omniscience.
	So dharmakaya has been described.

As for the thirty-seven factors of enlightenment  there are

the four objects of mindfulness,
the four correct actions, abandonment etc,
the four legs of miracle,
the five controlling powers,
the five powers,
the seven branches of enlightenment,
the eight-fold noble path.


The four objects of mindfulness are the essential recollections of

1.) body
2.) feeling
3.) mind,
4.) dharmas.

The four correct trainings, abandonments etc on the path of accumulation of the shravakas are

1.) abandoning non-virtuous actions before they occur,
2.) abandoning non-virtuous actions which occur to the mind,
3.) developing virtuous actions which have not yet occurred to the mind,
4.) cultivating virtuous actions that have already been developed.

	The four legs of miracle or four stages of miraculous ability are the stage of miraculous ability which trains in 
the contemplation of

1.) yearning or aspiration,
2.) mind
3.) effort
4.) investigation

	The five faculties are

1.) faith
2.) perserverence
3.) recollection
4.) concentration
5.) discrimination.

The five powers are intensifications of these same five.

	The seven branches of enlightenment are authentic or genuine

1.) mindfulness
2.) investigation of truth
3.) effort
4.) joy
5.) flexibility, shinjang.
6.) one-pointed contemplation.
7.) equanimity.

	The eight-fold noble path is

1.) right view
2.) right thought
3.) right speech
4.) right action
5.) right livelihood
6.) right effort
7.) right mindfulness
8.) right meditation

	The four immeasurables are

1.) kindness
2.) compassion
3.) joy
4.) equanimity.

	The eight liberations, are

1.) liberation of form possessing liberation that looks at form
2.) liberation of non-form possessing liberation that looks at form
3) liberation of what is attractive
4) liberation of the formless perception of space
5) liberation of the formless perception of consciousness
6) liberation of the formless perception of nothing whatsoever,
7) liberation of the formless perception of neither perception nor non-perception
8) the liberation of cessation.

	The nine samapattis, are

1.) the four dhyanas
2.) the four formless attainments,
3.) the samapatti of cessation.

	The ten exhaustions are of

1.) earth
2.) water
3.) fire
4.) air
5.) blue
6.) yellow
7.) red
8.) white
9.) space
19.) consciousness.

	The eight overcomings of the ayatanas,  are as follows:

1.) by those possessing inner form, viewing lesser external phenomenal forms, and overcoming these
2.) by those possessing inner form, viewing greater external forms, and overcoming these
3.) by those not possessing form, looking at lesser forms, and overcoming these
4.) by those not possessing form, looking at greater forms, and overcoming these;
5.) Mere inner perception without inner form of blue, and overcoming it.
6.) Mere inner perception without inner form of yellow, and overcoming it.
7.) Mere inner perception without inner form of red, and overcoming it.
8.) Mere inner perception without inner form of white, and overcoming it.

	The last four are called the four seeings.  By clearing away kleshas in the continuums of others, they are made 
non-existent, and by all that spontaneously arises from their being so made, there is knowledge of the object of aspiration.

	The six higher perceptions are:

1.) miraculous powers,
2.) the divine ear,
3.) knowing the thoughts of others,
4.) memory of former lives,
5.) the divine eye arising from manifested formations,
6.) the higher perception of exhausting defilement.

	The four individual true apprehensions are of

1.) meanings
2.) words
3.) dharmas
4.) powers.

	the four purities, are complete purity of

1.) support
2.) perception
3.) object,
4.) wisdom.

	The ten masteries  are power over

1.) life
2.) mind
3.) necessities
4.) actions
5.) birth
6.) devotion
7.) aspiration
8.) miracles
9.) wisdom
10.) Dharma.

	As for the four fearlessnesses, one can make the following proclamations without fear of successful 
contradiction:

1.)  "I am enlightened;"
2.)  "I have stopped desire and so forth;
3.)  "I teach with certainty the path of omniscience and so forth."
4.)  "I have exhausted defilement."

	By purity of one's actions of body, speech and mind, they are rightly performed.  Not having to consider these 
three comprise the three non-guardings.

The three objects to keep in mind are in teaching the dharma to keep in mind

1.)  what the listeners want and do not want.
2.)  that with these two there are attachment and aggression.
3.)  that when these two are absent, there are equanimity and mindfulness.

	There are also

not forgetting the benefit of sentient beings
conquering all defiled habitual patterns
the great compassion that desires benefit for all beings

the eighteen unique dharmas of a buddha.

The six aspects that are not possessed are

	1. confusion
	2. useless chatter
	3. loss of mindfulness
	4. non-equanimity of mind
	5. perception of difference
	6. equanimity that excludes discrimination

The six aspects that are not possessed with deterioration

	7.  resolve [to benefit beings]
	8.  diligent effort
	9.  mindfulness
	10. samadhi
	11. prajqa
	12. complete liberation

The three aspects that are preceded and followed by wisdom

	13.  Buddha activity of body
	14.  Buddha activity of speech
	15.  Buddha activity of mind

The three enterings into wisdom without attachment or obstruction

	16. in the past
	17  in the future
	18  in the present

	Besides those 18 there are also

omniscience
knowledge of the path,
universal awareness.

	This great collection of twenty-one is dharmakaya.

	As for sambhogakaya, the enjoyment body, the Abhisamayalankara says:

	The nature of the thirty-two major marks
	And also of the eighty minor marks,
	Since these are enjoyed in experience of mahayana
	They are called the Sage's enjoyment-body,

	This is explained extensively below.  Regarding nirmanakaya, the same text says:

	When anyone, as long as samsara lasts,
	Does benefits for limitless sentient beings
	Equally, the bodies of such beings
	Are the Sage's ongoing nirmanakaya.

The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	There are working t|lkus, and born and enlightened t|lkus. 
But the nirmanakaya of the supreme enlightenment
Is the nirmanakaya of the Buddha himself.
	He has the great upaya which is total liberation.

Regarding buddha activity, the same text says:

	Thus it is maintained that as long as samsara lasts
	This karma is unbroken and continuous. 

	As for the secret mantra teachings, in addition to these levels there is a twelfth, Pemachen or padmini, a kaya 
that does not appear to bodhisattvas, but only to the great experience of omniscience, beyond one and many and always 
spontaneously present.  Some also say that in addition there is the thirteenth level of a vajra holder whose bliss pervades 
the limits of the all-pervading space of dharmakaya free from all complexities.  Also some texts say that mahasukha is a 
fourteenth bhumi, samadhi is a fifteenth, and wisdom, the level of the guru, is a sixteenth.  These and immeasurable 
others are taught.  However they can all be related to sending out light rays everywhere and returning into the single 
essence.
	The characteristics of the three kayas and five wisdoms appear with their individual divisions.

d.  The paths

	As for the previously taught paths
	
	The paths are accumulation, preparation, and seeing;
	the path of meditation and that of no more learning.
	By the two stages and such, the profoundest objects of mind
	Will arise, the immaculate, radiant sun of holy Dharma.

	The gate of entering for beginners is the path of accumulation.  The path of preparation involves

The four aids of release, 

1.)  heat or warmth,
2.) "peak experience" or spiritual exaltation
3.) patience, steadfastness,
4.) supreme worldly dharmas.

This level is practiced through devotion.  It is the second path of ordinary beings.
	The paths of seeing and meditation are the paths of the bodhisattva noble ones.  All these together are the four 
paths of learning.  That which is to be abandoned through seeing and meditation is accomplished with effort.  The final 
path is that of no more learning.  This is the matchless umbrella, the single chief level.   In those bhumis dharani and 
samadhi and such profound aspects of mind, and the dharmas that are the objects of wisdom are the three jewels. The path 
of no more learning is the Dharma. Associates are the Sangha.  The teacher is the Buddha.  These things are said for 
people of different powers of mind.  Here the different but inseparable ultimate and non-ultimate three jewels are all 
united.

c.  The particulars of the Sangha jewel

It is the support of association:

	The external Sangha includes the beings of the four classes  And the buddha-sons abiding on the various 
bhumis.
	The dakinis and the vidyadhara masters of vajrayana
	Are those who are maintained to be the inner Sangha.
	
	The four classes, stream-enterer, once-returner, non-returner, and arhat of the Sangha of shravakas and 
pratyekabuddhas and the bodhisattvas dwelling on the ten bhumis are the external Sangha.  	The inner Sangha is the 
dakinis and spontaneous arisen beings arisen from mantra and karma or buddha activity, and the world transcending 
assembly gathered under the vajra, ratna, padma, karma, and tathagata families, and the vidyadharas dwelling on the 
levels of mahamudra, life-mastery, and self-existence.
	In this case there are four families of vidyadharas.  These are the ripening, life-mastery, mahamudra, and self-
existing families.
	As for the first, the ripening, practicing the developing and completion stages on the paths of accumulation and 
preparation, they have ordinary bodies, but establish their minds as the kayas of the deities.
	These until they have attained the supreme dharma, nirvana, in the meantime attain the mahamudra.  This is 
because they reject the body and ripen the mind as the mandala of the deity.

The Stages of Action says:

	The yogin of one and many, when that level
	That is to be taught is to be attained
	One Approaches and accomplishes 66 months,
	Until the vajra body has been attained.
	By the condition of having but little power
	Because of weak aspiration one will stay
	Within the residual body arising from concepts.
	But by insight one goes to vajradhara.

	If one attains the supreme Dharma, one is really connected to mastery of life.  The same text says:

	If one is not obstructed by conditions,
	One will then be joined to the vajra body.

	As for mastery of life, having reached the great, supreme Dharma, by attaining the kaya of the vajra body one is 
without birth and death.  The path of seeing mind arises.  The same text says:

	The final and ultimate entering of seeing the meaning
	Is accomplished by the siddhi of practicing vajra feasts.
	Defiled bodily elements and their birthplaces are exhausted,
	Becoming a vajra body in the family of life.
	The dharmas of seeing, recited, consecrate nirvana,
	The level of the Conqueror where body is not rejected.
	Free from fear one perfects the miracle of life.

	That body which is the support of supreme Dharma remains.  The Secret Essence says:

	Though births of humans, gods,
	And Bhrama indeed are taken,
	One stays on that special level.

	Emanations and buddha qualities, are the phenomena of the first bhumi.  A mudra-family-holder in the path of 
meditation from the second until the tenth bhumi, dwells on the ninth.  There body appears as the phenomena of the 
mandala, and mind purified of defilements has wisdom without conceptualized characteristics.  The Stages of Action says:

	One's own mind becomes the mahamudra.
	The kaya that manifests by meditation.
	Possessing all the major and the minor marks,
	Both the ordinary and supreme,
	The two enjoyments are the family of mudra.

the Two Enjoyments says:

	One becomes a holder of the families
	Of the jewel, vajra, wheel, lotus, and sword.

	In the second, third, fourth, and fifth bhumis, one is called a holder of the vajra family holder.  This is because 
one destroys the defilements of one's own level by vajra-like realization.
	In the sixth one chiefly practices the prajqa-paramita.  By turning the wheel of dharma one becomes a holder of 
the wheel family.
	In the seventh one's arising like the wheel of Dharma is also skillful in means, and one is of the same family.
	In the eighth, attaining the empowerment of the precious wisdom of non-thought, one is a holder of the precious 
jewel family.
	In the ninth, without desire, by practice, and attainment one holds the lotus family.
	In the tenth, producing benefit for sentient beings through perfect buddha activity, one is of the sword family.
	Holding the self-existing family is attaining buddhahood.  The same text says:

	By perfecting the powers of the former families,
	As explained, defilements are purified.
	The three prajqas which are those of a buddha,
	Bring one to the self-existing family

	Some masters have said that the mahamudra goes from the first bhumi until the seventh.  Self-existence is 
explained as the three pure bhumis the eighth to the tenth.  It seems they did not get the idea.  Why?  While travelling 
from the level of a beginner up to the level of buddhahood one is gathering these states of the four family holders.

d.  The actual liturgy of refuge, 

1)  Emanating the fields

	Now from the actual presentation of the liturgy of going to refuge, as for the cause of its arising, lesser ones fear 
the lower realms and desire the good qualities of the higher realms and so forth.  The shravakas and pratyekabuddhas are 
also afraid of samsara, and produce the three kinds of faith.   In the mahayana, by compassion, one turns the wheel of 
dharma for others.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	That is to be understood by means of compassion.

	Moreover, after one has been told the virtues of refuge by the guru, one puts one's mind in order.  Before 
representations of the three jewels one arranges offerings.  In the space in front, the three jewels as explained above, just 
from having gathering the text and offerings, approach and remain.  The Buddha and so forth are the objects of 
visualization.  Visualize them in space:
	
	Visualize these objects as being before you in space.
	In particular Buddha and guru are said to be most important.
	
	From the external viewpoint, the Buddha is most important, but internally the guru is most important.

1)  how to go to refuge:
	
	Making the outer, mental, and secret offerings,
	Say "I and all sentient beings, joining our hands in devotion,
	Take refuge until enlightened, for the benefit for others
	In the Guru and the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.
	Say this again and again, from the depths of your heart and bones.

	The external offerings are incense, flowers, and so forth.  The inner offerings are amrita, camphor, and so forth.  
The secret offerings are rejoicing, equanimity, supreme enlightenment and so forth.  Offering these offerings, which fill 
the whole of space, to the guests who also fill the whole of space, say the following:

	From this time until attaining the essence of enlightenment, I, [say your name], for the sake of all sentient 
beings, go to the guru for refuge.  I go to the Buddha for refuge.  I go to the Dharma for refuge.  I go to the Sangha for 
refuge.

	Say this three times from the depths of your heart.  This is the refuge attained from symbols.  Afterwards resting 
in a state of complete non-conception, entering into the unborn is the absolute refuge.  Attaining dharmata is the world-
transcending refuge.

3)  Emanation of light rays

	At other times, visualize that by one's having gone to refuge in this manner, these representations radiate light 
and so forth as follows:
	
	Visualize that by radiation of joy and light
	Obscurations of the three gates are purified,
	And that because of that the siddhis have been attained.
	By that the accumulation of merits has been perfected.
	And, as the fruition, rupakaya is manifest.
	
	The Edifice of the three Jewels says:

	By those beings who take the three-fold refuge
	The accumulations will be completely perfected,
	The level of Buddhahood will be accomplished.
	The Dharma and Sangha will also be accomplished.

	That completes the explanation of the incidental causal refuge.

b.  The fruition refuge

	There are five sections

1)  The explanation of the objects of refuge:
	
	The ultimate refuge upon the fruition is dharmakaya.
	Essence of divinity, buddha, dharma, and Sangha,
	One's own luminous mind, free from all complexity.

	The vehicle of characteristics maintains that in the fruition refuge one attains for oneself the fruition of 
buddhahood.  The incidental objects of refuge are the Dharma and Sangha, and the ultimate one is the singularity of 
buddhadharmakaya.

	As for the refuge that goes to the ultimate meaning,
	That refuge is singularity, Buddhahood.

	Dharmakaya is the ultimate object of the fruition refuge,  because it is the ultimate three jewels.
	In the causal refuge dharmakaya also comes into the continuities of others; but in the fruition refuge, the nature 
of one's own mind, free from all the extremes of complexity, exists as the nature of the three jewels, and one goes to refuge 
with that.  The Establishment of Wisdom says:

	The Buddha is mind with no need of attaining purity.
	Unchanging and undefiled, this is also the Dharma.
	Its self-perfected qualities are the Sangha.
	Since this is so, one's mind is excellent.

As to how one goes

2)  The manner of going to refuge:
	
	As for the taking refuge that makes this into the path,
	
	Before the visualized representations, one goes to refuge,

	"Having visualized that I and all sentient beings have done this, doing this for as long as the words have power, 
with these relative visualizations we take the causal refuge."

3)  The explanation of the essence:
	
	In accord with the cause, everything is one's mind.
	In reality going and goer are non-dual,
	This suchness is meditational equanimity.
	If we grasp the mind and object as being two,
	There will never be the ultimate realization.
	The refuge of fruition has no aspiration.
	
 	Oneself and all sentient beings go to refuge with the phenomenal visualizations of the three jewels in space.  
Both also do so with their own minds, which in reality have not a particle of difference from their miraculous emanations. 
 Since the essence of all this is the space-like nature of mind that does not fall into partiality, rest in that simplicity.  The 
Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		Subhuti, Whoever does not conceive of even the Buddha, also does not think of the Dharma 
and the Sangha.  This is going into the real essence.

	The thought that the object, the three jewels, and the perceivers, oneself and others, are different does not 
correspond to the way things actually are, so we need not aspire to those natures.

4)  The explanation of post-meditation:
	
	By that the accumulation of wisdom is perfected.
	By that the state of dharmakaya has been attained.
	Whatever may appear in the post-meditation state
	It should be regarded as being a dream or illusion.
	
	This non-conceptual emptiness is the accumulation of wisdom, and therefore dharmakaya is established.  The 
Sutra Teaching the Two Truths says:

		Manjushri, by the accumulation of merit rupakaya is attained.  By the accumulation of 
wisdom, absolute dharmakaya is made to manifest.

	All the dharmas of the phenomenal world of samsara and nirvana, appearing while they do not exist, should be 
regarded as being within a dream or illusion.  As to how, the Vinaya says:

	By the vast merit that rises up from this
	May buddhahood naturally rise within sentient beings.
	May I liberate the host of beings
	Not liberated by former victorious ones.

3.  What is to be learned about refuge

a.  The causal aspect,

	There are four sections
	
1)  The instruction not to abandon the three jewels

	Then regarding refuge:
	
	Of these two different learnings, as for the causal aspect,
	In order to enjoy our lives and worldly actions,
	We should never abandon the guru and the three jewels.

	Why?  Within this life these are hardly different from virtue.  Refuge establishes all the virtues that are exalted 
and truly good.  This is because it bridges the gap between degradation and excellence.  Shantideva says:

	For gaining lesser things, let us not leave the great.
	We should chiefly think of others' benefit.

	That is what it is like. the Vinaya says:

	For life, and power or even jokingly, the three jewels should never be abandoned.

2)  The instruction that refugees are worthy of homage and should not be deceived:

	Anyone who has gone for refuge with the guru,
	Is worthy of respect, and we should never cheat them;
	And let us abandon harsh slander of the holy ones.

	The Gandavyuha Sutra says:

		By depending on the spiritual friend one is worthy of respect and should not be deceived.  Let 
us stop saying unpleasant things about the holy ones, and instead follow the holy Dharma.

3)  The limits to be guarded in respect to the three jewels: 
	Anyone who has gone for refuge to the Buddha,
	Should never offer homage to any god seen as other.
	Anyone who has gone for refuge to the dharma,
	Should abandon doing harm to every sentient being.
	Anyone who has gone for refuge to the Sangha,
	Should abandon consorting with the infidels.

	The Shri Mahanirvana Sutra says:

	Whoever goes to refuge with the Buddha, 
	Should never go to refuge with other gods.

	Whoever goes to refuge with the Dharma
	Should abandon attitudes of doing harm.

	Whoever goes for refuge to the Sangha
	Should not associate with infidels.

4)  The instruction to pay faithful homage to the guru and the three jewels:
	
	Even their pictures ought to be faithfully revered.
	Recalling them day and night, we should always go for refuge.
	
	Even pictures of the guru and the three jewels should never be treated with disrespect.  Revere them in such a 
way that does not tread even on their shadows.  This is because they are emanations of the goodness of the buddha fields.  
As is said:

	During this time of the age of obscuring darkness
	I have emanated the spiritual friend.

The White Lotus says:

	Many bodily forms are emanated.
	They benefit beings by their wholesome actions.

The "Ear-ring" or Avatamsaka Sutra  says:

	In the last period of five hundred years
	I will then exist in the form of letters.
	To the mind with the thought that "I exist,"
	At that time to that I will be respectful

	By being mindful continuously day and night, or six times, or three, or at least once, go to refuge; and then these 
subsequent virtues will be established.  How?  Because when the virtues of the spiritual friend are told, one learns to 
practice them.  Because the virtues of the three jewels are told, one emulates them.  Behavior is the vinaya. Meditation is 
the sutras.  The view is abhidharma.  Practicing according to these is the refuge of practicing according to the path.  
Gathering the basis, one relies on holy beings, listens to the holy Dharma, and practices with the Sangha.  This is taking 
refuge.

b.  what is learned in the fruition,

	There are two sections

1)  The main subject matter:
	
	What is to be learned in the aspect of fruition
	Is to strive sincerely for equanimity.
	One should not conceptualize either good nor evil,
	
	Neither high or low, accepting or rejecting.
	We should not rely upon complexities,
	But rather train in the natural state of dharmata.
	Let us course within the single mandala,
	Where everything there is spontaneously perfected.

	The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		One who desires to meditate on the prajqaparamita should learn the manner of not conceiving 
of any dharmas whatsoever or seeing things accordingly.  What is that?  This is high.  This is low.  
This is to be rejected.  This is to be accepted.  This is the buddhadharma.
	This is the Dharma pure of all external causation.  One should not analyze in such a dualistic manner.

2)  The cause of violation

Now there is the explanation of the bond to the ordinary objects of the refuge vow:

check this and commentary
	
	We go beyond "bestowing" by proclaiming it imputation,
	The defining feature is lost by arising of false views
	Destroying what we should learn, we will surely fall.
	Take care to be totally mindful of what we accept and reject.
	
	The essence is buddhahood and enlightenment.  If we think that one goes beyond a time of receiving it in rituals, 
so that bestowing is a mere label, false views arise, the three jewels are abandoned, and we cannot practice.  As for 
offering the precepts of refuge, that they are bestowed is its defining characteristic.  Thinking that prostrating to external 
deities and so forth does no harm is called going in a lower direction.

These violations like an exhausted royal lineage are not included in Buddhism and do not enter into it.   Like a merchant 
deceived by his escort what one destructible.  Like a picture falling off a wall, all one's learning and vows are easily 
destroyed.  Like common people without a protector, they are easily trampled on by afflictions. Like a person who has 
broken the law, by breaking their promises, they will have many births in the lower realms and so forth.  In that way, by 
conceptions that view one's infractions and violations, one will be remorseful; and after that if one's mind receives a vow, 
one will take it seriously.  Though some want a certain fixed accounting, here there is no certainty.  If the attitude of 
renunciation has arisen from virtue, it is because one wants it to.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:  5.11

	Attaining the attitude of renunciation
	Is what is called the shila-paramita.

4.  The benefits of refuge

	There are seven sections

a.  The benefit of protection in all one's lives

	Now the benefits of refuge are explained.  By going to refuge with external deities and so forth, one falls into the 
lower realms and such:
	
	Those who see that other refuges are deceptive,
	Having faith in the excellence of divine compassion,
	Will have no fear, but be protected in all their lives.
	What greater happiness and benefit could there be?

	Just going to refuge cuts off the door to the lower realms.  Establishing the celestial realms, the great path of 
liberation, and wholesomeness for all one's lives, refuge is unequalled.  The Expression of Realization of a Pig says:

	Anyone who has gone to the Buddha for refuge
	Will not have to go to the lower realms.
	After they have left their human bodies,
	They will be reborn in the realm of the gods.

b.  The benefits of perfecting the two accumulations:

	Here, when the soil of a mind that is pure as well as faithful
	Has been well-moistened by the rain of merit and wisdom,
	Sprouts of auspicious Dharma germinate and grow,
	Ripening as a crop of perfect victorious ones.
	
	In the ground of faith, watered by the rain of the two accumulations, the seeds of Dharmadhatu, grow.  They 
ripen as a crop of Buddhas.  The Nirvana says:

	Those who go to the three-fold refuges
	Accumulating holy merit and wisdom,
	By the growth of Dharma, conqueror of the world,
	Will surely attain the level of buddhahood.

c.  The benefit of immeasurable virtues

Moreover, when we as individuals go to refuge:

	We gather the many qualities of Dharmic virtue.
	Knowing how to be modest, decent, careful, and mindful.
	Emerging from the covering clouds of dharani,
	The brilliant sun of wisdom rises within our minds.
	We see it even in dreams, and do not lose our awareness.
	Keeping it in mind for many generations,
	We become elegant with wealth and nobility.
	
	The Sutra Requested by Precious Little Bird Gift says:

		As for those who go to refuge with the Buddha, all their virtuous dharmas will grow.  They 
know how to be decent.  They take care.
		Those who go for refuge with the Dharma are alert.  They accumulate many virtues.  They 
remember former lives.  They have a share in the good fortune of the Dharma.
		Those who go for refuge with the Sangha have workable minds.  For them there are many 
doors of samadhi and dharani.  They are always of noble family.  Even in dreams they are inseparable 
from the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.

d.  The benefit of being guarded by the gods, who are partial to virtue:

	Because of the rejoicing of all sentient beings,
	Both the two benefits are a spontaneous presence.
	Finally we are the refuge of all who possess a body.
	Befriending a host of beings, we hold the wealth of trikaya.

	This is established by our being protected by the joy of the gods, who rejoice in white virtue, and by the increase 
of virtuous roots.  The same text says:

	Moreover, we are protected by the gods, who rejoice in virtue, and our virtuous roots increase.

	We quickly attain the level of the victorious ones.  The Nirvana says:

	Whoever has gone to the three-fold objects of refuge
	Quickly will become an enlightened being.

	Those who have gone to the Buddha for refuge will finally attain buddhahood.  Those who have gone to the 
Dharma for refuge will turn the wheel of the Dharma.  Those who have gone to the Sangha for refuge will be gathered 
into the ocean-like irreversible Sangha.

e.  As for the benefits being immeasurable

	In brief, as for these virtues:
	
	If all the virtues of refuge were to materialize,
	Vaster than all of space, they would be limitless.
	
	The Sutra of Spotlessness says:

	If the merits of taking refuge were to take on form,
	Having filled all of space, they would be even greater.

	Moreover, as for clearing away all danger and harm, The Sutra of the Holy Victory Banner says:

		O monks, whether you stay in monasteries, charnel grounds, or in the wilderness, those who 
have gone to the triple refuge will be without fear and suffering, and no one will say even "I will disturb 
one of your hairs.

	Moreover, there will be no fear of maras and the lower realms.  The Sutra of the Essence of the Sun says

	Sentient beings who go for refuge with the Buddha
	Cannot be killed by even ten million vicious maras.
	As for breakers of discipline and disturbers of the mind,
	Their births will certainly go beyond such things as those.

	In brief those with the virtues of refuge are protected from kleshas, afflictions, the paths of the lower vehicles, 
samsara, the lower realms, and all such unpleasantness, while they attain all that is high and good.  The 
Mahayanasutralankara says:

	From all the host of kleshas, and wrong-doing,
	And even from old age and death itself
	They are protected by the Buddha himself.

	From afflictions the lower realms and untimely death
	From permanent views of transitory collections
	And from the lower yanas they are protected.

	Therefore this is the genuine refuge.

f.  The benefit of being the support of all virtues:

	
	As refuge is the ground of all good qualities,
	Why would anyone competent not rely on it?

	With these immeasurable virtues, refuge is properly relied on by all those who know what they are doing.  The 
Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

	Those who are competent will follow virtue.
	By its power perfect benefit is established.
	
g.  the benefit of clearing away all the continuance of samsara and nirvana:

	To the friend of all who abandon evil and go to peace,
	Bowing our heads in homage with the deepest faith,
	I take refuge in the source of happiness,
	The wish-fulfilling tree that is the most excellent leader,
	Who is all that is meritorious in the three levels.

	The supreme refuge for all who are in the world together with its gods is the three jewels.  This is because they 
protect us from all faults, and are guides that lead us to the peace of nirvana.  They are the field of merit, the fulfillers of 
wishes, and holy treasuries of virtue.  The same text says:

	These three jewels are worthy of homage by everyone in the world, including the gods.  They are 
worthy of salutation with joined palms.  They are holy fields of merit.

The Bodhicharyavatara says:  1.36

	Even those who have do harm are still connected to happiness. 
	Let us then take refuge in that source of virtue.

	Day and night six times or whatever, and at mealtimes, even if we do not want to eat, we should visualize the 
three jewels before us in space.  Mentally we should prostrate and make offerings, confess evil deeds, rejoice in merit, 
request the turning of the wheel of Dharma, and supplicate the teachers not to pass into nirvana.  Then, remembering the 
virtues of the three jewels, we should join our palms thinking, "May I attain this for the benefit of sentient beings."  Thus 
one builds up to the jewel of the Buddha Bhagavat and so forth.  As it says in the Moon Lamp Sutra:

		When we have expressed mindfulness of the three jewels, if we subsequently dedicate the 
merit, evil deeds will be exhausted and virtue will increase.  We quickly establish enlightenment and 
attain inseparability with the three jewels throughout all our lives.

C. The dedication of merit.

Now the merit is dedicated for the benefit of sentient beings:
	
	As mahasukha is famed as the highest of qualities,
	May all beings be well-absorbed in holy conduct.
	Worn out by reliance on bad objects that corrupt,
	May our minds today find ease from weariness.
	
	By the thunder in the heaped clouds of merit of these auspiciously composed verses and by the excellent flashing 
display of the garland of their meaning, may sentient beings, who long have relied on inferior objects, the steeds of their 
minds worn out by many thousands of kinds of samsaric suffering, have their weariness eased by the Buddha Bhagavat in 
supreme happiness.

	Pacified through the Dharma rain of holy amrita,
	May goodness in the minds of beings have great increase.
	May the wish-fulfilling clouds of the level of Victory,
	Always touch us with excellent, liberating wisdom.
	On whomever in the ten directions of the world,
	There falls the Dharma rain of the Sugatas and their sons
	By the coming of benefits may they be illuminated.
	With the three lower realms self-emptied, may all become enlightened.
	For blind ones wandering in the world without a leader,
	May the virtues of the three jewels be fully and clearly proclaimed.
	When all have been fully placed on the path of liberation,
	May every single one attain enlightenment.
	 

VII  The Four immeasurables

	Thus having gone to refuge, from the main topic, the path of mahayana, there are the two sections on producing 
the two bodhicittas of aspiring to and entering into the supreme mind of enlightenment.  Within that first there are the ten 
sections of the seventh chapter on the four immeasurables: 

A.  The description of and the teaching of meditation on the four Bhrama-viharas
B.  The particular teaching;
C.  The particular objects of meditation
D.  The faults of impure objects of meditation
E.  The real object of meditation
F.  The particular aspects; 
G.  How to meditate
H.  Other ways to meditate
I   The fruition of the meditation
J.  The dedication of merit.  

A.  The description of and the teaching of meditation on the four Bhrama-viharas

	Having gone to refuge, one meditates on the four immeasurables.  Therefore, that is taught next:

	Beings who become the vessels of dharma by taking refuge.
	Cultivate their minds to benefit sentient beings.
	Watered by equanimity in the cool shade of joy,
	Flowers of compassion will bloom in the soil of kindness.
	
	Here the example is a very pleasant garden-grove.  In the soil of kindness green and rich

[[snga dang snub pa destroy/suppress read sngo dang snum pa]] 

The various kinds of flowers of compassion open and bloom. In the cool shade of pleasant trees many birds and deer are 
present.  From the lake of equanimity, and ponds, and good springs, flow a collection of many streams, where travelers 
tired out by samsara can refresh themselves.  Weariness of mind is eased and cleansed away.  What is described is 
arranged in ornamental forms.  The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

	Subhuti, Here a bodhisattva mahasattva should meditate on kindness, compassion, great joy, and great 
equanimity.

B.  The particular teaching

	 As for the particular explanation of this and other things:
	
	When these four have not been joined to the path of freedom,
	These sources of sanity are causes of samsara.
	But when they are empowered by the path of peace,
	Then they manifest as the four immeasurables
	By which we can transcend the ocean of samsara.

	The Supreme Essence says:

		Shariputra, these four, by which, if genuine mind is not produced, it will not be produced 
later, kindness, compassion, joy, and equanimity, are the four bhrama-viharas.  They are accompanied 
by samsaric karmic formations.  They produce genuine mind.  The kindness, compassion, joy, and 
equanimity that are subsequently produced are called the four immeasurables.  This is because they also 
produce the path of nirvana.

C.  The teaching of the particular objects of meditation:
	
	Their scope is universal, both with and without objects.
	Encompassing both sentient beings and dharmata.

	The meditation-objects of the four immeasurables are all sentient beings, in the arising of four immeasurables 
with a mental object; and also the dharmata of all dharmas, with suchness as the meditation object, in the arising of the 
four immeasurables without a mental object.  The Bhumi-Collection says:

		With the support of sentient beings and dharmata respectively, the four immeasurables with 
and without a mental object arise.

D.  The faults of an impure meditation-object

	There are two parts.

1.  The faults of an impure meditation-object:

	The former concerns a limited number of sentient beings.
	Such impure objects are the cause of the Bhrama-viharas.

	The meditation objects of the four Bhrama-viharas are the arousing of these four mental phenomena, kindness 
and so forth, for a limited number of sentient beings, one, two, or whatever.  Here liberated mind is not achieved.  One to 
one kindness, like that of a woman crossing the river Ganges with her child, produces samsaric causation, such as the 
arising of the Bhrama-viharas.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	The fruition of this attitude arising for one person
	Is the Bhrama-viharas and so forth.

2.  The instruction to learn the liberating four immeasurables

	With the above-described awareness, these become the four immeasurables:
	
	Directed to liberation, these become objectless.
	This should be learned by those who are compassionate.
	Those who are unhappy or tormented by suffering,
	Or feel animosity to others, near or far,
	Through being preoccupied with happiness and wealth,
	Are objects of kindness, joy, compassion and equanimity
	
      Those desiring liberation should learn to meditate on phenomena in the manner of the four immeasurables.

E.  The real meditation object

	Now the meditation object of the four immeasurables is explained:

	Those who are unhappy or tormented by suffering,
	Feeling greed or hatred towards others, near or far,
	Through being preoccupied with happiness and wealth,
	Are objects of kindness, joy, compassion and equanimity

	The sentient beings taken as the meditation object of the four immeasurables are those who are not happy or are 
afflicted with suffering; and those who feel desire and aggression toward others nearby or far away because of their own 
pleasure, happiness, and wealth.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	The objects are those who desire happiness
	And those with happiness afflicted by suffering,
	And those who have the kleshas....

F.  the particular aspects

As for the particular aspects:

	The particular desires are that it may be workable
	That all beings may be happy, and also free from suffering;
	and that never parting from joy, they have equanimity.

	The object of these four immeasurables should be the wish that beings be without suffering and possess 
happiness; and that, not separated from joy, but leaving behind passion and aggression, their minds have only equanimity 
and kindness.  The same text says:

	I prostrate to you who are kind to sentient beings,
	Intending that they should not be blocked by conflict,
	Possessing as well the intention of non-separation,
	Who have the intent of goodness of benefit.

	The four immeasurables are free from what does not accord with the essence of each of them.  The same text 
says:

	May the objects abandon what does not fit with sanity.
	May they come to possess the wisdom of non-thought.
	May all sentient beings be completely ripened.

	As for abandoning partialities that do not fit with each one, the commentary of that same text mentions not 
conceptualizing self and others, good or bad, happiness, suffering, and in between.  Having abandoned them, benefit the 
object, sentient beings.
	As to how to enter into the object, those who merely do not have happiness are the object of equanimity.  In those 
who are tormented by suffering and possess passion and aggression there exists the cause and fruition of suffering.  
Therefore they are the object of suffering.  The objects of joy, happiness and goodness, are those who enter into these 
three.  That the four immeasurables have such dharmas as their objects is said in all the treatises.  In the four 
immeasurables that have the object of dharmata, the nature of these is realized as the unborn.  Moreover, in the tantras 
and their commentaries there is found the terminology of the four immeasurables which have not realized egolessness, 
which half-way and dualistically realize it, and those realizing two fold egolessness.  The Bodhisattva-bhumi says:

		That with sentient beings as object, is an object in common with heretics.  That with dharmas 
as object is in common with shravakas, and pratyekabuddhas.  That with no object, is not in common 
with anyone.

	These arise with the object of sentient beings, dharmas, and with no object.  Explaining the arising of these four 
in terms of the six aspects that do not correspond with the six paramitas, the Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Kindness to the miserly, and to vicious unsuitable ones,
	Kindness to the irascible, and to the unconscientious.
	Kindness to whose who are motivated by external objects,
	And kindness to those who are strongly inclined to wrong attachments.

Explaining the ten objects for which they are produced, the same text says:

	One who comes into the power of the fiercely blazing enemy
	One covered with suffering who is obscured with darkness.
	All who are dwelling on paths that are difficult to travel.
	Those who really have fetters that are very great.
	Those attached to spiritual food that is mixed with poison.
	Those who become completely lost upon the path.
	Those of little energy who have gone far astray,
	It is being kind to people such as these.

1.)  Those who blaze with the kleshas as if they were in a fire
2.)  Those for whom obstacles of Mara have arisen, even though they have entered the path
3.)  Those of the three lower realms
4.)  Those with stupidity and delusion about karma, cause, and effect
5.)  Those who have entered wrong paths
6.)  Those who are really bound by the knots of the kleshas
7.)  Those who relish the taste of the bliss of samadhi
8.)  Those who dwell on the paths of shravakas
9.)  Those who dwell on the paths of pratyekabuddhas
10.) Neophyte bodhisattvas.

	These four immeasurables arise with four conditions.

1.)  The naturally existing family or dhatu is the causal condition.
2.)  The spiritual friend who teaches the instructions of the four immeasurables is the dominant condition.
3.)  The manifestation of one's particular object is the object-condition.
4.)  Previous acquaintance with the benefits of meditating on the four immeasurables and the harm of not doing so is the 
immediately preceding condition.

The former text says:

	From the causes of that happiness and suffering
	Comes the kindness of the bodhisattva.
	Along with those causes, from the spiritual friend
	And from one's natural attitude rises compassion.

The Abhidharmakosha says:

	By four conditions there are mind and mental events.
	By three conditions there are the two samapattis.
	Others things arise from only two conditions.

	Mind and mental events are produced by four conditions, the cause, predominating, immediately preceding and 
object conditions.  Samapatti is produced by three, the cause, predominating, and immediately preceding conditions. 
Material things arise from two, a cause, such as the seed, and a predominant conditions, such as water and manure.

G.  How to meditate

	There are four sections

1.  Equanimity meditation

	There are thirteen sections.

a.  The purpose of equanimity meditation

	Now, as to how to meditate, one is purely and definitely concerned with these alone:

	These do not have to be practiced in any one fixed order,
	But, even so, beginners should start with equanimity.
	Having developed this toward those both far and near,
	Then they should meditate upon the other three.
	
	First we should compose ourselves, putting ourselves at ease.  This is because if we do not bring everything near 
and far into equanimity, it is difficult for the other three to arise.  Therefore, first we meditate on equanimity.  The master 
Jqanagarbha says in his Ornament of the Middle Way

	Crossing with equanimity to the land of goodness,
	Like a meadow covered with blossoming flowers of kindness,
	Well-adorned with the cooling protective shade of compassion.
	The water of joy will be pure, and not disturbed and muddied.

The Two Examinations says:

	First we should meditate on kindness,
	Second we should turn to compassion
	Third we should meditate on joy,
	And last of all equanimity.

	This is from the viewpoint a teacher joined with inner divine suchness.  For them it is easy first to produce the 
arising of the other three, kindness and so forth.

b.  The meditation object of equanimity

Now, to explain equanimity meditation:

	Since the meditational object is all sentient beings,
	We should examine our minds to how we are doing.
	If we love our mothers and fathers and our friends,
	But hate our enemies, our attitude is bad.

	If there is any sentient being that we make our friend or enemy, this loving and hating is not proper.

c.  Remembering the kindness of the object of equanimity

In samsara:

	While we have been wandering without beginning or end,
	Even such enemies have been our fathers and mothers.
They were formerly friendly and gave their help to us.
	Shall we now cultivate malice to return their kindness?

	It is not right to repay with harm those who formerly benefited us.  The Dulwa Lung says:

	Returning good for good is excellent.
	Returning harm or indifference is wrong.

d.  Equanimity meditation on uncertainty 

For many generations:

	Even these friends were enemies and did us harm.
	Even now that suffering is still infecting us.
	How can it be right to repay this with benefit?
	And those who are neither now were once both friends and enemies.
	Where benefit and harm are without certainty
	Loving and hating are irrationality.

	If it is not suitable to benefit an enemy who has done us harm, our friends in former generations did us harm, 
and even now, as a result, suffering still defiles us.  Just this produces our loving and hating.  Why repay that with benefit? 
 As for beings who are indifferent to us now, if we think about it, whether they did us benefit or harm before or which they 
will do later is not certain.  Therefore we should produce equanimity for those who are far and near.  The Prajqaparamita 
in Twenty Thousand Verses says:

		Subhuti, all sentient beings are mutually equal, and you should produce an attitude of 
equanimity.

e.  The meditation on equanimity

	For this reason:

	Therefore, start by regarding friends and relatives
	With neither love nor hate, as we would those who are neutral.
	Then we should give up hatred, being neutral to our enemies.
	When we do this, near and far are non-existent.

	Thus we should equalize friends and enemies as indifferent.

f.  Equanimity meditation to benefit sentient beings:

	To be rid of the mental darkness that comes from fixating neutrality,
	Eliminate habits of thinking of beings in terms of the kleshas.
	Meditate on phenomena in freedom from samsara.

	Subsequently may kleshas be completely pacified with regard to all sentient beings, starting with our enemies 
and friends.  May love and hate never arise.  May our minds become mutually workable.

g.  Equanimity about getting and losing, by meditating on them as one:

	All who want happiness want to eliminate suffering.
	But their ignorance courses in the cause of suffering.

	Those who truly want joy for themselves do not desire what is painful.  Since all beings are like that, how can 
malevolence toward them be appropriate?  Desire, even desire for happiness, is a cause of suffering.  We should eliminate 
this unwholesome approach.

h.  The real object of equanimity

	Kye ma!  If only the draining host of kleshas of sentient beings,
	With all their habitual patterns, were equalized in peace.
	May it come about that all embodied beings, 
	Tormented by their violent loves and raging hatreds,
	Are free from either clinging or animosity,
	For all either near or far feeling equanimity.

	May all the kleshas of sentient beings be pacified.  In particular, after the fires of love and hate are pacified, 
without near and far, may our minds become workable.

i.  Expanding the object of equanimity:

	Having contemplated on one being in this way,
	Then going further, do the same with two or three.
	Go on to a country, and then to a continent.
	Then having contemplated all the four continents,
	Try one or two thousand worlds--we should consider them all.
	The training is complete when self is the same as others,
	And enemies and friends are seen with equality.

	Beginners should meditate on friends and enemies as neutral without regret.  Then from one, two, three, beings 
and so forth, we should go on to our whole town and then our country, its continent, and finally all of this world 
Jambuling.  Then from the continent of videha and so forth go on and meditate on a thousand, two, three, and all the 
world systems.  Also first meditate on human beings, and then on animals and so forth as being equal.

j.  The measure of having trained in equanimity within one's being

Within onuss being:

	The training is complete when either self or others,
	Or enemies and friends, are seen with equality.

	For anyone who has attained this attitude, jealousy and enmity will not arise, since they will be hindered by the 
arising of equality.

k.  Post-meditation in equanimity meditation

Then after a session of meditating with that object:

	Then go on to the equanimity without object.
	Everything is mind, whose nature is like the sky.
	Rest in this emptiness, the unborn absolute,
	Free from complexities of mental phenomena.

	The objects to be meditated upon, these appearances of sentient beings, are like a reflection, appearing while they 
do not exist, unborn by nature.  Rest in mindfulness of this.  Though we are attached to the skandhas as being grasped 
objects and a fixating ego other than these, both are false.  This is like thinking that a reflection in a mirror is a face.  
What does not exist appears, depending on the skandhas.  The Precious Mala says:

	Though depending on a shining mirror
	Reflections of oneself and others appear,
	All such vivid images as these
	In actuality do not exist.

	Likewise, in dependence on the skandhas,
	Ego is perceived and firmly grasped.
	Like the reflected image of one's face,
	Really it does not exist at all.

	As without depending on a mirror,
	No reflected natures will appear,
	If there is no dependence on the skandhas,
	Ego-grasping too will disappear.

	By their nature, if the skandhas are grasped as an ego, karma exists.  Since from karma birth exists, by intervals 
old age and death will also exist.  When we do not grasp the skandhas, all this is reversed.  The same text says:

	As long as the skandhas are being grasped at all
	So long will they be grasped as truly being an ego.
	If there is ego-grasping, there is also karma.
	As a result of that, there also will be birth.

	The three kinds of action have no beginning, end, or middle 
	The mandala of samsara, like a whirling fire-brand,
	Has recursive causes, so it will keep on whirling.
	But if the cause of that were not to be established,

	Conceptions of self and other and distinctions of the three times,
	The context of ego grasping would be entirely exhausted.
	Therefore karma and birth will be extinguished too,
	And likewise cause and fruition, will simply cease to be.

	Having seen the exhaustion of these, in the world of truth
	There is no thought of existence, no thought of non-existence.

	Therefore all dharmas, without an I or any object to grasp, should be known to be non-existent, like a reflection.

The benefits of equanimity meditation

	The measure of being well-trained by meditating in this way, is that realization of profound peace arises and 
realization of the nature of all dharmas as primordially unborn equality.  The All-Creating King says:

	Within the unthinking enlightenment of dharmata,
	By resting in non-duality, wisdom will arise.

l.  The fruition of equanimity

Of this meditation:

	The fruition is that for mind, undisturbed by near and far,
	There is the spontaneous presence of the natural state.
	This is the actual nature of reality.

	When the relativity of self and other, near and far, is non-existent; the absolute, non-dual dharmata, will be 
realized.  When we are used to this, we should perform the meditation of primordial kindness.

2.  Meditation on kindness

	There are five sections.

a.  Increasing kindness

As explained above:

	After the mind has developed this equanimity,
	Think of the happiness that you want for your mother.
	Then contemplate all embodied beings in just that way.

 	When the mind has been equalized, just as one feels kindness towards one's father and mother, one should 
meditate on all sentient beings, placing the mind in the attitude one has toward one's father and mother.  The 
Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand lines says:

	One should meditate with an attitude of kindness, not letting it be ravished away by the shravakas and 
pratyekabuddhas.

b.  The object of kindness

How to do this?:

	The object of conceptual kindness is all beings.
	It wants to accomplish for these various sentient beings,
	The incidental happiness of gods and human beings,
	As well as the ultimate happiness of enlightenment.
	Move from meditating on a single being
	Up to all beings within the limits of the directions.

	When unhappy sentient beings are seen, may they meet incidentally with the happiness of gods and human 
beings, and ultimately with the happiness of buddhahood.  Thinking that, one should go from one to meditating on all 
sentient beings as limitless as the space of the sky.  The Middle Length
Prajqaparamita says:

		When we see sentient beings who have no happiness, we should imagine to ourselves as 
follows, "May these sentient beings attain the god realm, where the happiness of the gods is perfect."

c.  The sign of training in kindness

	As for training:

	The sign of success is supreme and all-pervading kindness.
	Greater than a mother's love for her only child.

	Whatever sentient beings are seen one is pleased and with a great kind longing, one wants to benefit them.

d.  Kindness without object

	After meditating on kindness with an object:

	Then rest everything in equanimity.
	This is the great kindness without a reference point.
	The sign is the unity of kindness and emptiness.

	The object of meditation on kindness is sentient beings, arising from the gathering together of the six elements.  
These elements are 

1.) earth
2.) water
3.) fire
4.) air
5.) space
6.) consciousness.

	If these are examined their coarse atoms, subtle real nature, and pure consciousness do not exist as real things.  
Meditate, thinking that they are like space.  The Ratnavali says:

	People are not earth and are not water.
	Neither are they fire, air, nor space,
	Nor are they consciousness, nor all of these.
	A person is something different from this.
	Since persons are gathered from the six elements,
	They are not real, and here is the reason why.
	A gathered nature cannot be something real.
	The skandhas are not the ego, nor ego the skandhas.
	Yet neither would be there without the other.

Also:

	At the time when things cannot be found
	At that time there is pure thinglessness
	Things of form are simply non-existent,
	Even space is nothing but a name.

	Without arising, form is superfluous,
	Therefore, even its name does not exist.
	Feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness
	Seem to arise and be thought of as an ego.
	But without the six elements, there can be no ego.

	Why does it not exist?  When sentient beings appear, if we examine their bodily nature, it does not exist.  Neither 
the support or supported of consciousness is seen, so the "me" and the "mine" are not perceived.  When analyzed they 
vanish, essentially empty.  The same text says:

	Just as if the layers of a plantain tree 
	Are all destroyed, then nothing is there at all
	People too, if all the parts of their nature
	Should be destroyed, would likewise disappear.
	All dharmas are without a self, and therefore,
	That is what the victorious ones have taught.

	This mere appearance of seeing and hearing is neither true nor false, since truth and falsity are correspondence 
to a pattern of dharmas in the mind.  The same text says:

	Just by being able to see and hear and so forth,
	It is taught there neither true nor false.

Also it says there:

	This world transcends both truth and falsity.

	Thus all dharmas are beyond truth and falsity, like a plantain or banana tree.  This is also taught in the 
Samadhiraja Sutra:

	Just as with the moist leafy trunks of plantain trees
	Wanting to find the essence, people tear them up,
	But nowhere inside or out is an essence to be found.
	All the various dharmas should be known to be like that.

	The sign of good training is that while kindness arises, at the same time there arises the realization that beings, 
like a plantain tree essentially have no self or nature.

e.  The fruition of meditating on kindness

What is the fruition?:

	The visible result is experience of pure pleasure.

	Seeing sentient beings is pleasurable, and the
beings, when they are seen, are cleansed of disturbances of love and hate and so forth.

	The Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines says:

		Those who have an attitude of kindness meditate a great deal, and when they see the sentient 
beings inhabiting the world, it is pleasurable.  They have no anger.

	Also immeasurable merit is attained.  The Sutra of the Great Liberation Blossoming in the Ten Directions says:

	Though someone in the world keeps discipline pure for a kalpa,
	An instant of joy produced by kindness is better than that.

	If one in this world does evil in body speech and mind,
	Though they fall to the lower realms, by that kindness it has an end.

3.  Compassion

	There are seven sections.

a.  Thinking about the sufferings of sentient beings

Now compassion is taught:

	After encompassing all beings within this kindness.
	Think of their sufferings, arousing such a compassion
	As when your mind cannot endure your parents' suffering.

	If our kind parents for our sake did evil deeds and were tormented by the sufferings of the three lower realms and 
so forth, we would think, "I should be compassionate to them."  The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		If we see sentient beings who are suffering, we will think, "May these sentient beings be freed 
from suffering."

b.  How to meditate on Compassion

	As for how to meditate:

	Think how our parents, who were so kind to us,
	Suffered by doing evil actions for our sake,
	With hunger, thirst and heat and cold and even murder.
	They are sinking down into the raging sea,
	Of birth and old age, of sickness and of death,
	Exhausted by the great variety of sufferings.

	Because they did evil deeds for our sake, now they are tormented by their particular sufferings.

c.  The main topic of compassion

	From this present suffering:

	Though they want liberation, they have no peace of mind.
	There is no spiritual friend to show the proper path.
	How pitiable is their limitless wandering in samsara.
	Having seen it, can I forsake and abandon them?

	The beings of samsara are suffering and know no way of being liberated.  Except for a very few spiritual friends, 
there is no one to teach them all the path of liberation.  None of these beings who now suffer without limit in samsara, 
formerly was not my father, mother, relative, and friend.  As for just abandoning them without a refuge or protector, they 
are my family, father, and mother!  That is how we should think.


[[[The Letter to Students says:

	For whomever has got in this situation and remains
	Whoever with careful kindness receives this cautiously,
	Will have no instance of suffering from these kleshas, and discarding them,
	If to beings one is bad-tempered and, who is better off?

d.  The reason of compassion

the reason:

	Then we should think from the very depths of our heart and bones,
	"May all beings be freed in a moment from their sufferings,
	By means of our bodies and enjoyment of our wealth,
	And any happiness that is ours throughout the three times."

	Thus may all our enjoyment and happiness be transferred to other beings and having been freed from suffering, 
may they forever enjoy immeasurable happiness.  One should think that from the depths of one's heart.  The 
Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines says:

		With that vast mind possessing the great compassion, all shravakas and pratyekabuddhas 
should meditate in this extraordinary way.

e.  The sign of training in compassion

	When training in this meditation, as we go from one sentient being to all, the sign is that the suffering of beings, 
arising within us, becomes unbearable.

e.  The post-meditation of compassion meditation

	After all sessions of meditating like this on compassion with objects:

	Then meditate on compassion without a reference point.
	The sign is the unity of compassion and emptiness.

	If the objects of compassion, sentient beings, are examined and analyzed, they are natureless like the appearance 
of water in a mirage.  No water is really there.  That is how we should think.  The Samadhiraja-sutra says:

	As when the summer sun is at its peak,
	Persons tormented by thirst and other beings
	With their skandhas see water in a mirage.
	All dharmas should be known to be like that.

The Ratnavali says:

	As water in a mirage
	Is neither water nor real,
	Egos in the skandhas
	Are neither there nor real.

	That water is a mirage.
	If so, then why go there?
	If that water is non-existent,
	Grasping it is stupid.

	Existing like an illusion,
	This world is non-existent."
	The grasper of it is stupid,
	And if so, will not be free.

Also it says there:

	As these two reasons are true,
	Nothing comes, goes, or stays.
	So our suffering too is gone.

Also it says there:

	The buddhas' teaching is deathless and never changes.
	It is beyond existence and non-existence.
	Therefore, it is explained to be like that.

	After we understand the nature of all dharmas through meditation, emptiness and compassion are unified.  This 
is how practice is done on the true path.  If either of these two is absent, one strays from the path.  The Dohakosha says:

	If without compassion we dwell in emptiness
	Gaining nothing we will not gain the highest path.
	But if we solely meditate upon compassion,
	We will never be free from dwelling in samsara.

	Those who have the power of joining both of these
	Will not dwell in samsara and nor yet within nirvana.

f.  The fruition of meditating on compassion

Of meditating in this way:

	The fruition is a mind without injurious malice,
	Workable by its establishment in primordial purity.

	One attains a workable mind without malice and harm.  Therefore the Buddha's enlightenment will be 
established.

The Supreme Essence says:

	By the great compassion the mind becomes workable, and deathless, and attains the supreme ornament 
of delight.

3.  The meditation of joy,

	There are six sections

a.  The purpose of meditating on joy

	Now joy will be explained.  As just explained:
	
	After beings are steeped in compassion, and each is happy,
	Then we should go further and meditate on joy.

	If we see happy sentient beings, we should meditate on joy.  The Prajqaparamita in 20,000 Lines says:

	Whenever we see sentient beings joined to their particular happiness, we should think, "May they be 
inseparable from this happiness.  May they possess the happiness of omniscience, beyond that of gods 
and human beings.

b.  The object of meditation on joy

	How?

	The proper object of joy is happy sentient beings.
	The content is thinking, "E ma!  there is no need
	For me to try to establish these beings in happiness.
	Each of them has gained their proper happiness.
	Until they attain the essence of enlightenment,
	May they never be parted from this happiness."
	First think of one, then meditate on all of them.

	Go like that from meditating on one happy sentient being to all of them.

c.  The measure of joy

	As for the measure of training:

	The sign is the arising of joy that is free from envy.

	Ultimate joy has no envy for the wealth of others.

d.  The essence of joy

	After a session of meditating on conceptual joy:

	Then meditate on joy without a reference point.

	Meditate on the objects of joy, all sentient beings, as appearing while they do not exist, like an illusion.  The 
Samadhiraja Sutra says:

	Just as in the midst of many sentient beings
	Magicians may emanate illusory forms of things,
	But the horses and chariots, and elephants that they conjure
	Do not exist at all in they way that they appear,
	Every dharma should be known to be like that.

The Ratnavali says:

	A secret from people in general,
	Is this very deep Dharma teaching
	The amrita of Buddha's teaching
	That the world is like illusion.

	Just as illusory elephants
	Appear to arise and vanish,
	While in truth and reality
	Nothing arises and vanishes,

	Likewise this world of illusion,
	Appearing to rise and vanish,
	In the real and absolute truth,
	Neither rises nor is destroyed.

	As an illusory elephant
	Coming from nothing goes nowhere;
	By exhausting mind's obscuration,
	It really, truly is gone.

	This world, just like that elephant,
	Coming from nothing goes nowhere;
	By exhausting the mind's obscuration,
	It really, truly is gone.

	The nature beyond the three times;
	And existence and non-existence,
	Not realizing them all as mere labels;
	How will someone possess the nature?

e.  The virtues of joy:

	In meditating in this way, by the joy of the natural state:

	Body, speech and mind have spontaneous peace and bliss.

	This is the measure.

f.  The fruition of meditating on joy:

	By the wealth of the fruition joy is stabilized.

	The Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines says:

		Immeasurably vast, joyful mind is never taken from us.  With this unsurpassable perfection 
we attain the heights.

H.  Further explanation of the way of meditating,

	There are seven sections

1.  the details of meditation after this is familiar,

	Now the way of meditating will be further explained.  As explained above:

	After this is familiar, then, beginning with kindness,
	Meditate on all four, one right after the next,
	Gradually breaking attachment to any of the four.
	
	Sometimes meditate on these four in order, as an antidote to liberate them into purity.

2.  How to stop obstacles to kindness with compassion:

	If kindness attaches you intimately to all beings,
	Compassion breaks attachment to the cause and effect of suffering.

	If sometimes one becomes permanently attached to other sentient beings as one's father and mother, a second 
meditation on compassion will serve as an antidote.

3.  How to stop obstacles to compassion with joy:

	When a lesser compassion attaches to reference points,
	Sadness is stopped by the joy that has no reference point.

	When there is attachment to compassion as an individually characterized phenomenon, illusion-like, objectless 
joy will clear away all sadness and attachment.

4.  How to stop obstacles to joy with equanimity:

	When joy disturbs the mind by arousing anxiety 
	Then we should meditate on the great equanimity,
	Free from all desire for anything near or far.

	If we are sad because of longing for joy in the happiness of others, it will be cleared away by meditating on 
objectless equanimity.

5.  Stopping the obstacles to equanimity with kindness:

	When equanimity is neutral and indecisive,
	Meditate on kindness and so forth, as before.
	Training in that way grows stable and effortless.

	If everything seems to become indifferent, arouse kindness and meditate on that.
	These are the general antidotes.  In particular, as an antidote for each object, meditate as taught in the 
corresponding objectless way.  By meditating in that way, one will attain immeasurable peace within one's being and 
quickly attain stability.

6.  The way of meditating when we have become increasingly familiar:

	Yogins for whom this practice is fully stabilized
	May meditate in a different order, or jump about.

	After the four immeasurables are stabilized, so that their benefits may arise, after kindness, we may meditate on 
the others in order, or after equanimity go back and meditate without any particular order.  That is, after meditating 
serially on kindness, compassion, joy, and equanimity, after equanimity, meditating on compassion and kindness is the 
lesser.  After kindness, meditating on joy is the middle.  After equanimity meditating on kindness is the greatest.  Jumping 
directly up and down after resting between objects is the meditation.  The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		Subhuti, then meditate on kindness.  Meditate on joy.  Rest in compassion, Practice 
equanimity.

7.  The virtues of meditating in this way

	What is the purpose?

	By that the meditation will gain the advantage of freshness.
	Its steadiness will grow to the very greatest degree.

	In particular the mind of the four immeasurables will gain freshness, unsteadiness will be steadied, and 
steadiness will become supremely great steadiness.

I.  The fruition

	There are ten parts.

1.  How the higher realms and truth and goodness are established

	Now, as for the teaching of the fruition of the four immeasurables, the following words explain how it is:

	There are four fruitions of doing this meditation.
	By ripening we gain the exalted and truly good.
	In the desire realm we have a divine or human body,
	In a situation producing happiness and benefit.

		Those who do not attain an exalted state attain the body of a god or a human being.  They perfect the 
two accumulations, benefit beings, and become inseparable from the four immeasurables.  Even if they are 
careless or fall asleep, they will not fall prey to serious harm.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Having the mind of these four Bhrama-viharas
	We will always take birth in realm of desire.
	Because these perfect the two accumulations,
	They produce ripening for sentient beings.
	Never separated from purity
	And free from what does not accord with it,
	The condition of future carelessness and mishap,
	Impatience, too, will never be found there.

	As the ultimate fruition, enlightenment is established.  The same text says:

	What is harmful is banished, and happiness is produced.
	With the seed of enlightenment, and the cause of longing desire,
	The essence ripens; and sons of the Victorious One
	Relying on Dharma, are not far from the light.

	Abandoning what is harmful is a fruition of separation.
Producing the seed of liberation is a fruition of the predominant condition of empowerment by the master.  Because one 
produces happiness for others, being patient about our own trials and hardships is a produced fruition.  By meditating on 
these four within this life, they ripen in other lives as a fruition according with the cause.  The nature of these four 
immeasurables always arises in sons of the Victorious One.  It is born from previous familiarity, from seeing its objects, 
and by seeing the faults of what does not conform to them.  The same text says:

	This kindness, having the nature of compassion
	Attains the nature and discrimination
	By formerly having become familiar with that
	And seeing it spoiled by what does not accord.

2.  The benefits of according with the cause

	From the two sections of the fruition according with the cause:

a.  General

	From according to the cause, such action is self-performing.
	The happiness attained is free from contrary experience.

	 By action according with the cause, we always spend our time meditating on the four immeasurables.  By 
experience according with the cause malice, harmfulness, unhappiness, passion, loving and hating will be absent.  As for 
the benefits of the power of this

b.  The decisive condition or power:

	The power is birth in a pleasant, happy, and joyful country,
	Where there are compatible people and amenities of wealth. 

	By kindness one is born in a pleasant country, by compassion in a happy one, and by joy in a joyful one with 
many flowers, medicinal herbs, and so forth.  By equanimity one is born among many compatible people and is without 
harm.

3.  The benefits of performing this

The person:

	By performing this these four will grow immensely greater.
	The wealth of the two benefits becomes spontaneous.

	By performing this, the four immeasurables will increase immensely, growing greater and greater.  By that the 
wealth of the two benefits for oneself and others will become spontaneously present.  By the increase in merit of the karma 
of meditating on the four immeasurables, happiness and goodness will be established.

4.  The benefit of kindness:

	When perfect enjoyment of kindness is without aggression,
	Then the mirror-like wisdom will have been fully attained,
	As sambhogakaya adorned with the major and minor marks.

	After kindness has transformed aggression into the mirror-like wisdom, one attains sambhogakaya.  The Lotus 
Peak says:

	By kindness aggression will be purified
	As mirror-like wisdom and sambhogakaya.

5.  The benefit of compassion:

	When compassion is desireless, there is dharmakaya,
	Producing the manifestation of discriminating wisdom.
	Its dharmas like the ten powers are utterly distinct.

	Compassion pure of desire is discriminating awareness wisdom and dharmakaya.  The same text says:

	By compassion desire is fully purified
	As discriminating wisdom and ultimate dharmakaya.

6.  The benefits of joy:

	When joy eliminates jealousy, there is nirmanakaya.
	The holy all-accomplishing wisdom is attained.
	Nirmanakaya is nothing fixed, but of various forms.
	This self-existing kaya is spontaneous buddha activity.

	By immeasurable joy one attains the all-accomplishing wisdom, whose nature is perfect buddha activity.  
Purifying jealousy makes nirmanakaya manifest.  The same text says:

	By joy all jealousy is fully purified,
	As all-accomplishing wisdom and nirmanakaya.
	Action becomes spontaneous and excellent.

7.  The benefits of equanimity:

	When equanimity has eliminated pride
	As well as stupidity, there is the essence of things
	Through equality dharmadhatu wisdom will manifest.
	The simplicity of dharmata is svabhavikakaya.

	When equanimity has purified pride and ignorance, the wisdom of equality and the dharmadhatu wisdom are 
established.  Svabhavikakaya, the unchanging vajrakaya and the kaya of the manifestation of enlightenment manifest.  
The same text says:

	By equanimity and great equanimity
	Pride and envy and ignorance will be purified.
	One masters the dharmadhatu and equality wisdoms.
	These are the vajra kayas and those of enlightenment.

	As for the nature of passionlessness, arising from the four actions of these four immeasurables, the 
Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Those who have kindness completed by compassion
	If they do not desire to dwell in peace
	Why even to speak of worldly happiness
	Or the wish to further their lives and their careers?

As for their not desiring their own happiness, the same text says: 

	Compassion produces happiness for those who suffer.
	After the kind produce these others' happiness,
	Their own happiness is not produced like that.

As for overpowering their happiness for others, the same text says:

	The suffering produced by kindness
	Overwhelms all their worldly happiness.
	If the benefiter is without this,
	What greater wonders can be?

The Letter to Students says:

	For beings with unbearable sufferings, without a refuge
	Those who are happy to suffer for others' benefit,
	Are said to be wondrous beings who are truly excellent.
	Diligent ones who delight in striving to benefit others
	How shall they ever have enjoyments in happy countries?
	They will not attain to youth and happiness.
	They will not have the implements of power and wealth
	With no spouse or companions, not born among gods or asuras.

As for the action of samsara not arising, the former text says:

	The attitude of compassion is without the nature
	of egocentric suffering, the best sign of samsara.
	Completely knowing it one is not a sentient being.
	Nor will one be badly harmed by samsaric faults.

	Holy beings who have this immeasurably will be without faults.  The same text says:

	Those who have desire have corresponding faults.
	They will not be without them, nor beyond the world.
	Those who have this attitude, by their loving-kindness
	Will be without any faults and go beyond the world.

	Those who are kind to their literal fathers, mothers, and children have desire.  Bodhisattvas do not have such 
desires in regard to sentient beings.  This is because they are liberated from samsara.  The same text says:

	If worldly enlightened ones and the arhats
	Among the pratyekabuddhas are without this kindness,
	What need is there even to speak of any others?
	But world-transcending ones are not like that

	If one does not meditate on the four immeasurables, there will be many faults.  The same text says:

	A bodhisattva who possesses ill-will
	And malice due to pain and unhappiness
	And resulting from attachments of desire
	Is sure to come in contact with many faults.

	As for its being said that those who are born in the desire realms have the attachments of desire, those who are 
born in the first two realms of desire and form are said to have samsaric desire.  The Abhidharmakosha says:

	Those born in those two realms have attachments of samsaric desire.

As for the fault of increasing kleshas, in regard to this immeasurable the former text says:

		Kleshas conquer the self.  They conquer sentient beings.  They conquer discipline.  By 
receiving their corruption one is lowered, and stays that way.  By manifesting in that way one is 
degraded.  Do not listen to the arguments of others who will be beings without leisure.  Harmed by 
attaining and non-attaining, the mind will attain great suffering.

	Attainment damages the happiness of this life and non-attainment damages later happiness.  As for the benefits 
of meditating on the four immeasurables, one does not have such faults, one grasps the possibilities of benefiting beings, 
and since one is not whirled in samsara by the kleshas, suffering does not arise.  The same text says:

	For one who rests in kindness and the rest
	The faults that have been described will not arise.
	Having no kleshas, one will benefit beings,
	And will not pass into samsaric birth.

As for the praise of the virtues:

	Unequaled with limitless qualities, kindness and the rest
	Are given the highest praise by the teacher of gods and men.

	The Glorious Garland Sutra says:

	Whoever meditates on the four immeasurables
	Will be considered with kindness by all the tathagatas.
	All the immeasurable good qualities of this
	Are even more limitless than endless space itself

As for the teaching that the four immeasurables is the way of the victorious ones

As for the four immeasurables:

	Any path that is without them is in error.
	It is an evil path to take refuge in other teachings.
	The path that has them leads to spotless liberation.
	This is the way that was traveled by buddhas of the past.
	It also will be traveled by those who are to come.

	The Commentary of the Teacher of the Bhumis says:

	The four immeasurables are the path of liberation.  Others are wrong paths.

As for the teaching of how to attain the two ultimate realities. 

	The causal vehicles hold that as a seed produces a sprout,
	Upaya and prajqa are the producers of the two kayas.
	The fruition vehicles proclaim these as being mere conditions,
	Removing the two obscurations that veil these same two kayas.
	But since upaya depends on the limitless path of compassion,
	The meaning is the same:  Emptiness is compassionate.
	In that, both cause and fruition practice are in accord.

	The vehicles of characteristics mostly proclaim that the two accumulations are the producing cause of the two 
kayas.  The Sixty Stanzas on Reasoning says:

	By this merit all beings
	Accumulate merit and wisdom.
	Arising from merit and wisdom,
	May we attain the two absolutes.

	In the secret mantra, it is maintained that clearing away the two obscurations of the kayas occurs through 
practicing the two accumulations as upaya and prajqa, and therefore this is proclaimed to be a condition.  Both are in 
accord, since practice having the essence of emptiness and compassion is what is established.
	As for summarizing the meaning of this meditation:

	The sutras say that the unborn seeds of happiness
	Have existed primordially and never were created.
	The mantrayana is in accord with this, because it claims
	To clear away the incidental obscurations
	That are the primordial obscurations of trikaya.

	To summarize briefly, learned and accomplished ones
	Explain that sutra and tantra are a unity,
	As outer and inner aspects of a single path.

	Therefore, following after the holy buddha sons,
	We should strive to practice the four immeasurables.

	The final teaching says that the dhatu is naturally pure and possesses the buddha qualities primordially.  At the 
time of having practiced the path, the buddha qualities appear to arise, and are proclaimed to appear.  In the mantrayana 
all beings naturally exist as the mandala, as explained below.  Since these two are without distinction, it amounts to the 
same thing.  In the path, the two accumulations of upaya and prajqa are also the same.  In the fruitions, the kayas and 
wisdoms are the same.  Therefore former great masters like Padmasambhava have explained their relationship as inner 
and outer.  Therefore, we should strive to meditate on the four immeasurables.

The tenth part of the general meaning, the dedication of merit.

Now the merit is dedicated for the benefit of sentient beings:

	Thus by the nature of this peace that was so well-taught,
	When the roiling silt in the mind of all beings is pacified,
	Fatigued by having strayed into wrong and descending paths,
	May our minds today find ease for their weariness.

	By the power of this auspicious way of presenting the Dharma, like the host of undefiled rays of the autumn 
moon, may whatever beings are dwelling on the paths of the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas, and others dwelling on the 
paths of the heretics, and those who are wearied by dwelling on paths that are less than perfect, and all those worn out by 
dwelling on the great path of samsara, whose minds are disturbed by the roiling kleshas be completely pacified.  In the 
wondrously arisen grove of liberation, carpeted with an array of various flowers, in the pond of buddha qualities may they 
ease themselves.

	As when the full moon of autumn ornaments the sky
	Having a perfectly rounded, brilliantly shining disk,
	And hundreds of night-blooming lotuses open in its light
	May these fully blossom in the faith of sentient beings.

	Lapping the motionless Meru of a mind of sanity
	Is the play of the ocean of happiness and benefit.
	The four immeasurables are the ornaments of mind
	As the four continents adorn that central mountain.
	
	May happiness beautify the world to its farthest horizon.
	May beings without remainder perfect their livelihood.
	From the peaceful wreath of clouds of the play of the three levels,
	May the heavens wondrously open with the rain of happiness
	With flashing illumination and the thunder of victory
	May these four immeasurable benefits reach to the end of time.


VII  The Seventh Chapter, the Four Immeasurables

	Thus having gone to refuge, from the main topic, the path of mahayana, there are the two sections on producing 
the two bodhicittas of aspiring to and entering into the supreme mind of enlightenment.  Within that first there are the ten 
sections of the seventh chapter on the four immeasurables: 

A.  The description of and the teaching of meditation on the four Bhrama-viharas
B.  The particular teaching;
C.  The particular objects of meditation
D.  The faults of impure objects of meditation
E.  The real object of meditation
F.  The particular aspects; 
G.  How to meditate
H.  Other ways to meditate
I   The fruition of the meditation
J.  The dedication of merit.  

A.  The description of and the teaching of meditation on the four Bhrama-viharas

	Having gone to refuge, one meditates on the four immeasurables.  Therefore, that is taught next:

	Beings who become the vessels of dharma by taking refuge.
	Cultivate their minds to benefit sentient beings.
	Watered by equanimity in the cool shade of joy,
	Flowers of compassion will bloom in the soil of kindness.
	
	Here the example is a very pleasant garden-grove.  In the soil of kindness green and rich

[[snga dang snub pa destroy/suppress read sngo dang snum pa]] 

The various kinds of flowers of compassion open and bloom. In the cool shade of pleasant trees many birds and deer are 
present.  From the lake of equanimity, and ponds, and good springs, flow a collection of many streams, where travelers 
tired out by samsara can refresh themselves.  Weariness of mind is eased and cleansed away.  What is described is 
arranged in ornamental forms.  The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

	Subhuti, Here a bodhisattva mahasattva should meditate on kindness, compassion, great joy, and great 
equanimity.

B.  The particular teaching

	 As for the particular explanation of this and other things:
	
	When these four have not been joined to the path of freedom,
	These sources of sanity are causes of samsara.
	But when they are empowered by the path of peace,
	Then they manifest as the four immeasurables
	By which we can transcend the ocean of samsara.

	The Supreme Essence says:

		Shariputra, these four, by which, if genuine mind is not produced, it will not be produced 
later, kindness, compassion, joy, and equanimity, are the four bhrama-viharas.  They are accompanied 
by samsaric karmic formations.  They produce genuine mind.  The kindness, compassion, joy, and 
equanimity that are subsequently produced are called the four immeasurables.  This is because they also 
produce the path of nirvana.

C.  The teaching of the particular objects of meditation:
	
	Their scope is universal, both with and without objects.
	Encompassing both sentient beings and dharmata.

	The meditation-objects of the four immeasurables are all sentient beings, in the arising of four immeasurables 
with a mental object; and also the dharmata of all dharmas, with suchness as the meditation object, in the arising of the 
four immeasurables without a mental object.  The Bhumi-Collection says:

		With the support of sentient beings and dharmata respectively, the four immeasurables with 
and without a mental object arise.

D.  The faults of an impure meditation-object

	There are two parts.

1.  The faults of an impure meditation-object:

	The former concerns a limited number of sentient beings.
	Such impure objects are the cause of the Bhrama-viharas.

	The meditation objects of the four Bhrama-viharas are the arousing of these four mental phenomena, kindness 
and so forth, for a limited number of sentient beings, one, two, or whatever.  Here liberated mind is not achieved.  One to 
one kindness, like that of a woman crossing the river Ganges with her child, produces samsaric causation, such as the 
arising of the Bhrama-viharas.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	The fruition of this attitude arising for one person
	Is the Bhrama-viharas and so forth.

2.  The instruction to learn the liberating four immeasurables

	With the above-described awareness, these become the four immeasurables:
	
	Directed to liberation, these become objectless.
	This should be learned by those who are compassionate.
	Those who are unhappy or tormented by suffering,
	Or feel animosity to others, near or far,
	Through being preoccupied with happiness and wealth,
	Are objects of kindness, joy, compassion and equanimity
	
      Those desiring liberation should learn to meditate on phenomena in the manner of the four immeasurables.

E.  The real meditation object

	Now the meditation object of the four immeasurables is explained:

	Those who are unhappy or tormented by suffering,
	Feeling greed or hatred towards others, near or far,
	Through being preoccupied with happiness and wealth,
	Are objects of kindness, joy, compassion and equanimity

	The sentient beings taken as the meditation object of the four immeasurables are those who are not happy or are 
afflicted with suffering; and those who feel desire and aggression toward others nearby or far away because of their own 
pleasure, happiness, and wealth.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	The objects are those who desire happiness
	And those with happiness afflicted by suffering,
	And those who have the kleshas....

F.  the particular aspects

As for the particular aspects:

	The particular desires are that it may be workable
	That all beings may be happy, and also free from suffering;
	and that never parting from joy, they have equanimity.

	The object of these four immeasurables should be the wish that beings be without suffering and possess 
happiness; and that, not separated from joy, but leaving behind passion and aggression, their minds have only equanimity 
and kindness.  The same text says:

	I prostrate to you who are kind to sentient beings,
	Intending that they should not be blocked by conflict,
	Possessing as well the intention of non-separation,
	Who have the intent of goodness of benefit.

	The four immeasurables are free from what does not accord with the essence of each of them.  The same text 
says:

	May the objects abandon what does not fit with sanity.
	May they come to possess the wisdom of non-thought.
	May all sentient beings be completely ripened.

	As for abandoning partialities that do not fit with each one, the commentary of that same text mentions not 
conceptualizing self and others, good or bad, happiness, suffering, and in between.  Having abandoned them, benefit the 
object, sentient beings.
	As to how to enter into the object, those who merely do not have happiness are the object of equanimity.  In those 
who are tormented by suffering and possess passion and aggression there exists the cause and fruition of suffering.  
Therefore they are the object of suffering.  The objects of joy, happiness and goodness, are those who enter into these 
three.  That the four immeasurables have such dharmas as their objects is said in all the treatises.  In the four 
immeasurables that have the object of dharmata, the nature of these is realized as the unborn.  Moreover, in the tantras 
and their commentaries there is found the terminology of the four immeasurables which have not realized egolessness, 
which half-way and dualistically realize it, and those realizing two fold egolessness.  The Bodhisattva-bhumi says:

		That with sentient beings as object, is an object in common with heretics.  That with dharmas 
as object is in common with shravakas, and pratyekabuddhas.  That with no object, is not in common 
with anyone.

	These arise with the object of sentient beings, dharmas, and with no object.  Explaining the arising of these four 
in terms of the six aspects that do not correspond with the six paramitas, the Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Kindness to the miserly, and to vicious unsuitable ones,
	Kindness to the irascible, and to the unconscientious.
	Kindness to whose who are motivated by external objects,
	And kindness to those who are strongly inclined to wrong attachments.

Explaining the ten objects for which they are produced, the same text says:

	One who comes into the power of the fiercely blazing enemy
	One covered with suffering who is obscured with darkness.
	All who are dwelling on paths that are difficult to travel.
	Those who really have fetters that are very great.
	Those attached to spiritual food that is mixed with poison.
	Those who become completely lost upon the path.
	Those of little energy who have gone far astray,
	It is being kind to people such as these.

1.)  Those who blaze with the kleshas as if they were in a fire
2.)  Those for whom obstacles of Mara have arisen, even though they have entered the path
3.)  Those of the three lower realms
4.)  Those with stupidity and delusion about karma, cause, and effect
5.)  Those who have entered wrong paths
6.)  Those who are really bound by the knots of the kleshas
7.)  Those who relish the taste of the bliss of samadhi
8.)  Those who dwell on the paths of shravakas
9.)  Those who dwell on the paths of pratyekabuddhas
10.) Neophyte bodhisattvas.

	These four immeasurables arise with four conditions.

1.)  The naturally existing family or dhatu is the causal condition.
2.)  The spiritual friend who teaches the instructions of the four immeasurables is the dominant condition.
3.)  The manifestation of one's particular object is the object-condition.
4.)  Previous acquaintance with the benefits of meditating on the four immeasurables and the harm of not doing so is the 
immediately preceding condition.

The former text says:

	From the causes of that happiness and suffering
	Comes the kindness of the bodhisattva.
	Along with those causes, from the spiritual friend
	And from one's natural attitude rises compassion.

The Abhidharmakosha says:

	By four conditions there are mind and mental events.
	By three conditions there are the two samapattis.
	Others things arise from only two conditions.

	Mind and mental events are produced by four conditions, the cause, predominating, immediately preceding and 
object conditions.  Samapatti is produced by three, the cause, predominating, and immediately preceding conditions. 
Material things arise from two, a cause, such as the seed, and a predominant conditions, such as water and manure.

G.  How to meditate

	There are four sections

1.  Equanimity meditation

	There are thirteen sections.

a.  The purpose of equanimity meditation

	Now, as to how to meditate, one is purely and definitely concerned with these alone:

	These do not have to be practiced in any one fixed order,
	But, even so, beginners should start with equanimity.
	Having developed this toward those both far and near,
	Then they should meditate upon the other three.
	
	First we should compose ourselves, putting ourselves at ease.  This is because if we do not bring everything near 
and far into equanimity, it is difficult for the other three to arise.  Therefore, first we meditate on equanimity.  The master 
Jqanagarbha says in his Ornament of the Middle Way

	Crossing with equanimity to the land of goodness,
	Like a meadow covered with blossoming flowers of kindness,
	Well-adorned with the cooling protective shade of compassion.
	The water of joy will be pure, and not disturbed and muddied.

The Two Examinations says:

	First we should meditate on kindness,
	Second we should turn to compassion
	Third we should meditate on joy,
	And last of all equanimity.

	This is from the viewpoint a teacher joined with inner divine suchness.  For them it is easy first to produce the 
arising of the other three, kindness and so forth.

b.  The meditation object of equanimity

Now, to explain equanimity meditation:

	Since the meditational object is all sentient beings,
	We should examine our minds to how we are doing.
	If we love our mothers and fathers and our friends,
	But hate our enemies, our attitude is bad.

	If there is any sentient being that we make our friend or enemy, this loving and hating is not proper.

c.  Remembering the kindness of the object of equanimity

In samsara:

	While we have been wandering without beginning or end,
	Even such enemies have been our fathers and mothers.
They were formerly friendly and gave their help to us.
	Shall we now cultivate malice to return their kindness?

	It is not right to repay with harm those who formerly benefited us.  The Dulwa Lung says:

	Returning good for good is excellent.
	Returning harm or indifference is wrong.

d.  Equanimity meditation on uncertainty 

For many generations:

	Even these friends were enemies and did us harm.
	Even now that suffering is still infecting us.
	How can it be right to repay this with benefit?
	And those who are neither now were once both friends and enemies.
	Where benefit and harm are without certainty
	Loving and hating are irrationality.

	If it is not suitable to benefit an enemy who has done us harm, our friends in former generations did us harm, 
and even now, as a result, suffering still defiles us.  Just this produces our loving and hating.  Why repay that with benefit? 
 As for beings who are indifferent to us now, if we think about it, whether they did us benefit or harm before or which they 
will do later is not certain.  Therefore we should produce equanimity for those who are far and near.  The Prajqaparamita 
in Twenty Thousand Verses says:

		Subhuti, all sentient beings are mutually equal, and you should produce an attitude of 
equanimity.

e.  The meditation on equanimity

	For this reason:

	Therefore, start by regarding friends and relatives
	With neither love nor hate, as we would those who are neutral.
	Then we should give up hatred, being neutral to our enemies.
	When we do this, near and far are non-existent.

	Thus we should equalize friends and enemies as indifferent.

f.  Equanimity meditation to benefit sentient beings:

	To be rid of the mental darkness that comes from fixating neutrality,
	Eliminate habits of thinking of beings in terms of the kleshas.
	Meditate on phenomena in freedom from samsara.

	Subsequently may kleshas be completely pacified with regard to all sentient beings, starting with our enemies 
and friends.  May love and hate never arise.  May our minds become mutually workable.

g.  Equanimity about getting and losing, by meditating on them as one:

	All who want happiness want to eliminate suffering.
	But their ignorance courses in the cause of suffering.

	Those who truly want joy for themselves do not desire what is painful.  Since all beings are like that, how can 
malevolence toward them be appropriate?  Desire, even desire for happiness, is a cause of suffering.  We should eliminate 
this unwholesome approach.

h.  The real object of equanimity

	Kye ma!  If only the draining host of kleshas of sentient beings,
	With all their habitual patterns, were equalized in peace.
	May it come about that all embodied beings, 
	Tormented by their violent loves and raging hatreds,
	Are free from either clinging or animosity,
	For all either near or far feeling equanimity.

	May all the kleshas of sentient beings be pacified.  In particular, after the fires of love and hate are pacified, 
without near and far, may our minds become workable.

i.  Expanding the object of equanimity:

	Having contemplated on one being in this way,
	Then going further, do the same with two or three.
	Go on to a country, and then to a continent.
	Then having contemplated all the four continents,
	Try one or two thousand worlds--we should consider them all.
	The training is complete when self is the same as others,
	And enemies and friends are seen with equality.

	Beginners should meditate on friends and enemies as neutral without regret.  Then from one, two, three, beings 
and so forth, we should go on to our whole town and then our country, its continent, and finally all of this world 
Jambuling.  Then from the continent of videha and so forth go on and meditate on a thousand, two, three, and all the 
world systems.  Also first meditate on human beings, and then on animals and so forth as being equal.

j.  The measure of having trained in equanimity within one's being

Within onuss being:

	The training is complete when either self or others,
	Or enemies and friends, are seen with equality.

	For anyone who has attained this attitude, jealousy and enmity will not arise, since they will be hindered by the 
arising of equality.

k.  Post-meditation in equanimity meditation

Then after a session of meditating with that object:

	Then go on to the equanimity without object.
	Everything is mind, whose nature is like the sky.
	Rest in this emptiness, the unborn absolute,
	Free from complexities of mental phenomena.

	The objects to be meditated upon, these appearances of sentient beings, are like a reflection, appearing while they 
do not exist, unborn by nature.  Rest in mindfulness of this.  Though we are attached to the skandhas as being grasped 
objects and a fixating ego other than these, both are false.  This is like thinking that a reflection in a mirror is a face.  
What does not exist appears, depending on the skandhas.  The Precious Mala says:

	Though depending on a shining mirror
	Reflections of oneself and others appear,
	All such vivid images as these
	In actuality do not exist.

	Likewise, in dependence on the skandhas,
	Ego is perceived and firmly grasped.
	Like the reflected image of one's face,
	Really it does not exist at all.

	As without depending on a mirror,
	No reflected natures will appear,
	If there is no dependence on the skandhas,
	Ego-grasping too will disappear.

	By their nature, if the skandhas are grasped as an ego, karma exists.  Since from karma birth exists, by intervals 
old age and death will also exist.  When we do not grasp the skandhas, all this is reversed.  The same text says:

	As long as the skandhas are being grasped at all
	So long will they be grasped as truly being an ego.
	If there is ego-grasping, there is also karma.
	As a result of that, there also will be birth.

	The three kinds of action have no beginning, end, or middle 
	The mandala of samsara, like a whirling fire-brand,
	Has recursive causes, so it will keep on whirling.
	But if the cause of that were not to be established,

	Conceptions of self and other and distinctions of the three times,
	The context of ego grasping would be entirely exhausted.
	Therefore karma and birth will be extinguished too,
	And likewise cause and fruition, will simply cease to be.

	Having seen the exhaustion of these, in the world of truth
	There is no thought of existence, no thought of non-existence.

	Therefore all dharmas, without an I or any object to grasp, should be known to be non-existent, like a reflection.

The benefits of equanimity meditation

	The measure of being well-trained by meditating in this way, is that realization of profound peace arises and 
realization of the nature of all dharmas as primordially unborn equality.  The All-Creating King says:

	Within the unthinking enlightenment of dharmata,
	By resting in non-duality, wisdom will arise.

l.  The fruition of equanimity

Of this meditation:

	The fruition is that for mind, undisturbed by near and far,
	There is the spontaneous presence of the natural state.
	This is the actual nature of reality.

	When the relativity of self and other, near and far, is non-existent; the absolute, non-dual dharmata, will be 
realized.  When we are used to this, we should perform the meditation of primordial kindness.

2.  Meditation on kindness

	There are five sections.

a.  Increasing kindness

As explained above:

	After the mind has developed this equanimity,
	Think of the happiness that you want for your mother.
	Then contemplate all embodied beings in just that way.

 	When the mind has been equalized, just as one feels kindness towards one's father and mother, one should 
meditate on all sentient beings, placing the mind in the attitude one has toward one's father and mother.  The 
Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand lines says:

	One should meditate with an attitude of kindness, not letting it be ravished away by the shravakas and 
pratyekabuddhas.

b.  The object of kindness

How to do this?:

	The object of conceptual kindness is all beings.
	It wants to accomplish for these various sentient beings,
	The incidental happiness of gods and human beings,
	As well as the ultimate happiness of enlightenment.
	Move from meditating on a single being
	Up to all beings within the limits of the directions.

	When unhappy sentient beings are seen, may they meet incidentally with the happiness of gods and human 
beings, and ultimately with the happiness of buddhahood.  Thinking that, one should go from one to meditating on all 
sentient beings as limitless as the space of the sky.  The Middle Length
Prajqaparamita says:

		When we see sentient beings who have no happiness, we should imagine to ourselves as 
follows, "May these sentient beings attain the god realm, where the happiness of the gods is perfect."

c.  The sign of training in kindness

	As for training:

	The sign of success is supreme and all-pervading kindness.
	Greater than a mother's love for her only child.

	Whatever sentient beings are seen one is pleased and with a great kind longing, one wants to benefit them.

d.  Kindness without object

	After meditating on kindness with an object:

	Then rest everything in equanimity.
	This is the great kindness without a reference point.
	The sign is the unity of kindness and emptiness.

	The object of meditation on kindness is sentient beings, arising from the gathering together of the six elements.  
These elements are 

1.) earth
2.) water
3.) fire
4.) air
5.) space
6.) consciousness.

	If these are examined their coarse atoms, subtle real nature, and pure consciousness do not exist as real things.  
Meditate, thinking that they are like space.  The Ratnavali says:

	People are not earth and are not water.
	Neither are they fire, air, nor space,
	Nor are they consciousness, nor all of these.
	A person is something different from this.
	Since persons are gathered from the six elements,
	They are not real, and here is the reason why.
	A gathered nature cannot be something real.
	The skandhas are not the ego, nor ego the skandhas.
	Yet neither would be there without the other.

Also:

	At the time when things cannot be found
	At that time there is pure thinglessness
	Things of form are simply non-existent,
	Even space is nothing but a name.

	Without arising, form is superfluous,
	Therefore, even its name does not exist.
	Feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness
	Seem to arise and be thought of as an ego.
	But without the six elements, there can be no ego.

	Why does it not exist?  When sentient beings appear, if we examine their bodily nature, it does not exist.  Neither 
the support or supported of consciousness is seen, so the "me" and the "mine" are not perceived.  When analyzed they 
vanish, essentially empty.  The same text says:

	Just as if the layers of a plantain tree 
	Are all destroyed, then nothing is there at all
	People too, if all the parts of their nature
	Should be destroyed, would likewise disappear.
	All dharmas are without a self, and therefore,
	That is what the victorious ones have taught.

	This mere appearance of seeing and hearing is neither true nor false, since truth and falsity are correspondence 
to a pattern of dharmas in the mind.  The same text says:

	Just by being able to see and hear and so forth,
	It is taught there neither true nor false.

Also it says there:

	This world transcends both truth and falsity.

	Thus all dharmas are beyond truth and falsity, like a plantain or banana tree.  This is also taught in the 
Samadhiraja Sutra:

	Just as with the moist leafy trunks of plantain trees
	Wanting to find the essence, people tear them up,
	But nowhere inside or out is an essence to be found.
	All the various dharmas should be known to be like that.

	The sign of good training is that while kindness arises, at the same time there arises the realization that beings, 
like a plantain tree essentially have no self or nature.

e.  The fruition of meditating on kindness

What is the fruition?:

	The visible result is experience of pure pleasure.

	Seeing sentient beings is pleasurable, and the
beings, when they are seen, are cleansed of disturbances of love and hate and so forth.

	The Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines says:

		Those who have an attitude of kindness meditate a great deal, and when they see the sentient 
beings inhabiting the world, it is pleasurable.  They have no anger.

	Also immeasurable merit is attained.  The Sutra of the Great Liberation Blossoming in the Ten Directions says:

	Though someone in the world keeps discipline pure for a kalpa,
	An instant of joy produced by kindness is better than that.

	If one in this world does evil in body speech and mind,
	Though they fall to the lower realms, by that kindness it has an end.

3.  Compassion

	There are seven sections.

a.  Thinking about the sufferings of sentient beings

Now compassion is taught:

	After encompassing all beings within this kindness.
	Think of their sufferings, arousing such a compassion
	As when your mind cannot endure your parents' suffering.

	If our kind parents for our sake did evil deeds and were tormented by the sufferings of the three lower realms and 
so forth, we would think, "I should be compassionate to them."  The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		If we see sentient beings who are suffering, we will think, "May these sentient beings be freed 
from suffering."

b.  How to meditate on Compassion

	As for how to meditate:

	Think how our parents, who were so kind to us,
	Suffered by doing evil actions for our sake,
	With hunger, thirst and heat and cold and even murder.
	They are sinking down into the raging sea,
	Of birth and old age, of sickness and of death,
	Exhausted by the great variety of sufferings.

	Because they did evil deeds for our sake, now they are tormented by their particular sufferings.

c.  The main topic of compassion

	From this present suffering:

	Though they want liberation, they have no peace of mind.
	There is no spiritual friend to show the proper path.
	How pitiable is their limitless wandering in samsara.
	Having seen it, can I forsake and abandon them?

	The beings of samsara are suffering and know no way of being liberated.  Except for a very few spiritual friends, 
there is no one to teach them all the path of liberation.  None of these beings who now suffer without limit in samsara, 
formerly was not my father, mother, relative, and friend.  As for just abandoning them without a refuge or protector, they 
are my family, father, and mother!  That is how we should think.


[[[The Letter to Students says:

	For whomever has got in this situation and remains
	Whoever with careful kindness receives this cautiously,
	Will have no instance of suffering from these kleshas, and discarding them,
	If to beings one is bad-tempered and, who is better off?

d.  The reason of compassion

the reason:

	Then we should think from the very depths of our heart and bones,
	"May all beings be freed in a moment from their sufferings,
	By means of our bodies and enjoyment of our wealth,
	And any happiness that is ours throughout the three times."

	Thus may all our enjoyment and happiness be transferred to other beings and having been freed from suffering, 
may they forever enjoy immeasurable happiness.  One should think that from the depths of one's heart.  The 
Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines says:

		With that vast mind possessing the great compassion, all shravakas and pratyekabuddhas 
should meditate in this extraordinary way.

e.  The sign of training in compassion

	When training in this meditation, as we go from one sentient being to all, the sign is that the suffering of beings, 
arising within us, becomes unbearable.

e.  The post-meditation of compassion meditation

	After all sessions of meditating like this on compassion with objects:

	Then meditate on compassion without a reference point.
	The sign is the unity of compassion and emptiness.

	If the objects of compassion, sentient beings, are examined and analyzed, they are natureless like the appearance 
of water in a mirage.  No water is really there.  That is how we should think.  The Samadhiraja-sutra says:

	As when the summer sun is at its peak,
	Persons tormented by thirst and other beings
	With their skandhas see water in a mirage.
	All dharmas should be known to be like that.

The Ratnavali says:

	As water in a mirage
	Is neither water nor real,
	Egos in the skandhas
	Are neither there nor real.

	That water is a mirage.
	If so, then why go there?
	If that water is non-existent,
	Grasping it is stupid.

	Existing like an illusion,
	This world is non-existent."
	The grasper of it is stupid,
	And if so, will not be free.

Also it says there:

	As these two reasons are true,
	Nothing comes, goes, or stays.
	So our suffering too is gone.

Also it says there:

	The buddhas' teaching is deathless and never changes.
	It is beyond existence and non-existence.
	Therefore, it is explained to be like that.

	After we understand the nature of all dharmas through meditation, emptiness and compassion are unified.  This 
is how practice is done on the true path.  If either of these two is absent, one strays from the path.  The Dohakosha says:

	If without compassion we dwell in emptiness
	Gaining nothing we will not gain the highest path.
	But if we solely meditate upon compassion,
	We will never be free from dwelling in samsara.

	Those who have the power of joining both of these
	Will not dwell in samsara and nor yet within nirvana.

f.  The fruition of meditating on compassion

Of meditating in this way:

	The fruition is a mind without injurious malice,
	Workable by its establishment in primordial purity.

	One attains a workable mind without malice and harm.  Therefore the Buddha's enlightenment will be 
established.

The Supreme Essence says:

	By the great compassion the mind becomes workable, and deathless, and attains the supreme ornament 
of delight.

3.  The meditation of joy,

	There are six sections

a.  The purpose of meditating on joy

	Now joy will be explained.  As just explained:
	
	After beings are steeped in compassion, and each is happy,
	Then we should go further and meditate on joy.

	If we see happy sentient beings, we should meditate on joy.  The Prajqaparamita in 20,000 Lines says:

	Whenever we see sentient beings joined to their particular happiness, we should think, "May they be 
inseparable from this happiness.  May they possess the happiness of omniscience, beyond that of gods 
and human beings.

b.  The object of meditation on joy

	How?

	The proper object of joy is happy sentient beings.
	The content is thinking, "E ma!  there is no need
	For me to try to establish these beings in happiness.
	Each of them has gained their proper happiness.
	Until they attain the essence of enlightenment,
	May they never be parted from this happiness."
	First think of one, then meditate on all of them.

	Go like that from meditating on one happy sentient being to all of them.

c.  The measure of joy

	As for the measure of training:

	The sign is the arising of joy that is free from envy.

	Ultimate joy has no envy for the wealth of others.

d.  The essence of joy

	After a session of meditating on conceptual joy:

	Then meditate on joy without a reference point.

	Meditate on the objects of joy, all sentient beings, as appearing while they do not exist, like an illusion.  The 
Samadhiraja Sutra says:

	Just as in the midst of many sentient beings
	Magicians may emanate illusory forms of things,
	But the horses and chariots, and elephants that they conjure
	Do not exist at all in they way that they appear,
	Every dharma should be known to be like that.

The Ratnavali says:

	A secret from people in general,
	Is this very deep Dharma teaching
	The amrita of Buddha's teaching
	That the world is like illusion.

	Just as illusory elephants
	Appear to arise and vanish,
	While in truth and reality
	Nothing arises and vanishes,

	Likewise this world of illusion,
	Appearing to rise and vanish,
	In the real and absolute truth,
	Neither rises nor is destroyed.

	As an illusory elephant
	Coming from nothing goes nowhere;
	By exhausting mind's obscuration,
	It really, truly is gone.

	This world, just like that elephant,
	Coming from nothing goes nowhere;
	By exhausting the mind's obscuration,
	It really, truly is gone.

	The nature beyond the three times;
	And existence and non-existence,
	Not realizing them all as mere labels;
	How will someone possess the nature?

e.  The virtues of joy:

	In meditating in this way, by the joy of the natural state:

	Body, speech and mind have spontaneous peace and bliss.

	This is the measure.

f.  The fruition of meditating on joy:

	By the wealth of the fruition joy is stabilized.

	The Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines says:

		Immeasurably vast, joyful mind is never taken from us.  With this unsurpassable perfection 
we attain the heights.

H.  Further explanation of the way of meditating,

	There are seven sections

1.  the details of meditation after this is familiar,

	Now the way of meditating will be further explained.  As explained above:

	After this is familiar, then, beginning with kindness,
	Meditate on all four, one right after the next,
	Gradually breaking attachment to any of the four.
	
	Sometimes meditate on these four in order, as an antidote to liberate them into purity.

2.  How to stop obstacles to kindness with compassion:

	If kindness attaches you intimately to all beings,
	Compassion breaks attachment to the cause and effect of suffering.

	If sometimes one becomes permanently attached to other sentient beings as one's father and mother, a second 
meditation on compassion will serve as an antidote.

3.  How to stop obstacles to compassion with joy:

	When a lesser compassion attaches to reference points,
	Sadness is stopped by the joy that has no reference point.

	When there is attachment to compassion as an individually characterized phenomenon, illusion-like, objectless 
joy will clear away all sadness and attachment.

4.  How to stop obstacles to joy with equanimity:

	When joy disturbs the mind by arousing anxiety 
	Then we should meditate on the great equanimity,
	Free from all desire for anything near or far.

	If we are sad because of longing for joy in the happiness of others, it will be cleared away by meditating on 
objectless equanimity.

5.  Stopping the obstacles to equanimity with kindness:

	When equanimity is neutral and indecisive,
	Meditate on kindness and so forth, as before.
	Training in that way grows stable and effortless.

	If everything seems to become indifferent, arouse kindness and meditate on that.
	These are the general antidotes.  In particular, as an antidote for each object, meditate as taught in the 
corresponding objectless way.  By meditating in that way, one will attain immeasurable peace within one's being and 
quickly attain stability.

6.  The way of meditating when we have become increasingly familiar:

	Yogins for whom this practice is fully stabilized
	May meditate in a different order, or jump about.

	After the four immeasurables are stabilized, so that their benefits may arise, after kindness, we may meditate on 
the others in order, or after equanimity go back and meditate without any particular order.  That is, after meditating 
serially on kindness, compassion, joy, and equanimity, after equanimity, meditating on compassion and kindness is the 
lesser.  After kindness, meditating on joy is the middle.  After equanimity meditating on kindness is the greatest.  Jumping 
directly up and down after resting between objects is the meditation.  The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		Subhuti, then meditate on kindness.  Meditate on joy.  Rest in compassion, Practice 
equanimity.

7.  The virtues of meditating in this way

	What is the purpose?

	By that the meditation will gain the advantage of freshness.
	Its steadiness will grow to the very greatest degree.

	In particular the mind of the four immeasurables will gain freshness, unsteadiness will be steadied, and 
steadiness will become supremely great steadiness.

I.  The fruition

	There are ten parts.

1.  How the higher realms and truth and goodness are established

	Now, as for the teaching of the fruition of the four immeasurables, the following words explain how it is:

	There are four fruitions of doing this meditation.
	By ripening we gain the exalted and truly good.
	In the desire realm we have a divine or human body,
	In a situation producing happiness and benefit.

		Those who do not attain an exalted state attain the body of a god or a human being.  They perfect the 
two accumulations, benefit beings, and become inseparable from the four immeasurables.  Even if they are 
careless or fall asleep, they will not fall prey to serious harm.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Having the mind of these four Bhrama-viharas
	We will always take birth in realm of desire.
	Because these perfect the two accumulations,
	They produce ripening for sentient beings.
	Never separated from purity
	And free from what does not accord with it,
	The condition of future carelessness and mishap,
	Impatience, too, will never be found there.

	As the ultimate fruition, enlightenment is established.  The same text says:

	What is harmful is banished, and happiness is produced.
	With the seed of enlightenment, and the cause of longing desire,
	The essence ripens; and sons of the Victorious One
	Relying on Dharma, are not far from the light.

	Abandoning what is harmful is a fruition of separation.
Producing the seed of liberation is a fruition of the predominant condition of empowerment by the master.  Because one 
produces happiness for others, being patient about our own trials and hardships is a produced fruition.  By meditating on 
these four within this life, they ripen in other lives as a fruition according with the cause.  The nature of these four 
immeasurables always arises in sons of the Victorious One.  It is born from previous familiarity, from seeing its objects, 
and by seeing the faults of what does not conform to them.  The same text says:

	This kindness, having the nature of compassion
	Attains the nature and discrimination
	By formerly having become familiar with that
	And seeing it spoiled by what does not accord.

2.  The benefits of according with the cause

	From the two sections of the fruition according with the cause:

a.  General

	From according to the cause, such action is self-performing.
	The happiness attained is free from contrary experience.

	 By action according with the cause, we always spend our time meditating on the four immeasurables.  By 
experience according with the cause malice, harmfulness, unhappiness, passion, loving and hating will be absent.  As for 
the benefits of the power of this

b.  The decisive condition or power:

	The power is birth in a pleasant, happy, and joyful country,
	Where there are compatible people and amenities of wealth. 

	By kindness one is born in a pleasant country, by compassion in a happy one, and by joy in a joyful one with 
many flowers, medicinal herbs, and so forth.  By equanimity one is born among many compatible people and is without 
harm.

3.  The benefits of performing this

The person:

	By performing this these four will grow immensely greater.
	The wealth of the two benefits becomes spontaneous.

	By performing this, the four immeasurables will increase immensely, growing greater and greater.  By that the 
wealth of the two benefits for oneself and others will become spontaneously present.  By the increase in merit of the karma 
of meditating on the four immeasurables, happiness and goodness will be established.

4.  The benefit of kindness:

	When perfect enjoyment of kindness is without aggression,
	Then the mirror-like wisdom will have been fully attained,
	As sambhogakaya adorned with the major and minor marks.

	After kindness has transformed aggression into the mirror-like wisdom, one attains sambhogakaya.  The Lotus 
Peak says:

	By kindness aggression will be purified
	As mirror-like wisdom and sambhogakaya.

5.  The benefit of compassion:

	When compassion is desireless, there is dharmakaya,
	Producing the manifestation of discriminating wisdom.
	Its dharmas like the ten powers are utterly distinct.

	Compassion pure of desire is discriminating awareness wisdom and dharmakaya.  The same text says:

	By compassion desire is fully purified
	As discriminating wisdom and ultimate dharmakaya.

6.  The benefits of joy:

	When joy eliminates jealousy, there is nirmanakaya.
	The holy all-accomplishing wisdom is attained.
	Nirmanakaya is nothing fixed, but of various forms.
	This self-existing kaya is spontaneous buddha activity.

	By immeasurable joy one attains the all-accomplishing wisdom, whose nature is perfect buddha activity.  
Purifying jealousy makes nirmanakaya manifest.  The same text says:

	By joy all jealousy is fully purified,
	As all-accomplishing wisdom and nirmanakaya.
	Action becomes spontaneous and excellent.

7.  The benefits of equanimity:

	When equanimity has eliminated pride
	As well as stupidity, there is the essence of things
	Through equality dharmadhatu wisdom will manifest.
	The simplicity of dharmata is svabhavikakaya.

	When equanimity has purified pride and ignorance, the wisdom of equality and the dharmadhatu wisdom are 
established.  Svabhavikakaya, the unchanging vajrakaya and the kaya of the manifestation of enlightenment manifest.  
The same text says:

	By equanimity and great equanimity
	Pride and envy and ignorance will be purified.
	One masters the dharmadhatu and equality wisdoms.
	These are the vajra kayas and those of enlightenment.

	As for the nature of passionlessness, arising from the four actions of these four immeasurables, the 
Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Those who have kindness completed by compassion
	If they do not desire to dwell in peace
	Why even to speak of worldly happiness
	Or the wish to further their lives and their careers?

As for their not desiring their own happiness, the same text says: 

	Compassion produces happiness for those who suffer.
	After the kind produce these others' happiness,
	Their own happiness is not produced like that.

As for overpowering their happiness for others, the same text says:

	The suffering produced by kindness
	Overwhelms all their worldly happiness.
	If the benefiter is without this,
	What greater wonders can be?

The Letter to Students says:

	For beings with unbearable sufferings, without a refuge
	Those who are happy to suffer for others' benefit,
	Are said to be wondrous beings who are truly excellent.
	Diligent ones who delight in striving to benefit others
	How shall they ever have enjoyments in happy countries?
	They will not attain to youth and happiness.
	They will not have the implements of power and wealth
	With no spouse or companions, not born among gods or asuras.

As for the action of samsara not arising, the former text says:

	The attitude of compassion is without the nature
	of egocentric suffering, the best sign of samsara.
	Completely knowing it one is not a sentient being.
	Nor will one be badly harmed by samsaric faults.

	Holy beings who have this immeasurably will be without faults.  The same text says:

	Those who have desire have corresponding faults.
	They will not be without them, nor beyond the world.
	Those who have this attitude, by their loving-kindness
	Will be without any faults and go beyond the world.

	Those who are kind to their literal fathers, mothers, and children have desire.  Bodhisattvas do not have such 
desires in regard to sentient beings.  This is because they are liberated from samsara.  The same text says:

	If worldly enlightened ones and the arhats
	Among the pratyekabuddhas are without this kindness,
	What need is there even to speak of any others?
	But world-transcending ones are not like that

	If one does not meditate on the four immeasurables, there will be many faults.  The same text says:

	A bodhisattva who possesses ill-will
	And malice due to pain and unhappiness
	And resulting from attachments of desire
	Is sure to come in contact with many faults.

	As for its being said that those who are born in the desire realms have the attachments of desire, those who are 
born in the first two realms of desire and form are said to have samsaric desire.  The Abhidharmakosha says:

	Those born in those two realms have attachments of samsaric desire.

As for the fault of increasing kleshas, in regard to this immeasurable the former text says:

		Kleshas conquer the self.  They conquer sentient beings.  They conquer discipline.  By 
receiving their corruption one is lowered, and stays that way.  By manifesting in that way one is 
degraded.  Do not listen to the arguments of others who will be beings without leisure.  Harmed by 
attaining and non-attaining, the mind will attain great suffering.

	Attainment damages the happiness of this life and non-attainment damages later happiness.  As for the benefits 
of meditating on the four immeasurables, one does not have such faults, one grasps the possibilities of benefiting beings, 
and since one is not whirled in samsara by the kleshas, suffering does not arise.  The same text says:

	For one who rests in kindness and the rest
	The faults that have been described will not arise.
	Having no kleshas, one will benefit beings,
	And will not pass into samsaric birth.

As for the praise of the virtues:

	Unequaled with limitless qualities, kindness and the rest
	Are given the highest praise by the teacher of gods and men.

	The Glorious Garland Sutra says:

	Whoever meditates on the four immeasurables
	Will be considered with kindness by all the tathagatas.
	All the immeasurable good qualities of this
	Are even more limitless than endless space itself

As for the teaching that the four immeasurables is the way of the victorious ones

As for the four immeasurables:

	Any path that is without them is in error.
	It is an evil path to take refuge in other teachings.
	The path that has them leads to spotless liberation.
	This is the way that was traveled by buddhas of the past.
	It also will be traveled by those who are to come.

	The Commentary of the Teacher of the Bhumis says:

	The four immeasurables are the path of liberation.  Others are wrong paths.

As for the teaching of how to attain the two ultimate realities. 

	The causal vehicles hold that as a seed produces a sprout,
	Upaya and prajqa are the producers of the two kayas.
	The fruition vehicles proclaim these as being mere conditions,
	Removing the two obscurations that veil these same two kayas.
	But since upaya depends on the limitless path of compassion,
	The meaning is the same:  Emptiness is compassionate.
	In that, both cause and fruition practice are in accord.

	The vehicles of characteristics mostly proclaim that the two accumulations are the producing cause of the two 
kayas.  The Sixty Stanzas on Reasoning says:

	By this merit all beings
	Accumulate merit and wisdom.
	Arising from merit and wisdom,
	May we attain the two absolutes.

	In the secret mantra, it is maintained that clearing away the two obscurations of the kayas occurs through 
practicing the two accumulations as upaya and prajqa, and therefore this is proclaimed to be a condition.  Both are in 
accord, since practice having the essence of emptiness and compassion is what is established.
	As for summarizing the meaning of this meditation:

	The sutras say that the unborn seeds of happiness
	Have existed primordially and never were created.
	The mantrayana is in accord with this, because it claims
	To clear away the incidental obscurations
	That are the primordial obscurations of trikaya.

	To summarize briefly, learned and accomplished ones
	Explain that sutra and tantra are a unity,
	As outer and inner aspects of a single path.

	Therefore, following after the holy buddha sons,
	We should strive to practice the four immeasurables.

	The final teaching says that the dhatu is naturally pure and possesses the buddha qualities primordially.  At the 
time of having practiced the path, the buddha qualities appear to arise, and are proclaimed to appear.  In the mantrayana 
all beings naturally exist as the mandala, as explained below.  Since these two are without distinction, it amounts to the 
same thing.  In the path, the two accumulations of upaya and prajqa are also the same.  In the fruitions, the kayas and 
wisdoms are the same.  Therefore former great masters like Padmasambhava have explained their relationship as inner 
and outer.  Therefore, we should strive to meditate on the four immeasurables.

The tenth part of the general meaning, the dedication of merit.

Now the merit is dedicated for the benefit of sentient beings:

	Thus by the nature of this peace that was so well-taught,
	When the roiling silt in the mind of all beings is pacified,
	Fatigued by having strayed into wrong and descending paths,
	May our minds today find ease for their weariness.

	By the power of this auspicious way of presenting the Dharma, like the host of undefiled rays of the autumn 
moon, may whatever beings are dwelling on the paths of the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas, and others dwelling on the 
paths of the heretics, and those who are wearied by dwelling on paths that are less than perfect, and all those worn out by 
dwelling on the great path of samsara, whose minds are disturbed by the roiling kleshas be completely pacified.  In the 
wondrously arisen grove of liberation, carpeted with an array of various flowers, in the pond of buddha qualities may they 
ease themselves.

	As when the full moon of autumn ornaments the sky
	Having a perfectly rounded, brilliantly shining disk,
	And hundreds of night-blooming lotuses open in its light
	May these fully blossom in the faith of sentient beings.

	Lapping the motionless Meru of a mind of sanity
	Is the play of the ocean of happiness and benefit.
	The four immeasurables are the ornaments of mind
	As the four continents adorn that central mountain.
	
	May happiness beautify the world to its farthest horizon.
	May beings without remainder perfect their livelihood.
	From the peaceful wreath of clouds of the play of the three levels,
	May the heavens wondrously open with the rain of happiness
	With flashing illumination and the thunder of victory
	May these four immeasurable benefits reach to the end of time.



The Commentary on Chapter Eight:  Producing the Mind of Complete Enlightenment

	After the mind has been well trained by the four immeasurable aspirations, we enter the essence of the ocean of 
the activity of the buddha sons, our chief topic,

VIII bodhicitta, the mind focused on supreme enlightenment.

	There are three general topics.

A.  The teaching of meditating on the root of all dharmas, the two bodhicittas
B  The extensive explanation of how actually to arouse bodhicitta
C. The dedication of merit.

A. The teaching of meditating on the root of all dharmas, the two bodhicittas

	Now arousing the mind of supreme enlightenment will be discussed.  As just explained:

	When we are well-accustomed to the four immeasurables,
	We should meditate on the root of all Dharmas, the two bodhicittas.

	This is the root of all dharmas of the world and beyond the world.  It is the essence of all paths.  It is the guide of 
all sentient beings.  The steed by which one will quickly cross to the unsurpassable mansion of excellence is the best of 
thoughts, bodhicitta.  Here we shall learn how to arouse it.  The Sutra Requested by Maitreya says:

		Maitreya, if a bodhisattva has a single dharma the lower realms will be abandoned.  One will 
not come into the hands of evil associates.  It will be the cause of quickly becoming fully, truly, 
completely enlightened.  What is this single dharma?  It is the most excellent and perfect of wishes, 
bodhicitta.
		Maitreya, if one has this dharma, the lower realms are abandoned.  One will not come into the 
hands of evil associates.  It will be the cause of quickly becoming fully, truly, completely enlightened.

The Bodhisattva-Pitaka-Sutra says:

		Since one will quickly become enlightened with unsurpassable, true, complete enlightenment, 
one should train in the best of wishes, bodhicitta.

B.  the extensive explanation of arousing bodhicitta,

	There are has ten sections. 

1.  The explanation of the benefits

	There are six sections. 

a.  The benefit of leading from samsara to peace

	What are these benefits?

	These put an end to the kleshas and the ocean of samsara.
	They clear away the fear and suffering of evil deeds.
	They conquer the karma and suffering involved with the samskaras,
	Leading beings away from samsara and to nirvana.

	Regarding liberation from the ocean of samsara, The Gandavyuha Sutra says:

		Kye, son of noble family, bodhicitta is like a great ship that liberates us from the stream of 
samsara.  It is like a heroic guardian who liberates us from fear of samsara and the lower realms.

The Liberation of Maitreya says:

		O son of noble family, it is like this.  Relying on a heroic guardian, one has no fear of any 
enemies.  Similarly, bodhisattvas who put their reliance in arousing the wish for omniscience have no 
fear of any evil enemy.

The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	Like depending on a hero when there is great danger
	Even after doing inexpiable evil deeds,
	The instant one depends on this, one is liberated,
	Why would those who are heedful not rely on it?

All suffering and evil deeds are cleared away.  The same text says:

	Wishing to destroy the hundreds of sufferings of samsara,
	Desiring to clear away the sorrow of sentient beings,
	And wishing they will enjoy many hundreds of happiness
	One should never let go of the means, which is bodhicitta.

The Sutra of the Instructions of the Glorious Great Vehicle says:

		The person who enters into unsurpassable enlightenment without the existence of even an 
atom cuts off the evil path of going to the lower realms and the eight unfree states.  That person is 
separated from the paths of gods and human beings and completely abandons them.  Such a person is 
not blind or deaf.  All the senses are sound.

	Burning the firewood of karma and the kleshas, bodhicitta is like a fire.  The former text says:

		This, like the fire at the end of time, in an instant will certainly burn great evil deeds.

The Liberation of Maitreya says:

		By burning away all faults, it is like the fire at the end of the kalpa.

	Moreover, by attaining buddhahood, one is led out of samsara.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	If this occurs the immeasurable host of sentient beings
	Will attain the ease of the highest state of blissfulness.

b.  The benefit of being a shrine for the world

	For those who have aroused bodhicitta:
	
	Even while bodhicitta is not yet manifest,
	The wholesome stream of compassion is rising ever higher.
	In meditation, upaya and prajqa will unite.
	All undertakings of body and speech are beneficial.
	We become like shrines for all the world and the gods.

	Those who have faultlessly aroused bodhicitta, when the mind is in non-conceptual meditation, will be united 
with its prajqa and with absorption that never goes to sleep, loses consciousness, or gives rise to the perceptions of 
memory.  Perception and feeling cease, and there is the absorption of cessation.  Always conceptionless, the mind does not 
manifest the five situations below.  The Thirty Verses says:

	As for the arising of mental consciousness,
	Mindless sleep and unconsciousness
	And the two samadhis
	One is always without perception of these.

	When this occurs, the bodhicitta formerly aroused remains undamaged and there is continual merit.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says: 
	When this has been grasped, the dhatus of sentient beings
	Therefore will be limitlessly liberated,
	Since there arises from them the mind of non-returning,
	That which is true mind is actually received.

	When this has been grasped, even while they are asleep
	Or when they are non-attentive, still the force of merit
	Which is multifarious and continuous,
	As limitless as space, continues performing its function.
	
	All undertakings will be successful.  The Gandavyuha Sutra says:

		O son of noble family, whoever has aroused the mind of supreme enlightenment, will be 
successful in all undertakings.  They will always be of one taste with wholesomeness alone.

	By arousing this undamaged bodhicitta all virtuous conduct and whatever neutral is done will not be mere 
incidental accomplishment; it will become virtue according with enlightenment.  One will become a shrine for the world.  
The Gandavyuha Sutra says:

		Those who arouse bodhicitta will be a shrine for all the world together with its gods.

c.  The benefit that virtue increases ever higher

	As for this virtue corresponding with merit:

	Other kinds of happiness diminish and are exhausted.
	The happiness that is established by precious bodhicitta
	Rather than being exhausted, will actually increase.
	It is like clear water flowing into the ocean,
	Or a rich and glorious harvest, growing in fertile soil.

	A drop of water flowing into an ocean will not be exhausted but will go on for a kalpa.  A sesame seed planted in 
good soil will greatly increase.   So does the virtue of arousing bodhicitta.  The Sutra Requested by Maitreya says:

		Manjushri, similarly if we arouse bodhicitta until attaining the unsurpassable enlightenment 
of buddhahood, the virtue of that will not be exhausted.
		Manjushri, for example it is like this, all seeds which are a suitable source in every suitable 
way will grow.  As those seeds will grow, the virtue of having aroused bodhicitta will vastly grow.

	Meritorious virtue is not like a banana tree, which fruits once, and then is exhausted.  The immeasurable fruition 
of temporal and ultimate virtue increases inexhaustibly like that of a great tree.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	All other kinds of virtue are like a banana tree
	It brings forth fruit but once, then it is exhausted.
	However the eternal tree of bodhicitta
	Gives fruit that always increases inexhaustibly.

The Basket of Books Sutra says:

		Manjushri, it is like this, a variety of trees, having taken in the four elements, will greatly 
increase.  	Manjushri, if the virtuous roots are dedicated to omniscience, having taken in 
bodhicitta they will greatly increase.

d.  The Benefit of being the Root of all Dharmas.

	Moreover, of all dharmas without remainder:

	The root, the seed, of all is the nature of compassion.
	Even in samsara it yields wholesome fruits.
	Its nature is nirvana.  It grows to enlightenment.
	Strive to arouse this precious bodhicitta fully.

	The Sutra Requested by Bhrama says:

Bhrama, what is this excellent thought bodhicitta? As the root of all dharmas, it is like a seed.  Why so?  From 
the seed the sprout, leaves, flower, and fruit arise.  Likewise from this excellent thought much 
happiness is experienced among gods and human beings.  And also it will reproduce omniscience.

The Sutra of Instructions to the King says:

		O great king, by the ripening of the karma of the virtuous roots of the wish for unsurpassable, 
true, complete enlightenment, you will be born many times among the gods and experience happiness.  
You will be born many times among human beings and experience happiness.  But if the power is 
produced of always being among gods and human beings, then, O great king, the virtuous roots of 
bodhicitta will be diminished or not fully developed.

e.  The benefit of Suffering being Eased and the Appearances of Wisdom Produced

	The immeasurable benefits of arousing bodhicitta:

	This is the excellent medicine that cures the ills of beings;
	The magic vase that magnifies wish-fulfilling splendor.
	This is the sun of wisdom, and the moon that soothes our torments,
	With qualities like a host of stars in a spotless sky.

	The Gandavyuha Sutra says:

		Bodhicitta is the seed of all the dharmas of buddhahood.  In making the white dharmas of all 
sentient beings increase, it is like a field.  In burning away all faults, it is like kalpa fire.  In exhausting 
all unhappiness, it is like the wealth of the nagas.  In accomplishing all goals, it is like the king of wish-
fulfilling gems.  In pulling us out of the stream of the river of samsara, it is like an iron hook.  In the 
world together with its gods, humans, and asuras, it is like an offering shrine.  In fulfilling all wishes, it 
is like an excellent wishing-vase.

The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	This is the excellent amrita of deathlessness
	That conquers for sentient beings the fearful Lord of Death.
	This is the inexhaustible precious treasure source,
	That clears away all the poverty of sentient beings.

	This is the excellent medicine of the supreme physician
	That completely pacifies all the illnesses of beings.
	This is the wishing-tree that eases the weariness
	Of beings exhausted by wandering on the path of samsara.

	This is the universally supporting bridge
	That liberates all beings from fear of the lower realms.
	This is the arising of the moon of mind,
	That clears away the torment of the kleshas of beings.

	This is the great sun that fully bestows on beings
	Elimination of the darkness of ignorance,
	From churning the milk of teachings of the Holy Dharma
	This is the essential butter that arises.

	Beings who are travelers, treading the path of samsara,
	Wish they could experience the bounties of happiness,
	But now at this banquet of the ultimate happiness
	These great travelers, sentient beings, will be satisfied.

f.  The Benefit of vast qualities

Because these qualities are immeasurable, the mind:

	This is as vast as the measureless ocean of dharmadhatu
	And the supremely miraculous qualities of the Victorious One.
	Within it are limitless cloud-banks of inconceivable merit.
	Their nature, always produces happiness and benefit,

	Thus the immeasurable dharmas of buddhahood are grasped.  The Bodhisattva-Pitaka-Sutra says:

		Shariputra, if a bodhisattva mahasattva possesses a certain single dharma, these dharmas of 
buddhahood and immeasurable others will be completely grasped.  What is this single dharma?  It is 
the excellent wish for enlightenment.
		Shariputra, if a bodhisattva mahasattva possesses this single dharma, these dharmas of 
buddhahood and immeasurable others will be completely grasped.

	Similarly, many aspects of Dharma will appear and be blessed by buddhahood.  The Sutra of the Embodiment of 
Genuine Dharma says:

		Bhagavan, This excellent wish is the root of all Dharmas.  When this wish is absent, one is far 
from all the Dharmas of the buddha.
		Bhagavan, as for this excellent wish, even if one does not enter into buddhahood, Dharma 
words will arise from the center of the sky, and from walls, and trees.
		Within this excellent wish of bodhisattvas, from the examination of one's own mind, all the 
instructions and teachings will arise.  Therefore, Produce the excellent wish for of enlightenment.
		Bhagavan, its is, for example, like this.  The head, though it is the first of the limbs, is not the 
life.  Similarly, one who has this excellent wish, does not have the enlightenment of the buddhas.

	This is better than making offerings to the tathagatas.

The Sutra Requested by the Householder Glorious Gift says:

	Better than persons in the buddha fields
	Filled abundantly with the seven treasures,
	Who offer them freely to the lords of the world,
	Those who have joined their palms in veneration
	And bowed to the excellence of bodhicitta
	Make an offering that is more noble,
	And this is not the end of what is gained.

	The Noble Moon Lamp Sutra says:

	In the fullness of a thousand million million fields
	All the measureless offerings to the Chief of Beings
	Would not equal the value of a thought of kindness

The Sutra of Training in the Limitless Gate says:

Bhrama, these three are unsurpassed by offerings and ceremonies for the tathagatas.  They have immeasurable 
merit.  What are these three?  They are producing the wish for unsurpassable, true, complete 
enlightenment; grasping the Holy Dharma of the tathagatas; and practicing what one has heard.
Bhrama, these three are unsurpassed by offerings and ceremonies for the tathagatas.
Bhrama, if there is entry into the kalpa-long measure of life of the body of the tathagata, the completed ripening 
of these offerings would be shown and that kalpa exhausted; but the benefit of the heap of merits of 
these three would not be exhausted.

	Moreover, liberated from the lower realms, attaining peace, being immeasurable and inconceivable and so forth, 
one will be a worthy object of prostrations.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	The moment they arouse the mind of bodhicitta,
	These wretched ones who are bound in the prison of samsara,
	Will be called the sons of the tathagata
	And be worthy of the prostrations of the world

And also:

	The low is made high.

The same text says:

	Like the excellent elixir that turns things into gold,
	It makes this unclean body the body of a Buddha.
	What is worthless is turned into something supremely precious,
	Therefore firmly grasp this which is known as "bodhicitta."

The Inconceivable Secrets Sutra  says:

	The merit of bodhicitta
	if this were put into form
	Would fill the whole of space,
	Therefore it is supreme.

	The Gandavyuha Sutra says:

		In brief, as much as the goodness of the buddha bhagavats are the virtues of arousing 
bodhicitta.  They are as vast as the sky and dharmadhatu.

	Bodhicitta is taught because of the intention of the buddhas to do benefit.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	Having intended  this over many kalpas,
	The enlightened sages see the benefits of this

	The praise of the bodhisattvas who possess bodhicitta is like this.  These bodhisattvas are a great field.  Anyone 
who becomes angry with them has immeasurable non-merit whose fruition is the lower realms, the Bodhicharyavatara 
says:

	Whoever to such patrons as these buddha sons
	Produces vicious aggression and animosity,
	As many bad thoughts as they aroused, so many kalpas
	They will abide in hell, so the Sage has taught.

The Sutra of the Miracle of Attaining Complete Pacification
 says:
		Manjushri, as many times as they have animosity to a bodhisattva, so many kalpas will they 
abide in hell.  Therefore don the armor of bodhicitta.

	Well if one produces virtue by faith, won't one's merit increase even more?  The former text says:

		Well if someone produces the supreme mind, The fruition will be more excellent than that.

	How will it increase?  The Sutra of the Seal of Entering into Certainty and Uncertainty says:

		Manjushri, as for its being completely and eternally grasped, for example, if all the sentient 
beings in all the worlds of the ten directions were given eyes,  someone who did that would not 
produce more merit.  Or if all the beings of all the worlds of the ten directions were released from the 
darkness of a dark prison and established in the happiness of a chakravartin or Bhrama; if a son or 
daughter of noble family looks on a bodhisattva with faith and devotion to the mahayana, and expresses 
praise, a merit countlessly greater than that will be produced.

	Even those who look on a bodhisattva with the mind of the kleshas do not go to the lower realms, but are born in 
the higher realms, let alone those who have faith.  The Noble Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

		The bodhisattva Gaje  of good form and pleasant to look upon was begging alms in 
Shravasti, when he was seen by a merchant's daughter Palyvn chengyi Chok.   The girl lived out 
her  life tormented by a blazing fire of desire, and then was born among the thirty-three gods.  There 
the children of the gods remembered their former existences, and she said, "E ma!  If by looking at a 
bodhisattva even with desire, such a ripening as this arose, what would have happened if we looked 
with faith and reverence!  Having thought that, they came together with their divine retinues of five 
hundred.  They offered flowers and so on.

	Moreover, even those who by not having faith in them go to the lower realms, finally, guarded by their 
compassion, will be liberated beyond samsara.  If they are connected by faith, by having that benefit, they will quickly 
attain enlightenment.  The Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

		Even those who do evil to bodhisattvas, and by those actions go to the lower realms, will be 
liberated from there by that bodhisattva with great effort.  They will be established in great 
enlightenment.

	The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	By those individuals who have once seen me
	Whether thoughts of anger or of faith arise,
	Forever after may this always be the cause
	Of establishing every benefit for them.

Also:

	Even those who harm them will have a connection to happiness.
	They will go to for refuge to that source of happiness.

2.  the essence

	There are seven sections

a.  The general explanation of arising and entering

	Now the essence of arousing bodhicitta will be explained.  Thus for supreme enlightenment...:

	Arousal of bodhicitta consists of the desire
	Of attaining true buddhahood for limitless sentient beings.
	The two kinds are those of aspiration and entering.
	Wishing for this is always joined with application
	Just as volition to move is always joined with moving.

	In arousing bodhicitta, one desires buddhahood for the benefit of others.  The Abhisamayalankara says:

	As for arousing bodhicitta, for others' benefit.
	Because of that one wishes for perfect enlightenment.

	Moreover since it is right that this attitude has a beneficial essence, because we discriminate its particulars, by 
arousing the essence, the particulars will also subsequently be produced.  For example by the arousing of bodhicitta of 
aspiring such and such particulars will subsequently be attained.
	From the two essences of these bodhicittas, the bodhicitta of aspiration is the intention to attain enlightenment.  
Entering is putting that Dharma into practice.  Aspiring and entering are like wanting to go and actually going.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says:  1.15-16

	Briefly this excellent wish, the bodhicitta
	Should be known to be divided into two separate kinds,
	There is the attitude of aspiring to enlightenment
	And that of actually entering into enlightenment.

	It should be also be known that the difference of these two kinds
	Is like that between wanting to go and actually going.
	Thus by capable persons these two bodhicittas
	Should be known to have this particular distinction.

	Here there are many ways of dividing the classifications.  There are the arousal of relative and absolute 
bodhicitta.  The Nirvana says:

	Divided as absolute and relative,
	Bodhicitta has two different types.

	Also there are the arousal of bodhicitta by ordinary individuals and by the noble ones and the external viewpoint 
of sentient beings and the internal viewpoint of the nature of mind.  These are also called arousing relative and absolute 
bodhicitta.  The Sutra of the Great Creation of Bodhicitta says:

	The bodhisattva Kashyapa asked, Bhagavan, how is such a mind aroused.
		The Buddha spoke, "All dharmas are like the sky without any characteristics.  Therefore they 
are primordially luminous and completely pure.  That is called enlightenment.  Giving birth to the 
thought of being in accord with that, the precious thought which has not arisen before, is called 
arousing the thought of enlightenment, bodhicitta.

	There are also three kinds of arousing bodhicitta depending on the three disciplines of the three learnings.  The 
Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		The thought that vows to be faultless, the thought of collecting virtuous dharmas, and the 
thought of ripening sentient beings--Earnestly arouse these three bodhicittas.

	On the paths of accumulation and preparation, practice arousing bodhicitta by wishing for devotion.  From the 
first to the seventh bhumi wish for pure attitudes, on the three pure bhumis for ripening, and on the level of buddhahood 
for abandoning obscurations.  Regarding these four, the Mahayanasutralankara says:

	As for arousing bodhicitta, those on the bhumis
	Have the wish for devotion and good attitudes
	Then for ripening, and after that as well
	They have the wish that obscurations should be abandoned.

	There also bodhicittas of aspiring to the five paths of accumulation, preparation, seeing, meditation, and no more 
learning.  The Prajqaparamita in Twenty Thousand Lines says:

		There are beginner's bodhicitta, the bodhicitta of one who is properly-trained, the bodhicitta of seeing 
the Dharma, the bodhicitta of complete liberation, and the bodhicitta that is inconceivable by thought.   Subhuti, 
these are the wish that those who are entering the path may enter it; that those who have entered it should be 
properly-trained; that the divine eye may be produced; that one may meditate on the truth of the noble path; and 
that the unobscured buddha eye may be obtained.

	There are also six divisions depending on the six paramitas.  The same text says:

	The vast immeasurable mind of the bodhisattvas possessing the six paramitas is not shared with 
shravakas and pratyekabuddhas.

	There are also ten divisions related to the ten paramitas. The  Gew'i Lha says:

	Thus, by proper inner resting in meditation, after meditating on the ten bodhicittas,...

	According to the dividing points of the stages they are taught by twenty-two examples.  According to the 
teachings of the Sutra Requested by Understanding Ocean, the Abhisamayalankara says:

	These are earth and gold, the moon and fire;
	A treasure, a source of precious things, a lake;
	A vajra, mountain, medicine, and the spiritual friend;
	A wish-fulfilling gem, the sun, melodious song;
	A king, a treasury, and a far-reaching highway;
	A steed, a fountain; echoes, rivers, clouds;
	Altogether there are twenty-two aspects.

	As for the respective meanings of these examples, the commentary says that they are:

1  Strong interest
2  wishing
3  lofty attitude
4  application
5  the paramita of generosity
6  ...discipline
7  ...patience
8  ...exertion
9  ...meditation
10 ...prajqa
11 ...skillful means
12 ... aspiration
13 ... power and
14 ... wisdom
15 the higher perceptions
16 merit and wisdom
17 the dharmas according with enlightenment
18 compassion and clear seeing (vipashyana)
19 retention and confident eloquence,
20 celebration of Dharma
21 the path that crosses all at once
22 possession of dharmakaya.

Strong interest is like earth,
Wishing is like gold,
Lofty attitude is like the rising moon.

	These three signify the lesser, middle, and greater paths of accumulation.
	
Application is like fire.

	This is arousing bodhicitta on the four levels of the path of preparation.

Generosity is like a treasure.
Discipline is like a source of precious things.
Patience is like a lake.
Exertion is like a vajra.
Meditation is like a mountain.
Prajqa is like medicine.
Skilful means is like a spiritual friend.
Aspiration is like a wish-fulfilling gem.
Power is like the sun.
The perfection of wisdom is like listening to a melodious song. 

	These designate the first through the tenth bhumis.

Higher perception is like a king.
The two accumulations are like a treasury.
The dharmas according with enlightenment are like a highway.
Compassion and clear seeing are like an excellent steed.
Retention and confident eloquence are like a fountainhead.

	These five apply overall to the eighth, ninth, and tenth bhumis.

Celebration of dharma is like an echo.
Crossing all at once is like a river.
Dharmakaya is like clouds.

	These three occur in the tenth bhumi, where wisdom and great buddha activity benefit beings.

	Commenting on this, the Prasannapada says:

		The first three include the lesser, middle, and greater levels of the beginner's path of 
accumulation.  The next includes the path of entry to the first bhumi.  The next include the ten bhumis, 
"Supremely Joyful" and so on the paths of seeing and meditation.  The next five include special paths.  
The next three kinds of arousing bodhicitta concern preparation, real experience, and completion of the 
level of buddhahood.  Thus, these divisions include everything from the beginner's level to 
buddhahood.

	Some join the last three to the level of prabhasvara, but this way of explaining the scripture is not right.  Those 
on that level do not perceive entry into buddhahood, because they do not perceive exhaustion or the final limit.  The level 
of buddhahood is where the arhats of the mahayana dwell.
	The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	The arousal of bodhicitta by the sons of the victorious ones
	Is taught to be like clouds

	By that, it is taught that these twenty-two go from the path of accumulation to the tenth bhumi.  Here, if it asked 
whether there is arousal of bodhicitta on the level of buddhahood, it is not maintained that there is desire for attainment 
here, as with the arousal of bodhicitta by students.  This is because buddhahood has already been attained.  Also because 
one has gone beyond the time of proclamation, there is no arousal of wishes for accepting or collecting anything.  
However, absolute arousal of bodhicitta exists for one who has attained dharmata, mounting higher and higher without 
harming attainment. This is because emptiness exists without being discarded, and because the great objectless 
compassion produces benefits.  The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

	When I see with the Buddha-eye and what arousing bodhicitta I possess, it is beyond the number of 
grains of sand of the river Ganges in the eastern part of the world. I teach the Dharma in order to 
benefit those sentient beings who have gone into the birth-places of hell-beings, pretas, and animals.

	The glorious teacher Jqanakirti said that within the twenty-two above, the first three are aspiring, and the later 
nineteen are maintained to be entering]:

	Strong interest and so forth, those three divisions
	Are the three aspects of the bodhicitta of aspiring.
	As for what is called the bodhicitta of entering,
	It is explained to have nineteen aspects.

	Though he says that, it should be maintained that each of these has two aspects, of aspiring and entering.  
Aspiring is intends to realize enlightenment.  Entering puts it into effect by engaging with it.  Both are necessary in each 
case.
	As the support of arousing bodhicitta, according to the mind-only school, making what at first was not attained 
be attained, one of the seven families of individual-enlightenment, whichever is appropriate, arises. The Lamp of the Path 
of Enlightenment says:

	The seven families of the pratimoksha
	Always have vows of achieving this as other;
	However it is not seen as other for those
	Who have the good fortune of mahayana vows.

	According to madhyamaka, those in whom bodhicitta is aroused and practiced should not be maintained to be 
only those who have the free and well-favored body.  The Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

	Now to explain the scope of those who have this dharma, countless gods, nagas, asuras, sky-soarers  and big-
bellied ones  produce bodhicitta, the wish for unsurpassable, true, complete enlightenment.

	These two systems are not understood to be contradictory.  Thus, at the time of arousing bodhicitta, even if one 
has not been imputed with the name of the pratimoksha vows, since one must be able to take vows with a similar 
meaning, not to cut off life and so forth, one will certainly have a similar support.  That from transgressing their goal a 
wrong attitude will arise is certain.  If one is not able to take the appropriate version of the pratimoksha vow, nothing at all 
will arise.  This would contradict the very wish that was being aroused.  In brief, for a being who wishes to practice this, 
gathering its bases is the bodily support.  Having the particular attitudes of faith and so forth is the support of thought.  
The Sutra of The Palm Tree of the Three Jewels says:

	Because one has faith in the Conqueror and his Dharma,
	One also has faith in the highest enlightenment.
	If one has faith in the practice of buddha sons,
	One will have the attitude of the wise.

	As for the support of place, wherever one is born while the cause that damages bodhicitta does not arise, that is 
the place.
	The three causes of arousing bodhicitta are faith with the Buddha as its object, compassion with sentient beings 
as its object, and hearing the benefits of bodhicitta.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	From the power of friendship and from hearing Dharma,
	From the cause and roots and from being accustomed to virtue,
	There is the Unstable and that which arises stably.
	Stabilized by others is arousing bodhicitta.

	Relying on true friends, or being urged by the spiritual friend, and having heard the Dharma is the cause of 
arousing the unstable bodhicitta of aspiring, which is the first kind to arise.  	Arising subsequently by the cause of 
one's becoming accustomed to virtue and awakening the proper cause, and awakening the root, compassion, is the stable 
arising of the bodhicitta of entering.  The passage says that there are these.  The essence of arousing bodhicitta is entering 
into an attitude of aspiration inseparable from the desire to attain complete enlightenment for the benefit of others.  What 
is included in this becomes the essence of the six paramitas,  The Gandavyuha Sutra says:

	This bodhicitta also sets out to do benefit for others.  It is this nature of aspiring and entering which has 
the six paramitas.

	Also the two bodhicittas and the three controlling disciplines of a bodhisattva are of one nature.  By the wish to 
benefit others and good conduct, there is aspiring and entering.  The master Sherab Jungne in his The Ornament of the 
Sage's Intention says:

	Neither of these bodhicittas goes beyond desire for unsurpassable, true, complete enlightenment for the 
benefit of sentient beings.

	By self-control there is 1) the discipline of control.  Since from that benefit for others is produced, there is 2) the 
discipline of performing benefit for sentient beings.  By increase of the two accumulations and so forth, there is 3) the 
discipline of gathering virtuous dharmas.  Since all these control unwholesome aspects of one's continuum, they are taught 
to be the controlling disciplines of a bodhisattva.
	For example, like a wishing-jewel that cures plagues, makes arise what is needed and desired, clears darkness 
and so forth, here there are different aspects of one essence.

In the extensive explanation of the individual natures

b.  the essences of arising and entering are explained:

	Aspiring has the essence of the four immeasurables.
	And entering that of the six paramitas, it is maintained.

	The Sutra Requested by Manjushri says:

		Manjushri, that which aspires to the benefit of others is the great kindness, the great 
compassion, the great joy, and the great equanimity.  That perfect conduct is also the six paramitas.

Now so that what occurs by means of the individual benefits of these two may be known, let us say a little about

c.  the benefits of the bodhicitta of aspiring:

For beings:

	Though some may worship the Buddhas to the limits of the directions
	For many millions of kalpas, caring only for their own good,
	This will not match even a fraction of the merit of aspiration.

	The Glorious Account of the Dharmas of Complete Great Nirvana says:

	Whoever offers all their lives to all the buddhas
	The seven precious substances  and the requisites of life And immeasurable offering of the five kinds of food 
[?]

	More excellent than that is aspiring to enlightenment
	For the sake of sentient beings, for just the space of a moment.
	The excellent virtues of doing that are limitless.

Moreover:

	Whatever being, for even the space of a moment,
	Meditates by arousing bodhicitta,
	As for the heap of merit of doing that,
	It cannot be reckoned by even victorious ones.

d.  An example of what it is like:

	As for showing its suitability:

	Aspiring to lighten even a little the sufferings of beings
	Even if this arises only for an instant,
	Brings us liberation from the lower realms.
	And limitless happiness among gods and human beings.


	 A friendly ship captain's daughter having given four kasharpani coins and eight and sixteen and thirty-two, by 
kicking her mother's head, wounded it.  On an island in the ocean,  she was welcomed by four divine daughters and eight 
and sixteen and thirty two, and when her good actions were exhausted, in the south she was put into an iron house, and in 
the instant her head was being drilled she thought, In Jambuling many have struck women's/mothers heads, and these will 
certainly come here, but may I substitute for them so that they are not be born here.  In the instant of thinking this, the 
remaining time of punishment by drilling was over.  After that lifetime was done, she was born as a Tushita god.

e.  the explanation of the benefits of entering

	Though by the bodhicitta of aspiring great benefits are attained, the benefits of entering are limitlessly more than 
that:

	And yet the rewards of entering are infinitely more.
	Because there is always a real and actual application,
	All excellent minds that apply themselves thus for even an instant,
	Are said to bring together the two accumulations,
	Which otherwise would be the task of many kalpas

	By lofty attitude, one is entirely elevated.  Because the benefits of an instant of application are immeasurable, 
even the benefits of an instant of aspiration are therefore immeasurable.  The Sutra of the Girl Excellent Moon says: 

	If from just the thought of helping others
	the benefits will be immeasurable,
	Why even speak about really doing this?

	The Bodhicharyavatara says: 1.27

	If merely thinking about performing benefit
	Is much nobler than making offerings to the buddhas,
	Why even speak of really exerting ourselves
	For the happiness of all sentient beings without remainder?

	In accord with that, Minag Dungthungchen Sepa, for a period of forty thousand kalpas did pure actions in a 
forest and as the bhramin child "skar ma la dga' ba" did so for twenty thousand years.  Then having come into a city to beg 
alms, he was seen by the daughter of a merchant, who thought, if I don't ask for him as a husband I'll die.  To save her life, 
by abandoning the pure conduct, collected over twenty thousand kalpas association and so forth, as is said in the Sutra of 
the Skill of the Great Secret Path of Upaya.
	Aspiration does not have a fruition of continuously arising merit, but the merit of entering has the distinction of 
continuously arising.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 1.17

	Though from the bodhicitta of aspiration
	There is a great fruition in samsaric life,
	The merit of this does not continually arise
	As it does with the bodhicitta of entering.

f.  how by the power of mind, accumulation is combined

Now, by accumulation every instant explaining how many are combined, subsequently the wrong conceptualization of 
inferior minds ceases. As for the reason:
	
	So whether all that has been taught to take three countless kalpas
	Is completed quickly or after a very long time,
	Or there is liberation within a single lifetime,
	Actually depends on the power of the mind.
	Whatever is done by efforts, means and the highest prajqa,
	Is in reality done by this unsurpassable power.

	Bodhisattvas of very dull powers need thirty-three innumerable kalpas to attain enlightenment.  The paths of 
accumulation and preparation take three.  Each of the ten bhumis takes three.  Those of middle powers need seven.  Each 
of the paths of accumulation and preparation takes two.  The path of seeing takes one, the path of meditation two.  Those 
of sharp powers take three.  The Precious Lamp of the Middle Way by master Bhavya says:

		Those of sharp powers take three innumerable kalpas to become completely and perfectly 
enlightened.  Those of intermediate powers take seven; those of dull powers take thirty-three.

As for these three degrees of sharpness, The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Perfected in three innumerable kalpas,
	They will then complete their meditation.

	The great commentary on the Prajqaparamita in Eight Thousand Lines says:  545.6

		In the first innumerable kalpa they begin the path of accumulation, and go as far as the first 
bhumi.  In the second, they go from the second bhumi "the spotless one" up to the seventh.  In the third, 
they go from the eighth bhumi "the motionless one" up to buddhahood.

The Bodhisattva-bhumi says:

		For the paths of accumulation and preparation they take one, from the first to the seventh 
bhumis they take one, and for the three pure bhumis they take one.

	As completing the paths of accumulation and preparation brings us to the first bhumi, the prajqaparamita's way 
of explaining the number of innumerable kalpas is of one meaning with that of the Bhumi-collection.  In this account of 
innumerable kalpas those of sharp and dull powers are distinguished, and though those of sharp powers take three 
innumerable kalpas for the gradual stages of the two accumulations, this is from the point of view of one final gathering 
into union.
	Also since it is explained that for great power of mind every instant combines many kalpas, they do not 
necessarily need three countless kalpas.  The secret mantra says that from the viewpoint of those of the sharpest powers, by 
their great powers of mind every instant combines immeasurable kalpas, and by continuous learning, they are able to be 
liberated quickly within a single lifetime and so forth.
	After they attain abhisheka, their dwelling in meditation on the two stages of development and fulfillment is 
called the lesser path of accumulation.  Then if they strive with great effort and skillful means, it is taught that within that 
very life they attain the path of seeing.  For those who have attained the path of seeing there are no birth or death, so 
within that very life, they complete the path of meditation.  This is attaining enlightenment.
	Also having attained the path of seeing, if they wish, they can establish enlightenment within seven days.  The 
Prajqaparamita in Twenty Thousand Lines says:  {{547.1}}

		These great bodhisattvas, having attained with respect to dharmas the dharma eye, if they 
wish, in seven days, can be completely enlightened with unsurpassable enlightenment.

	The measure of benefits of this is that of the wealth of autonomy, in which whatever we desire is accomplished 
and there is only what we like.  Whether on the shravaka, pratyekabuddha, or bodhisattva yanas, it is taught that this body 
of the noble ones is made to manifest.  Therefore, not many can be reckoned as suitable for being liberated in a single 
lifetime in the style of secret mantra.
	In mantrayana, with its profound skillful means many quickly attain the path of seeing.  Up to the path of seeing, 
they enter into the particulars of means and effort.  Beyond that bodhisattvas of very sharp powers and the vidyadharas of 
mantrayana are without distinction in the time of traversing the bhumis.  Mantra-practitioner rigdzin noble ones are more 
quickly liberated than the duller ones.  With exertion, great skillful means, and a life of prajqa their acts are quickly 
established in the world.  By ordinary ones they are not established, but the example has indeed been understood, and after 
one life they do not travel to another.  Though the inner luminous nature of mind is not fundamentally established in 
existence, merely from abandoning defilements, getting close to it is established. {{548.2}}

g.  How joy is produced in these being newly born

ultimate bodhicitta:

	This possess the essence of the wishing tree of compassion
	As for its bearing well the heavy burden of beings,
	In this world even Bhrama and so forth,
	Even for themselves have never dreamed of this
	Let alone seeking this bodhicitta for other beings
	So joy is created in this which has never existed before.

The Madhyamakavatara says:

	Intermediate shravaka buddhas and the being the Lord of Sages, 	All these Buddhas take their birth from the 
bodhisattvas,
	It is the mind non-dual with the mind of compassion
	Bodhicitta, which is the cause of the buddha sons.
	Therefore first of all compassion should be praised.

	In that way, the wishing tree of compassion bears the burden of the flock of birds of limitless sentient beings.   
these as for that ultimate bodhicitta, father mother and so forth wishing benefit for themselves and worldly lords Bhrama 
and so forth even those are without is and even for themselves up to now caring only for this life, such an attitude, 
previously unborn, should be rejoiced in.  {{549.0}}  That is what it is saying.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 1.23-5

	Even if we include the love of father and mothers
	Who has such a beneficial attitude?
	Even those who are gods and highly accomplished sages
	Or does even Bhrama have anything like this?

	If before now none of these sentient beings
	Had such an attitude even for their own benefit,
	If it was not dreamed of even in a dream,
	How would such benefits ever rise for others?

	This attitude of benefit by bringing joy to others,
	Which does not arise even for oneself
	This specially precious thought of benefiting beings
	Is an unprecedented wonder which is born.

	This wondrously arisen attitude accomplishes the benefit of both self and other.  It is the supreme offering to the 
tathagata.  The same text says:  6.127

	This itself is pleasing to the tathagatas
	This itself accomplishes our true benefit
	This itself removes the sufferings of the world
	Therefore by me this always should be done.


	Instructing us to arouse bodhicitta, even if we do not attain buddhahood, the Bodhicitta Commentary says:

	As for bodhicitta, not producing it
	One will never attain the level of buddhahood.
 	In samsara for doing benefits for oneself and others
	No other skillful means exists but this alone.

3.  The liturgy of receiving

a.  the preliminaries

Collecting the concordant conditions,

	There are six sections

b.  The object of receiving

	Therefore, since arousing bodhicitta is within our power, in the space front visualize an assembly of buddhas and 
bodhisattvas.  Do as is explained in The Sutra Describing the Virtues of the Field of Manjushri, and perform the liturgy 
below.  Moreover, the Lamp of the Path to Enlightenment says:

	If one does not find a guru,
	In receiving the vow from another,
	The ritual is said to be valid.
	So in former lives Manjushri
	By becoming Amwaraja
	Aroused the bodhicittas.

	The buddha field of Manjushri
	As explained in the Ornament Sutra
	Is also clarified here.
	
	With the five eyes of the protectors
	Perfect bodhicitta
	Is produced and provided
	For beings as a lamp,
	To liberate from samsara:

	Hostile and angry attitudes
	Miserliness and jealousy
	Keeping hold of them from now on,
	Until supreme enlightenment,
	We will not perform them.

	Pure conduct should performed
	Evil deeds and desire abandoned.
	Rejoicing in the disciplines
	We will train in buddhahood

	We ourselves will not quickly
	Proceed into buddhahood.
	While even one sentient being
	Remains outside  in extremes

	The measureless buddha fields
	Inconceivable by thought
	May they be completely abandoned
	Grasped from labeling names and
	Fragmented phenomena
	Within the ten directions
	Their karma of body and speech
	Let us purify it all.

	Karma of mind is also to be purified.
	Unvirtuous actions are to be done.
	In that way bodhicitta should be aroused

a)  Receiving from a guru

	If one does not have the power to do this oneself or one wants to receive it from a guru, as for this precious 
attitude:

	This also arises from the spiritual friend.
	As a rain of all desired falls from wish-fulfilling things,

	From a jewel falls a rain of all that is needed or wished-for.  So too spiritual friends support the arising of all 
good dharmas and the birth of bodhicitta.  How?  By possessing bodhicitta and being competent in training in it, they are 
able to accept students.  The Twenty Vows says:

	Since they have the power they should accept them.

The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	Competent in the meaning of the great vehicle,
	Excellent in the discipline of bodhicitta,
	Never is the spiritual friend to be let go
	Even for the sake of preserving one's life itself.
	
	The Lamp of the Path says:  {{552.1}}

	Receive the vow from a good guru
	Competent in the liturgy of the vow
	Who is a master dwelling in the vow.

	Grasping its benefits and possessing compassion.
	Such a one should be known to be an excellent guru.

b)  Creating pure vessels

	Such a one:

	By a guru who is free from faults having all the virtues,
	As for the fortunate student producing joy,
	Seeing the faults of samsara and liberation's benefits,
	The good dharmas of the provisional and ultimate vehicles,
	And the limitless praises of bodhicitta are told.

	To teach this again, seeing the faults of samsara and praising
bodhicitta, the guru transforms the mind.

c)  Arranging objects of worship and offerings  {{552.4}}

Then of arousing bodhicitta

	In a clean and pleasant place that is beautified by offerings,
	Gather practice articles pleasing to gods and human beings.

	Arrange offerings of lights, incense and so on, and gather implements pleasing to gods and human beings.

d)  The host of buddhas and their emanations  {{552.6}}

	Then as symbolized by the representations in front, in front:

	Visualize space as being filled with an ocean of buddhas
	Together with their sons, like heaped up banks of clouds.

	Visualize, as is taught in the Moon Lamp Sutra that they are summoned by the feast of incense and music, and 
joining the palms, saying the following three times:

	We arouse the vast and excellent bodhicitta.
	May all these beings without remainder be enlightened.
	May there be no sentient beings who are not vessels.
	Approach!  Approach!  Divine ones who possess the ten powers.
	By the power of your timely kindness
	May you, the three jewels, care for the welfare of beings.
	With mental offerings and those arranged here,
	We supplicate the victorious ones and their retinue.

	By that from the buddha fields of the ten directions the three jewels approach.  Visualize that they fill the whole 
of space.

e)  establishing our suitability to do this{{553.4}}

	How suitability is established for what is visualized really approaching:
	
	It is taught that this really happens, just as we visualize,
	This is because of the unspoiled power of our minds,
	And also the compassion of the wise and considerate masters.

	The Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

	Whatever victorious ones we may have visualized
	Remain in front of us, and always grant their blessings.
	They completely liberate us from the arising of faults.

	By possessing the wisdom that knows the buddhas, we supplicate and intend to invite them.  Possessing kindness 
and compassion, they see us.  By their accomplishing buddha activity, they really approach miraculously in an instant.  
Why?  Since from the viewpoint of the buddhas, sentient beings have no benefits, they do this for the sake of producing 
benefit for us.  If they come such a long way merely for the food offerings, the merit of bodhicitta must be suitable for the 
guests really to approach.

f)  Inviting, and offering baths, and adornment

	Visualize that they listen eagerly and closely and approach in the space of the sky:{{554.3}}
	
	Then, with joined hands full of a double handful of flowers,
	We invite them to be seated, and then we should offer to bathe them,
	Also offering garments, ornaments, and the rest.

	Produce the excellent visualization that all the three jewels are in the sky, along with their divine palaces from all 
the three-fold thousand worlds, whose own place is right here.  Invite them to be seated on brilliant lotus, jewel, sun, and 
moon seats.  The Supreme Insight says:

	Without exception you who are the lords of sentient beings,
	Divine ones who irresistibly overpower the hordes of maras,
	Knowing all things without exception exactly as they are,
	We supplicate the bhagavans and their retinues to come to this place.

	When this is said, they approach and in a bath-house many divine youths and maidens wash their bodies with 
precious jewel-ornamented vases and with immeasurable bath-offerings.  After these offerings, they dry them with towels. 
 Visualizing that we offer them clothing, say these words:
[I think this is the same one in VYS, but I don't have that page here] 555.1

	In very fragrant excellent bathing-houses
	With brilliant floors that shine like spotless crystal,
	Whose pleasant pillars are blazing with precious jewels,
	Whose hangings and tapestries are brilliant with pearls,

	Are the tathagatas and the buddha sons
	With precious vases filled with perfumed water
	And an abundance of good and pleasant songs
	With joyful music we ask to wash their bodies.

	Their external bodies are lovingly anointed
	With matchless perfumes, pure and excellent-smelling.
	Then for these Sages, with colors that are well-dyed,
	We offer them fine garments of matchless fragrance,

	Excellent clothing, fine and soft to touch.
	And hundreds of excellent ornaments, for all these
	The noble ones Samantabhadra and Manju
	Avalokiteshvara and others

	A fragrant odor fills the billion worlds
	The supremely fragrant bodies of the sages.
	Blaze with light as they are being anointed,
	As if adorned in refined and polished gold.

	Having said this, in their dwellings they take their individual seats.{{555.6}}

2)  The seven-fold service,

a)  The main topic of the seven-fold service,

	There are seven sections. 

i) prostration

has two sections.

a))  The main topic

	First as for the limb of prostration:
	 
	Then we should join our palms just over the crowns of our heads,
	Like a rising lotus beginning to bloom in some pleasant pond.
	With melodious praises, emanating countless bodies,
	We should prostrate to those great lords with devotion.

	As for joining the palms like a lotus, the Great Liberation says:

	Like a lotus that is just beginning to blossom,
	We should join the palms of the hands at the crown of the head.
	Prostrate to the buddhas of the ten directions.
	With their immeasurable bodies like a mass of clouds

The Irresistible Action says:

	With the power of aspiration for good action,
	Holding all the victorious ones vividly in mind,
	We bow with as many bodies as there are atoms in the universe,
	We prostrate to all the victorious ones.

b)  The benefits

As for the merits of this:  {{556.4}}

	The merits of this are as many as the atoms of the earth,
	With all that are to be found in its many oceans and mountains
	Until we have had the body of a universal monarch
	As many times as there are atoms in Indra's world,
	And finally attain the level of supreme peace,
	We would find no such merits in the whole of the three worlds.

	As to what the merits of prostration for the sake of arousing bodhicitta are equal to, there is no such thing in the 
three worlds.  This is because, if we prostrate, trying to do only good, much merit is obtained.  The Teaching of the Vinaya 
says:

O monks, If you prostrate with faith to a stupa containing a hair of the Tathagatas head or a nail, as for the 
ripening of that, as many actions as Bhrama does without the arising of anger, as many as the atoms 
reaching up to the golden ground of Indra, that may times we will experience the happiness of a 
universal monarch, and go among gods and human beings.

ii)  Offering.

a))  The brief teaching

	As for the second limb:

	Material wealth and offerings emanated by mind
	We shall offer them offerings unsurpassably vast.


b))  The extended explanation

has two sections concerning

real offerings
those emanated by mind.

1))  real wealth  {{557.3}}
	As for arranging real offerings:
	
	Let there be flowers and incense, lamps and food and waters;
	Canopies, tasseled umbrellas, and exquisite musical sounds 
	Victory banners, yak tails, clay drums  and so forth;
	Body and wealth, and all possessions we cannot part with,
	All these we offer to the gurus of sentient beings,
	The highest teacher of beings, the Buddha jewel himself,
	Along with his retinue of Buddha-sons.

	As for offering an immeasurable array of these, the Bodhicharyavatara says:  2.15-17

	To the lord of sages, the supreme recipient
	We offer such pleasant flowers as the jasmine and lotus,
	Utpala and so forth, all those of pleasant fragrance,
	Pleasantly arranged in skillfully woven garlands.

	The finest incense there is full of pleasant fragrance,
	We offer billowing in fragrant offering clouds.
	Sumptuous food accompanied with a variety of drinks
	Nourishment fit for the gods we offer to these lords.

	I offer rows of lamps, finely set with jewels,
	Which have been arranged on golden lotus buds...


Also it says: 2.19

	Precious parasols with handles made of gold.
	Having edges that are pleasantly adorned,
	Well-shaped and well-carried by attractive bearers,
	We will always offer to the kings of sages.

	As for the five sections concerning

2))  Offerings emanated by mind,

a)))  The offering of compassion

	As for those emanated by mind, the enjoyments of the thirty-three gods and so forth:
	
	I offer pleasant palaces, decked with nets of jewels,
	All that there may be in the worlds of gods and elsewhere,
	Where cymbals, dances, songs, and praises fall like rain,
	Adorned with hundreds of the finest ornaments.

	Visualizing all the divine palaces in all the world realms, filled with songs of praise, and a rain of flowers, we 
offer them to the holy objects of homage.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:  2.18

	Palaces of the gods with pleasant songs of praise,
	With brilliant hangings embroidered in precious gems and pearls,
	All these ornaments, as limitless as space,
	I offer to those who have the nature of compassion.

b)))  The five unowned offerings

1)))  Moreover, in completely pure world realms:
	
	I offer precious mountains, forests, and lotus ponds,
	Rippled by the paddling feet of mother swans.
	Here fragrant airs arise and medicinal incenses.
	Their ravishing perfumes waft from wish-fulfilling trees,
	That bow with myriad offerings of fruit and flowers.

	The Bodhicharyavatara says: 2.2-3

	As many delightful fruits and flowers as there may be
	And whatever kinds of health giving medicines,
	As many precious jewels as there are in the world
	And whatever refreshing clear and pleasant waters,

	Likewise mountains made of precious substance
	Delightful groves and solitary peaceful places
	Adorned with ornaments of exquisite flowering trees,
	And trees whose branches are bending down with excellent fruit.

2)))  Moreover:
	
	Holding bees in a thousand undulating petals
	like a bracelet made of white night lotuses,
	Opened by sun and moon beams in a cloudless sky
	I offer lovely blue and other lotuses.

3)))  And also:
	
	Blissfully perfumed air, scented with sandalwood,
	Caressing the flower buds with cool and fragrant breezes,
	Caves and rock-faced mountains, meadows of heath-giving herbs,
	I offer ponds that are full of fresh and cooling water.

	The Bodhicharyavatara says: II.5

	Lakes and ponds that are adorned by lotuses
	With the fascinating music of the wild geese

	Harvests that need no sowing nor effort of cultivation
	And other ornaments for those that are worthy of worship.

4)))  And also:
	
	I offer the ornaments of this world of four continents,
	The white moon of an autumn night, with its rabbit's image,
	Garlanded by the constellations of its path,
	Auspiciously free from adverse influence of the planets,
	And the sun, the beauty of the bringer of day,
	With its blazing necklace of a thousand rays.

	
5))  And also:
	
	The billion worlds, from central mountain to outer circle,
	The whole array, with all their wish-fulfilling wealth,
	All of the buddha fields throughout the ten directions,
	Whose number is as many as all the sands of the oceans,
	Having received them into my mind, I offer them,
	To all the lord buddha sages together with their sons.

3))  The offering of things that are owned:

	Wish fulfilling...

	Magical vases and wish-fulfilling trees and cows,
	The eight auspicious substances and seven royal treasures.
	The seven personal treasures, the silken boots and all the rest
	I offer the holy patrons, the great compassionate ones.
	
	As for these mental offerings that fill the whole of space, the seven royal treasures are the precious, wheel, jewel, 
queen, minister, excellent steed, elephant, and general.
The eight auspicious substances are white mustard, durva grass, wood apple, vermilion, curds, the medicine bezoar, a 
mirror, and a conch shell coiling to the right.
	The seven personal treasures are silken boots, cushion, carriage, bedding, throne sword, and a lamb-skin, used as 
a rug.  All these are offered.

4))  offering the ocean of samadhi,

a)) 	As for the samadhi offering, by presenting good conduct
and clouds of offerings and so forth, visualize that they are immensely great:
	
	Filling the space of the sky by means of the mind of samadhi,
	I offer the outer, inner, and secret offerings,
	Great oceanic heaps of clouds of offerings.
	

b))

	1))  From the three aspects, as for the first:
	
	A blazing arbor like floating clouds of beautiful flowers,
	Heaps of clouds of amrita, with medicinal herbs and incense,
	Clouds of shining lamps, along with food and music,
	I offer to the accompaniment of melodious praise.

As to how this is done, the Sutra of the Palm Tree of the Three Jewels says:

	A canopy mostly made of various kinds of flowers
	Emitting rays of light from the array of brilliant flowers This with its array of various kinds of flowers,
	We offer to the mahatmas and the buddha sons.

	In the palms of our hands are offerings beyond thought
	As we offer these to one of the Victorious ones,
	We do the same to all of them without exception.
	The miraculous emanations of the rishis are like that.

	This is also like what is said in the Avatamsaka Sutra and also the Good Action says:

	These oceans of inexhaustible praises
	With all the ocean of the different sorts of song
	Fully expresses the virtues of all the victorious ones.
	Thus, we praise all the sugatas.

	2))  The two extraordinary offerings

As for the inner and secret offerings, of mind:
	    
	Emanating various clouds of offering goddesses
	Of grace and garlands, precious gems and songs and dances
	Having limitless clouds of the practice offering
	Pleasing all the Victorious ones as well as their sons.

	Visualize a host of the eight offering goddesses Vajra Form, Sound, Smell, Taste, and Touch, Mala, Lady 
Producer-of-appearance, and the goddess of Flowers, each with her respective offering, filling the sky and making 
offerings.  That is the offering.  This body which is held so dear is also offered as a servant of the three jewels.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says:  II.5

	Reaching to the limits of the vastness of space
	All this, which is the property of nobody at all

	Having been brought to mind, to these best of beings the sages
	Together with their sons, if these have been well-offered,
	May the holy patrons with their great compassion
	Accept these offerings and look upon us kindly.

	I, possessing no merit, am utterly destitute.
	I do not have any other wealth that I can offer.
	As these lords intend the benefit of others,
	For my benefit, may these powerful ones accept it.

	To the victorious ones, the buddhas and their sons
	In all may lives, I shall always offer all my bodies.
	May I be accepted by these excellent spiritual warriors....

iii)  Confessing evil deeds

	Throughout our lives:
	
	Let us confess the evil deeds that cause samsara.
	Arising from the habitual patterns of karma and kleshas,
	That we have been accustomed to from beginningless time.

	Here from the four aspects of confessing evil deeds, first there are the six gates to what is to be abandoned, evil 
deeds.  These are body, speech, and mind; and passion, aggression, and ignorance.  Toward our country, father and 
mother, preceptor, master and so forth, from beginningless time until the present, we have naturally done evil deeds, 
having the nature of the ten unwholesome actions and so forth, and if these are renounced, to all these subsequently we 
should give food and so forth.  The Excellent Action says:

	Whatever evil deeds we have committed
	Due to passion, aggression, and ignorance,
	Through body, speech, and likewise mind...

	There are evil deeds done by oneself, which one has made another do, or which one has not done, but in which 
one rejoices.  Because evil deeds obscure the celestial realms and liberation, they produce the sufferings of the lower 
realms.  The second method of application is the antidote four powers.  There is 1) the power of complete remorse 
which greatly repents the bad action.  When we having done something bad, by trying again there is 2) the power of 
conduct with good conduct as an antidote.  Having accepted a vow, 3) the power of control has authority over doing evil 
deeds.  As by having relied on the three jewels and bodhicitta evil deeds are exhausted, there is 4) the power of support.  
The Sutra Teaching the Four Dharmas says:

		Manjushri, if bodhisattvas possesses these four dharmas, all the evil deeds which have been 
performed and accumulated will be overcome.  What are these four?  The conduct of complete 
repentance, the conduct of the antidote, the power of control, and the power of support.
		As for the first, if we do an unwholesome action, we repent it greatly.  Second, if we do an 
unwholesome action, we try very hard to do a wholesome one.  Third, if we genuinely receive a vow, 
we attain control over not doing evil deeds.  Fourth, we go to refuge with the Buddha, Dharma, and 
Sangha, and do not give up bodhicitta.

	Third, within the way of application there are the preliminaries, the main topic, and what follows.  In 
preparation we should think of the immeasurable buddhas and bodhisattvas and go to them for refuge.  As for the main 
topic, we should remember all our evil deeds and by confessing and repenting of them, all the evil deeds of oneself and 
others, are visualized floating blackly above one's tongue.  By confessing them, from between the eyes of the buddhas and 
bodhisattvas light rays arise.  Visualize that they are immediately purified.  Then, after many light rays have arisen, 
visualize that all evil deeds are purified and the body becomes like crystal.  As for the words, the Bodhicharyavatara says: 
 II.27

	Dwelling in all the quarters of the universe,
	Complete and perfect buddhas and the bodhisattvas,
	You who are possessors of the great compassion,
	To you I join my palms and make this supplication.

	Here within samsara, from beginningless time
	Within this life, and also in may other lives
	Though I did not seek to do so, I have done evil deeds
	Or though I did not do them, I had them done by others.

	Confused by ignorance, I was overcome;
	And therefore I rejoiced in all these evil deeds;
	But now that I have seen they were pain-producing errors,
	Sincerely I confess them to the protecting lords.

	By me to the three jewels, the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha,
	To my father and mother, to the guru, and others
	Because of having the kleshas, I have done great harm,
	By actions of body and speech, and also in my mind.

By a multitude of wrong-doings I have engendered faults
	The evil deeds which I as an evil-doer have done
	And which I could not keep from doing in spite of myself,
	I confess them openly to the guides of the world.

	After that, the essence of whatever evil deeds that have been recognized is purified by being brought into 
meditative equanimity like space.  The Sutra of the Blossoming in the Ten Directions says:

	Whoever wants to repent and purify
	Should be straightforward and see things as they are.
	Those who are true will therefore view things truly.
	Those who see things truly will be free.
	That is supreme repentance and purification.

	Faults of evil deeds are perceived by the master.  Contemplating the master, prostration and offerings are done.  
Hanging the upper robe over one shoulder, say. "We supplicate that evil deeds may be abandoned."  After that 
supplication, take refuge and arouse bodhicitta.  Then, having mentally visualized our evil deeds above one's tongue, we 
say,

	"Whatever evil deeds we have done to the three jewels, to the master, our parents, or other sentient 
beings, by the power of ignorance, we repent and purify all these."

	By thinking this forcefully, the bodhicitta in the five eyes of all the buddhas and bodhisattvas dwelling in the ten 
directions will completely grasp us.  For the purpose of attaining the enlightenment of the buddhas, say three times,

	"We confess these.  From now on we shall try to control ourselves."

	After that, enter for a little while into emptiness meditation.  Then, from the heart centers of the representations, 
white light rays arise.  Visualize that body, speech, and mind are purified.
	Then in the sight of the master, request the vow.  Afterwards the students give thanks,  Here at first say the 
liturgy with "I," for oneself.  Later "we" is said in practicing with others.

	Fourth, as for producing knowledge of being able to train in these, the Sutra of the Great Lion's Roar Requested 
by Manjushri says:

		The karma of evil deeds which we have done because of unawareness should be confessed.  Afterwards, 
by recognizing and confessing our faults, we shall not remain associated with that karma.

The Revelation of Instructions says:

	Those who produce bad karma through evil deeds,
	By virtue can put an end to that bad karma,
	Like the sun appearing, rising out of clouds,


The Sutra of the Treasury of Buddhahood says:

	Even those who have murdered their parents or a buddha, By meditating on emptiness are completely 
liberated.

The Revelation of Instructions says:

	Those who have done intolerable deeds,
	Those who are blocked by having disparaged me, 
	By fully confessing and controlling themselves
	By this will be fundamentally released.

The Spiritual Letter says:

	Whoever was careless, then has become careful
	Will be as beautiful as the cloudless moon,
And as happy as Angulimala
	Was made by attainment of the joy of seeing. 

iv)  rejoicing in virtue

	As for the fourth limb:

	May we always rejoice in the limitless stores of merit
	That have been accumulated by sentient beings.

	If we meditate with rejoicing on our sincere and natural wholesomeness, we will attain the root of virtue, 
equanimity, and the merit will be immeasurable.  The Prajqaparamitasamgatha says:

	To weigh the Mount Merus of the cubed thousand worlds
	And total up the measure is logically possible.
	But this cannot be done with the goodness of rejoicing.

	Sincerely rejoice like that, and say these words about the arising of good conduct:

	All the merits of beings in the ten directions
	Once- and non-returners, and pratyekabuddhas,
	The buddha sons as well as all the victorious ones
	As many as they may be, we rejoice in them.

v)  Urging to turn the wheel of Dharma

	As for the fifth limb:

	So that all beings without remainder may cross over
	We ask that the unsurpassable wheel of Dharma be turned.

The Buddha Bhagavat, after becoming enlightened, did not teach the Dharma until Bhrama offered a mandala and 
supplicated him.  Similarly, visualizing that we are in the presence of the gurus, we supplicate them, saying:

	All those who are the lights of the worlds of the ten directions,
	Who have unobstructedly gained enlightenment and awakening,
	We urge those protectors  for the benefit of all beings
	To turn the unsurpassable wheel of the Dharma

	By that obscurations of abandoning Dharma are cleared away.  From then on, from generation to generation, our 
being will always inseparably hold the holy Dharma.

vi)  Requesting not to pass into nirvana

	As for the sixth limb:

	From now until the ocean of samsara is emptied
	We supplicate the buddhas and the buddha sons
	Always to remain, not passing into nirvana.

	Just as formerly our teacher supplicated the spiritual friend Tsanda not to pass into nirvana, so as many buddha 
bhagavats as dwell in the world and guru spiritual friends who in their last morning intend to pass into nirvana, we 
supplicate to remain until samsara is emptied:

	The teachers who intend to pass into nirvana
	We request you with palms joined
	To remain for as many kalpas as there are atoms in the universe
	For the peace and welfare of beings.

	By that evil deeds that bring about short life, untimely death, and other dangers to life are purified, and 
immeasurable life is established.

vii)  Dedicating the merit to enlightenment

	As for the seventh limb:
	
	By this merit may we, as well as all sentient beings,
	One and all without exception become enlightened.

	We dedicate it so that the virtuous roots of ourselves and others may have the goal of complete enlightenment, 
and so that that transformation may be the cause of others arousing bodhicitta:

	By prostrating, offering, confessing,
	Rejoicing, requesting to teach, and asking to remain,
	Whatever trifle of virtue we have accumulated,
	We dedicate for the sake of enlightenment.

	As for the cause of dedication, we are connected with all of the virtue of ourselves and others throughout the 
three times.   The Avatamsaka Sutra says:

	All the virtue as that sentient beings may have
	That was and will be, and now is being produced,
	The purity of all the goodness there is,
	All that goodness is in each of us.

	Dedicating the merit of this should be done only by buddhas.  The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		Subhuti, these virtuous roots, are to be dedicated only by the buddhas. They are not to be 
dedicated by shravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and those on other levels.

	The purpose is so that all sentient beings may attain enlightenment.  The same text says:

		It is dedicated for the sake of all sentient beings, and not merely for one's own complete 
attainment.  This is because, by so doing, one would fall to the level of the shravakas and 
pratyekabuddhas.

	All dharmas are non-existent yet apparent, like dreams and illusions.  In dedicating merit, we should know that 
merit too is like a dream or illusion.  The same text says:

		Subhuti, all dharma are like a dream, like an illusion.  Merit too should be dedicated as being 
completely like a dream, like an illusion.

The Sutra Requested by Bhadra says:

	Whoever does not perceive a gift that is given
	As being a gift, or being given by anyone,
	By this same equality of giving,
	May goodness become complete and be perfected.

	If, on the contrary, through conception or attachment, one thinks of the virtuous roots as really and truly existing, 
that is not good.  The Prajqaparamitasamgatha says:

	Just like eating good food that is mixed with poison
	It is taught that the whiteness of dharma is overcome
	By being mixed with discursive thoughts and conception.

Also it says there:

		Why so?  When there are no characteristics, there can be dedication to enlightenment.  But 
when there are characteristics, there can be no dedication to enlightenment.

	Therefore, we should be without conception or attachment.  The Abhisamayalankara says:

	When this has the aspect of being without characteristics,
	Then it has the characteristic of being right.

As for the essence of dedication, by directing the virtuous roots to enlightenment, the mind is transformed and its power is 
bound by these particular words.

 The Display of Qualities of the Field of Manjushri says:

	All dharmas, having been conditioned by these,
	Are consecrated by the dedicated roots.
	Whoever puts forth such an aspiration,
	Such a one will surely establish suchness

	As for the difference between dedication and aspiration, words and vows of aspiration after the merit of the 
wholesome causes have been dedicated, are dedications.  Wishes which are merely wholesome causes dedicated are 
aspirations.
	Moreover, dedication and the power of the words transform the aspiration of the giver into enlightenment and so 
forth.  What teachers of today say is said from a viewpoint without certain knowledge.  Moreover, since this is personal 
testimony, the guru and the Sangha, if they follow those words, accord with establishing mental partialities.  When the 
words are taught to be truly established up to the first bhumi, they do not follow properly.  Visualize that as witnesses of 
our establishing dedication in the sky in front, buddhas and bodhisattvas are heaped up like heaps of clouds.  Becoming as 
kind as the Victorious Ones in former lives, when they gave their own flesh and blood to evil spirits, say as has been 
taught:

	By this merit may all attain omniscience.
	May it defeat the enemy wrong-doing.
	From the stormy waves of birth, old-age, sickness, and death,
	From the ocean of samsara may we free all beings.

	Some say that after this we should expand into empty space, but this is completely improper.  If it is asked, but 
isn't what they have done conceptionless?  Phenomena appear without intellectual understanding.  Merit is like a dream. 
The one who collects it is like a dream.  The practitioner is also like a dream.  Though non-attachment to three spheres  
as truly existing is called objectlessness,  empty meditation is nihilism without any merit at all.  We should understand 
this to be a bad tradition and abandon it.
	In general, whatever merit is produced, the preliminary preparation of excellent  bodhicitta has been 
accomplished; the main basis, excellent prajqa without conception or characteristics, has been accomplished; and the 
conclusion, the dream-like dedication has been accomplished.  Connection with these three excellencies is called "merit in 
accord with liberation."  There is no other cause of the path of buddhahood than this.  If this is not accomplished, "that 
which is in accord with merit," in the sense of accompanying the fruition of particular merits, should be known as being 
exhaustible.

b)  How one's being is purified by this

	As for the purpose of the aforementioned seven limbs, for example:

	Just as, in a piece of cloth that is cleansed by washing,
	The colors with which it is dyed shine through in clarity,
	Within the mind that is trained by these preliminaries,
	Supreme and actual mind will shine through in one's being.

	If defilements hinder the arising of genuine mind, it will not arise.  If these hindrances are purified, it will arise.  
Just so, a filthy cloth that is no longer colored needs laundering  is to make its colors be as they are.

c)  How those that have this foundation are immeasurable

	Those who produce the seven limbs:
	
	And so the limitless fruit of this meritorious practice
	Encompasses the whole of space like dharmadhatu.

	The Sutra Requested by Glorious Secret says:

	Whoever, having visualized the buddhas
	Of the ten directions and three times,
	Joins the palms, prostrating and offering
	Rejoicing in merit, confessing evil deeds,
	Urging to teach, and asking to remain,
	As for the heap of merits of doing this,
	It always arises filling the whole of space.

b.  the actual arousing of bodhicitta
{{574.3}}
	Now as for the actual main ritual, after doing the preliminaries:

	Therefore, after having three times gone for refuge
	To the Buddha and Dharma, and to the excellent Sangha,
	Supplicate the lords and their sons to consider us.

	Just as the former buddhas together with their sons
	Dwelled in the practice of arousing bodhicitta.
	So from now on, in order to benefit sentient beings
	May I dwell in the practice of arousing bodhicitta.
	So that those who have not crossed over may cross over,
	So that those who have not been liberated may be liberated,
	So that those who are not released may be released.
	May we establish all sentient beings within nirvana.

	And also:

	From this time on, taking this name which has been given to me, I so and so, until attaining the essence of 
enlightenment, go for refuge to the buddha bhagavats, the supreme ones among those who go on two legs, the supreme 
ones among those who are without desire.
	To the holy Dharma, the supreme ones of collections, and to the Sangha of those who are non-returners because 
they are noble ones, to those three and to all the buddhas dwelling in the ten directions I supplicate.  I supplicate the great 
bodhisattvas dwelling on the ten bhumis.  I supplicate the vajra-holder gurus.  Just as formerly the buddha bhagavats and 
bodhisattva-mahasattvas aroused the mind of great enlightenment, so I, [the name that was given], too in order that 
sentient beings who have not crossed over may cross over, and those who have not been liberated may be liberated, and 
those who have not been released may be released, and those who have not gone completely beyond suffering may go 
beyond suffering, from this time on until reaching the essence of enlightenment, arouse the mind of great enlightenment.  
(Say that three times)

Also, as it is said in the Bodhicharyavatara, after one has previously done the supplication to the three objects of 
supplication [as above] : 3.23-4

	Just as formerly the all sugatas
	Aroused the wish for supreme enlightenment,
	And, having done so, dwelled upon the bhumis
	Of the training of a bodhisattva

	So, for the liberation of all beings,
	I shall arouse this wish for enlightenment,
	And I shall train successively in the bhumis
	Of this training, just as they have done.

Say that three times.

c.  Afterwards, as for the short teaching of exertion in the two bodhicittas,

	Now that this sequence of stages of bodhicitta has been established, guard the learning and try to produce its 
natural benefits.  As for the ritual:
	
	Therefore, let us try to arouse these two bodhicittas,
	Recite the liturgy three times every day and night.

	Cultivating bodhicitta, supplicating, and so forth have many purposes.

4.  The purpose of the three recitations of that ritual

	The first arouses the bodhicitta of aspiration
	The second arouses the bodhicitta of entering.
	By the third these two become stable and are purified.

	The Ocean Cloud says:

		By the first, second, and third recitations, aspiring, entering, and both are made stable and 
excellent.

	Aspiring and entering have a single essence and are not different things.  Though in the ritual they are joined as 
if they were different and three different characteristics arise from the three recitations, they are not different in essence.  
This is because their nature is a single mental substance, a single time, and a single action.  The Bodhisattvabhumi says:

		Since these two, aspiring and entering, are inseparable in nature, they are a unity in producing 
benefit for others.  It should be known that they are not different in nature.

5.  as for meditation on joy  {{577.3}}

	Now that we have aroused bodhicitta:


	Now we are the remedy for sentient beings.
	We have a bodhisattva name as the Buddha's child.
	Within samsara we fearlessly benefit sentient beings.
	We are always concerned with their benefit alone.
	Thus there is a meaning to samsaric human life.

	From the instant bodhicitta is aroused, it is held.  Those who have this mind unimpaired are known in the 
samsaric world as bodhisattvas.  If we do not impair the virtue of our own family, but increase it, we meditate in 
immeasurable joy.  Directly or indirectly, we benefit sentient beings.  If we cannot, still we aspire to do so.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says:  3.25

	Thus by those who are intelligent,
	Having aroused this excellent bodhicitta,
	Having entered into and expanded it,
	Mind will be ennobled and uplifted.

	Today I have the fruition of my life,
	I have gained the meaning of human existence,
	I am born into the family of the Buddha
	I have become a child of the Buddha.

	Whatever I may do from this time on,
	I will try to act in accord with my family.
	I will try to act so as not to trouble
	This family which is so faultless and noble.

	Like a blind man finding a precious jewel
	In a heap of filth and discarded rubbish,
	Just like that, and seemingly by chance,
	Bodhicitta has been born in me.

	How many terms are there for bodhisattvas?  There are sixteen.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	They are known as bodhisattva, and mahasattva,
	Wise ones, and the excellent luminous ones,
	The buddha sons, the ground of victorious ones.
	Buddha producers, or the buddha sprouts,
	Skillful ones, and excellent noble ones,
	Ship-captain guides, and the supremely renowned,
	Compassionate ones, and those who have great merit,
	Noble lords, and possessors of the Dharma.

	These words are said to spread the benefit of bodhicitta to those who have not yet aroused the attitude of 
enlightenment, These words are said to spread the benefit of bodhicitta.  The forty-fourth Chapter of the Gandavyuha 
Sutra  tells how Sudhana, after Manjushri aroused in him the wish for enlightenment, went ever more southward to seek 
this learning.  At the bank of the southern ocean, in a tower called "having an essence ornamented by Vairochana" 
surrounded by a retinue of many hundreds of thousands of bodhisattvas, Maitreya was teaching the Dharma.  Sudhana 
saw him from a distance of five hundred pagtse.  He was glad and rejoiced, and did ecstatic prostrations.  Having seen 
him, Maitreya extended his right hand, and placed it on Sudhana's head.  To the retinue he contentedly expressed 
Sudhana's praises:

	Look now, how with thoughts that are completely pure
	This Sudhana, who is born of stable, enduring riches,
	Seeking the practice of supreme enlightenment,
	This knowing and capable one has come before me now. 

Also it says there: 

	Welcome, you who are kind as well as compassionate.
	Welcome to the vast mandala of Maitreya 
	Welcome to that which viewed, completely pacifies,
	And which is not exhausting at the time of practice.

	This and so forth was taught.  Sudhana joined his palms and requested.  "Noble one, if I truly enter into 
unsurpassable enlightenment, please teach how I shall earnestly seek the practice of a bodhisattva? 
		The answer was, "O son of noble family, You have been completely accepted by the spiritual friend.   
Why so?
Son of noble family, bodhicitta is like the seed of all buddha dharmas.  It is like the growing field of the white dharmas of 
all beings.  From the essence and benefit of that up to the examples, Sudhana having properly been taught, had these 
benefits and immeasurable others.

	What is taught here is extensively presented in the sutra.

6.  the three aspects that are always to be trained in to take advantage of the opportunity.

a.  The brief teaching

		After arousing bodhicitta, there should be the stage of serious training in it.  This is how to take 
advantage of the opportunity.

	Having germinated these seedlings of the two bodhicittas
	Within the good soil that is the mind of sanity,
	Try hard to keep them and increase their purity.

	By arousing the luminous mind of bodhicitta repeatedly, things become purer.  As for maras and strayings which 
we have not able to cut.  The Sutra of the Ten Dharmas says:

	The precious jewel by nature
	Is a source of blazing light.
	If we accept and reject,
	That beauty is torn in two.

	So even having the gotra
	Realization of bodhicitta
	Must be free of dualistic extremes
	So that maras do not arise.

	After the sprout of this attitude has arisen, grasp it without deterioration.  Purify defilements and strive only in 
means of increasing virtue.  These are established chiefly by the practice of guarding the supreme mind.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says:  5.18

	Thus as for this attitude of bodhicitta
	I should hold to it and try to guard it well.
	Aside from this practice of guarding the mind of enlightenment
	What is the use of the many other practices?

Also it says there:  5.1

	Those who have the wish to guard this discipline
	Should keep and guard the mind, using their fullest attention.
	If we have not trained in the discipline of mind,
	We shall not be able to guard and keep that discipline.

	By letting the elephant of mind go free,
	It will produce the harm of the unremitting hell.
	But in this way a mad elephant, who is unrestrained,
	Will not do such harm as an uncontrolled mind can do.

	If the elephant of mind is truly tied,
	On all sides by the rope of constant mindfulness,
	We shall be in a state that is without all fear
	And everything virtuous will come into our hands.

b.  The extensive explanation of exchanging self and other and so forth,

	Here is the extensive explanation of how is it grasped, purified, and cultivated:

	I shall take in all the suffering of sentient beings.
	May my happiness become that of these beings.
	May we never be separate until they are enlightened.
	Let us practice such sending and taking in our thoughts.
	
	I shall meditate on the four immeasurables,
	Which are cultivated in the case of aspiration.
	Abandoning whatever does not accord with this,

	Thereby let us guard the mind of bodhicitta.
	That which is cultivated in the case of entering,
	Is said to be the practice of the six paramitas.
	Try to abandon whatever does not accord with this,

	Resting in the nature of aspiring and entering is said to be grasping the mind of enlightenment.  Because what 
does not accord with this is abandoned, our effort becomes purified.
	Cultivating the exchange of our own happiness with the suffering of others is called "cultivating the mind of 
bodhicitta."  Thus, we can cultivate a great deal joy and happiness, and while we always have happiness alone, we 
ourselves bear the burden of sentient beings, and equalize self and other.  That self and other should be exchanged is the 
collective instruction of the sutras.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	Without discouragement I should gather the supports
	And making a great effort, I should master myself,
	Seeing that there is equality of oneself and other,
	I should therefore make an exchange of self and other.

	Here as the first topic, when the immensity of the task of benefiting sentient beings and the immensity of 
realizing enlightenment is heard, without discouragement, thinking, "How could I do that?"  one should try to do so.  This 
is the fundamental point.  Moreover, if lower sentient beings attain the human body, if I from now on make an effort, they 
will be established in enlightenment.  If these lower ones having looked at the teachings of attaining enlightenment, think 
that it is difficult, the Bodhicharyavatara says:  7.17

	If I say, "how shall I be enlightened,"
	Discouraged, I will not accomplish it.
	That is the reason why the tathagata,
	The one who teaches truly, taught this truth.

	Gnats and flies on meat and honey bees 
	Likewise mosquitoes and other bugs and worms
	Even these by great enough force of effort,
	Will gain enlightenment so difficult to attain.
	
	One Like me with the gotra and human birth
	Recognizing benefit and harm,
	If I keep to bodhisattva conduct
	Why should I not attain enlightenment?

The Sutra Requested by Laksang says:

		Laksang, Moreover, a bodhisattva should train in this way, thinking, "If even those who have 
become lions, tigers, dogs, jackals, vultures, cranes, crows, owls, worms, bees, and carrion flies will 
attain enlightenment, those like me who have become human beings, because of that life, why should 
we not make an equal effort at attaining enlightenment
		Laksang, moreover a bodhisattva should train in this way, thinking, "If a hundred people or a 
thousand have realized and attained buddhahood, why should I too not realize and attain it?

The Display of the Basket Sutra says:

	Then the power of Avalokiteshvara arose from Singha Ling.  In the country Destructible Realm in the 
great city "Place of Excrement and Urine," from a place where there were a hundred thousand kinds of 
insects, at that time, an emanation arisen from the power of Avalokiteshvara arose in form of the sound 
of the insects, saying, "I prostrate to the Buddha.
		These insects afterwards remembered "I prostrate to the Buddha."  Having conquered the 
twenty-peaked mountain of the view of a transitory collection, all these became a bodhisattva named 
Fragrant Perfume, who was born in the world-realm of Sukhavati.

	There are two ways in which we should make an effort to liberate the limitless sentient beings who have been our 
fathers and mothers.  Even if we have made no effort at all in regard to the suffering of dwelling in samsara, if we 
accomplish enlightenment, it all will be conquered.  If we have not previously accomplished that, there is samsara.  Since 
samsara will occur, we should make an effort to do that.  If one will not bear any suffering of fatigue for others, since in 
the womb one will certainly bear limitless suffering, which is hard to bear, one should be without discouragement.  As for 
this,
The Precious Mala says:

	For the benefit of measureless sentient beings,
	Desiring a measureless enlightenment,
	One produces a merit without measure.
	From this  state of immeasurable enlightenment
	By the accumulation of the four immeasurables
	We shall not be obstructed and kept off far away.

	If we do this, there will be obtained
	What is known as "Limitless merit" And "limitless wisdom. "
	By those the fearful sufferings of body and mind
	Will be quickly cleared away and cease to be.

	By one's having a body in the lower realms due to evil deeds,
	Sufferings of hunger, thirst, and so forth will arise.
	Not made by evil deeds, but by merit,
	There is no other samsara.
	
	As for the mental suffering due to stupidity,
	Arising from craving, fear, desire, and so forth,
	By the wisdom that does not depend on them,
	These and that suffering will quickly be abandoned.

	By such suffering of body and of mind,
	If we thus have been untouched and completely unwounded,
	If we have reached the end of our time within the world,
	How will we be led by the world, so that we are sad?

	If suffering were going to be short,
	Why speak of its being long and hard to bear?
	If we were happy because there was no suffering,
	How could we fall into harm for a limitless time?

	Here, if we did not have any bodily suffering,
	How could there be any mental suffering?
	As for this because of compassion in the world,
	We remain here, staying for a very long time.

	Thinking in this way, we will not be discouraged,
	Having the attitude that buddhahood is far off.
	Having exhausted defilement, for the sake of virtue,
	One should always strive to attain that blessed state.

	If one thinks, "how could one bear to remain thus for a long time within samsara for the benefit of sentient 
beings?"  that is not how it is.  Since bodhicitta exists, one is happy, and since in that sense there is no suffering, one can 
bear it.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 7.28ff

	By merit the body will be in a state of happiness.
	And when because of knowledge the mind has become happy,
	Though they remain in samsara for the benefit of beings,
	How will those who have compassion then be sad?

	As for this, because of the power of bodhicitta,
	Having exhausts the power of former evil deeds,
	One will therefore gather up an ocean of merit.
	This is explained as better than the shravakas.

	Therefore, mounted on the horse of bodhicitta,
	Which clears away all weariness and desperation,
	One will go from happiness to happiness.
	Knowing bodhicitta, who could then despair?

	All sentient beings have the nature of illusion, whose painting-like phenomena and space appear as the 
primordial unborn.  Therefore, in truth there is nothing that needs to be done, and we should rejoice.  The Spiritual Letter 
says:

	As for mind it should be understood
	Like paintings done with water, earth, and stone.

The Edifice of the Three Jewels says:   586.5

		For example, though the space of the sky has been there for more kalpas than there are grains 
of sand in the river Ganges, it has no sadness or depression.  The space of the sky is not born, 
destroyed, burned up,
	or separated.
		Why so?  Because the space of the sky is not a real thing.  Similarly, for the bodhisattva who 
knows that all dharmas are not real things, the attitudes of sadness, weariness, and depression will not 
be produced.

	We need not be concerned with establishing enlightenment and performing benefits for others.  These manners 
also are thought to arise according to the oral instructions of the mahayana.  We should establish thirteen varieties of 
benefit. What are these?  All sentient beings are equal in having been our fathers and mothers again and again, are equal. 
 As at that time by their kindness there was only benefit, one should return their kindness and do benefit for sentient 
beings.  The Noble Sutra of Complete Nirvana says:

		This great earth has been made merely as a lump the size of a pea.  If one counts the single 
sentient beings who have not been my father and mother, though this great earth is exhausted, the 
count of a even single sentient being who has not been my father and mother will not be exhausted.

	Moreover, if we count the times we have been benefited by sentient beings, it is a greater burden of deeds than 
we can keep in mind, so that we shall be overcome.  To clear it away, we should also benefit sentient beings.  The Lung 
Namje  says:

	Plains and mountains and oceans are not my burden;
	My great burden is unacknowledged deeds.

	Moreover if sentient beings are happy and well-off, though indeed we do not need to benefit them, since for us 
they formerly did evil deeds, if they are oppressed by the sufferings of samsara and the lower realms, in order to clear 
away the faults done by us, we should benefit sentient beings.
	Moreover, sentient beings as one wish happiness and do not want suffering, but, because the means of doing this 
is obscured for them, they are tormented by suffering alone, and in order to eliminate this, we should benefit sentient 
beings.
	Moreover, though immeasurable sentient beings were led by the former buddhas of the past, they were not 
uplifted and those buddhas were not able to tame them.  If these are not led by us, the gotra of the mahayana family will be 
broken.  Sentient beings will be without refuge or protector, and so we should benefit them.
	Moreover, by the force of I and ego-grasping, they are blown about by the wind of the kleshas.  Since they have 
gone wrong, if I speak an aspiration that I will make an effort in order to tame them, what benefit should be done for 
others?
	Moreover, though all dharmas are empty and egoless, sentient beings who do not realize this, like people in a 
dream, should inspire our compassion. If they are not guided, since compassion in particular will be killed, also we should 
do benefit.
	Moreover, though we wander here in samsara, sentient beings giving rise to kleshas of resentment and so forth 
arise.  Now, even if the object of establishing personal enlightenment becomes more attractive than sentient beings, still I 
should benefit them.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	Many who have pleased these sentient beings
	Have reached perfection by their doing so.

	Moreover, by having really performed benefit for others, because the power of benefit for oneself is established, 
also one should benefit them.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	What truly establishes self-benefit is also this itself.

	Moreover, if one performs benefit for sentient beings, since the buddhas will be pleased, also we should perform 
benefits.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 6.119

	Unless sentient beings are made to rejoice,
	There is no other way to please the victorious ones.

	Moreover, though bodhicitta may be aroused, if benefit is not established for sentient beings, we will fall into the 
state of shravakas and pratyekabuddhas, and therefore we should benefit sentient beings.
	In brief, while even one sentient has not been liberated from samsara, until then remaining in samsara, we  
should do benefits.  Day and night without sadness and weariness, if I try for ten hundred million kalpas, and know that 
within the being of one sentient being happy mind will arise for an instant, I should try with great power of mind.  The 
Mahayanasutralankara says:  590.4

	The buddha sons rely on making supreme exertion.
	If they completely ripen the host of sentient beings,
	In order that one other mind may be rendered happy,
	They will be happy to work for ten thousand million kalpas.

That is how benefits should be performed.  The supporting troops  are of four kinds.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 7.31

	Devotion , steadiness, joy, and release.

	First, the troops of devotion.  Since one is devoted to the beneficial qualities of bodhicitta, happiness is 
established and unhappiness is rejected.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 7.31

	Devotion is produced by fear of suffering
	And thinking of its beneficial qualities.

	Second, the troops of steadiness.  If I do not arouse bodhicitta, I am just giving up.  Having aroused it, by means 
of sending it forth, even thinking, "this will be bad," we should  persist and not lose it.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 7.46

	Then with the observance of Vajra Victory Banner
	Undertaking that, one should meditate with pride. 

	First examine the situation's possibilities 
  	Seeing whether it should be undertaken or not.
	It is better not to undertake it at all
	Than that having once begun, we should then turn back.
{{591.2}}
Third, the troops of renouncing.  Sometimes not harming sentient beings depends on the minor precepts of the discipline 
as explained  being given to equanimity.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:  5.42

	As for relating to fear and celebrations and so on,
	If one cannot do it, then one should just relax.

	Fourth, the troops of joy.  By enjoying and rejoicing in benefiting sentient beings and practicing the discipline, 
one enters into it.  The Letter to Students says:

	Whoever for the benefit of others cuts off their heads
	Is like a lotus, the rejoicing eye opening treasury of vision For its own benefit by a white parasol covered,
	The divine level too should be thought of like a sharp sword with whetted edge.

	The wholesome is what we should devote ourselves to or since it is the cause of the celestial realms and 
liberation, it should always be done.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	In spacious fragrant coolness in the heart of a lotus
	Made brilliant by the food of the teachings of the Conqueror
	My excellent body rising as the Sage's light makes it blossom,
	Remaining before the tathagata, By virtue becoming his.

The Bodhicharyavatara says: 7.42

	Wherever and they go, there by the merit of that
	They will be presented with the worship of fruition.

	In terms of the viewpoint of sentient beings, since of all sentient beings none has not been our father, mother, 
and relative, we should benefit them.  By becoming a field establishing enlightenment, from that viewpoint we benefit 
them; and since buddhahood produces joy also from that viewpoint we establish benefit.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 
6.113

	Sentient beings as well as the Victorious Ones
	Likewise make buddhadharma be established in us.
	So why do we not have such respect for sentient beings
	In the way we do for the Victorious Ones.

Also it says there: 6.125    {{592.4}}

	In order to bring rejoicing to the tathagatas,
	From now on, with true comportment serve the world.

	Meditating on self and other as equal explains what is done in the ordinary equality meditation.  As for the 
extraordinary, first producing the perception of one like an enemy as one's mother, see it as a happy occasion for oneself 
and if ultimate good is established, rejoicing, since these are without distinction, meditate thinking "How may I establish 
this person's benefit?"  From one sentient being, one should meditate up to those as limitless as space.
	As for exchanging self and other, from the training on that, whatever happiness and merit one has, all that one 
completely gives forth thinking, "by that merit incidentally may they attain the higher realms and ultimately buddhahood, 
may I be covered with the suffering of their bad karma exchanged for that, and having received that, by its ripening within 
my being, for their benefit, may I experience many sufferings in the lower realms."
	From the depths of the bone core of the heart, having trained the mind in such an exchange with one sentient 
being, one should go on to them all.  By that, because of beginningless very powerful evil deeds, I later will experience the 
lower realms and so forth, much karma will be exhausted, and much happiness will be attained.  The Bodhicharyavatara 
says: 8.131   593.5

	My happiness and the sufferings of others,
	If these situations are not truly exchanged,
	The state of buddhahood will not be reached,
	And in samsara I will have no joy.

	Here some say:  "All dharmas are similarly conditions of this. At the summit of aspiration they are consecrated." 
If one says that, it is not proper.  This is because oneself would always be falling into samsara.  Also when something 
unmeritorious has been done, since one is aiming at enlightenment, if one so dedicates it, it would be meritorious, since 
there is dedication to this special aim.  Though in so saying words of Mara have indeed been produced, nevertheless such 
an answer should be explained.  If for the sake of others one aspires to later remaining within extremes and so wandering 
in samsara, then it follows that even Manjushri is wandering there.  His prayer says:

	For the sake of every sentient being
	May I later remain within extremes.

and that would send him there.  Even if one exchanges self and other, there is no real exchange with sentient beings.  
Even when there is, it is completely exhausted, since there would be immense merit.  Since the mentally exchanged 
sentient beings and oneself are both one's own mind, the suffering of others will not ripen within us, and our own 
happiness will not go forth to others.  Thus, it is taught that no karmic effect is transferred.  The Hundred Actions says:   
{{594.5}}

	What is done by oneself is not transferred to others.
	And the karma of others likewise is not ours.
If the share collected by one were to be effective
	Sentient beings would be obscured by darkness.

	As for evil deeds, since they are not virtuous roots, it is not suitable to dedicate them as a cause.  Other than the 
lower realms and suffering, they are not the cause of anything else.

The Lung says:     {{595.1}}

	These virtuous roots are dedicated to unsurpassable enlightenment.

	From that, it is therefore taught that the roots of evil deeds are not dedicated to unsurpassable enlightenment.  
Therefore, virtuous causes are what is dedicated by aspiration, and though this is done, unsuitable causes are not also 
dedicated, just as space is not dedicated to enlightenment.  Therefore, do not think in such a way, and if this should not 
even be heard, what need to speak of proclaiming a view that accords with it?  As purifying and augmenting will be 
explained below, they are not elaborated here.

c.  How one should rely on mindfulness and awareness,

In this way, day and night:

	Always mindful, ever-aware, and being careful,
	I will abandon what is unwholesome, creating an ocean of virtue.

	Thus by those three meanings, the chief of disciplines is guarding one's own mind from the assembly of kleshas. 
 Moreover the mind should be guarded by mindfulness, awareness, and, carefulness.  	Here by being mindful of 
their beneficial qualities and disadvantages of their degeneration one will not be harmed, and by remembering one's own 
essence, should not be allowed to degenerate.  Like the string of a tensed bow, its being just so is very important.  Why so? 
 If mindfulness and awareness degenerate, the wholesome degenerates, and the non-wholesome easily arises in an instant. 
 The Bodhicharyavatara says:  5.27   {{596.1}}

	The bandits of non-awareness are following
	After the degeneration of mindfulness;
	Though merits have been fully accumulated,
	As if they were snatched away by a thieves and robbers,
	One will have to go to the lower realms.

	As for the kleshas, this pack of thieves and robbers,
	They are seeking their chance to get to us.
	When they have found their chance, they ravish virtue.
	Even lives of the higher realms are overcome.

	Therefore we should keep hold of our mindfulness
	Never letting it go to turn into somewhere else.
	If it has gone, there will be harms of the lower realms.
	Thinking of that keep a close track on mindfulness.

	Mind should be guarded with completely pure awareness of discipline, its beneficial qualities, the disadvantages 
of its degeneration, the faults and virtues of samsara and nirvana, and so forth.  For example, older generations of the 
world by being aware of many good and bad natures, put aside evil actions and entered into good ones and likewise into 
the Dharma.  By being aware of all virtuous aspects day and night, they actually established them.  Within their three 
gates they examined virtue and non-virtue as they arose, and counted the little pebbles of these.  Putting aside non-virtue 
and entering into virtue, they guarded awareness.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:  5.18

	The situation of the body and mind
	Ought to be examined over and over again.
	Just doing this, to tell the situation briefly,
	Is the definition of guarding one's awareness

	Thus mindfulness and awareness are what is chiefly guarded.  The same text says: 5.23       {{{597.1}}

	As for those of you who wish to guard the mind,
	Guard your mindfulness and likewise your awareness
	Even if in doing so you lose your life. 
	I thus join my palms in my beseeching you.


	Also guard the mind by being careful.  With self-control comes, there is self-respect in not producing the kleshas. 
 Having had to be ashamed before others, one is conscientious about guarding against non-virtue.  These two have the 
essence of carefulness,  and by that one guards against the kleshas.
	Moreover, by being careful there is elimination of the kleshas and the virtuous activities of liberation.  The 
Compendium of Abhidharma says:

		What is carefulness?  When having tried to live with non-passion, non-aggression, and non-
ignorance, we meditate on virtuous dharmas, and guards the mind against all defiled dharmas, we 
possess the karma that completes all the perfections and fully establishes them.

	If carefulness exists, all goodness and virtue will be established.  If it does not exist, they will not.  It is also 
taught to be the root of all he dharmas of buddhahood.
The Spiritual Letter says:{{598..}}

	Carefulness is the place of amrita.  Without that care,
	It is taught that one achieves the place of death.
	Therefore, in order that virtuous dharmas may increase,
	Always act devotedly with carefulness.

The Samadhiraja Sutra says:

	Generosity, discipline, and likewise patience and so on,
	As many virtuous dharmas as anyone may mention,
	The root of all of these virtues is this carefulness.

The Sutra Requested by Jewel-Crown says:

		What is carefulness?  It is just that which establishes virtuous dharmas.  By the carefulness of 
the bodhisattvas, the essence of enlightenment is made beautiful.  It is the root of the dharmas of 
enlightenment.  It is the place of the dharmas that establish wisdom.  The main support  {{598.4}} of 
virtuous dharmas is individually grasped.  Formerly heard dharmas do not go to waste.  Dharmas that 
should be gathered are gathered.  Dharmas of obscuration are not gathered.

	Thus if mindfulness, awareness, and carefulness are not accomplished, what we have formerly heard 
degenerates.  Though mere faith, hearing, and effort exist, they are covered with fallen muddiness.  Since they are impure, 
there is no liberation from samsara and the lower realms.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:
{{598.e}}

	For one who has a mind without awareness,
	Hearing, contemplating, and meditating
	Will be like water in a leaky vase.
	They will not remain in memory.
	
	Even in those who have heard any things,
	Faith, and any genuine perserverence
	Will be transgressed like falling in the mud
	If there is the error of non-awareness.

	On all occasions examine the mind, and whatever distractions there may be, if we have to enter into them, what 
is on the side of virtue and accords with that, with its retinue, we sincerely devote ourselves to its proliferation, and that 
non-virtue should not increase.  When the virtuous exists alone, dhyana and so forth will enter into absolute virtue, and 
produce equanimity without remainder.  Whatever and wherever something is to be produced, other than that many 
imperfections should not also be entered into.  This is because they are hindrances to establishing that.
	Thus, at the time of generosity, even if there is supreme discipline, except for merely not transgressing it, effort 
in it is rested in equanimity, and we must put our effort into generosity.  At such times, giving and hindering by knowing 
how to distinguish higher and lower is important.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:  5.42-4

	Thus at the times of generosity,
	Let discipline rest in equanimity.

	Whatever is intended, act on that.
	Do not think of anything other than that.
	By always thinking of that very thing
	It will in a little while be accomplished.

	In that way all good will be produced.
	Otherwise neither one will be accomplished.

The Tsanaka says:

	If with the former unfinished, one practices another,
	One will be exhausted and neither will be produced.
	If we do not keep one foot set steadily,
	Lifting the other will be a cause of falling down.

The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	For the sake of the small, do not lose the great.
	Chiefly think of the benefit of others.

The Compendium of Instructions, Shantideva's commentary says:

	A medicinal tree must always be kept alive.  If it is alive, it will be associated with benefit for others.  Just so, this 
body
should be kept and not given up, until one attains the bhumis of the noble ones.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 5.87

	Because of impure notions of compassion
	The body should not be lightly given up.

	In such cases, small virtue may be accomplished, but if former great virtue is lost, the lesser will also be left 
behind.  As the virtues of the paramitas are trained in and gathered they become progressively more and more exalted.  As 
the higher are produced, the lower are made into equanimity.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 5.83

	The paramitas of generosity and so forth
	Are progressively more exalted than the last. 

The Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

	Though some person with a joyful mind
	Gives generously for even a hundred years,
	One who keeps pure discipline for a day
	Is much nobler than that other person.

	Guarding by knowing the proper occasion is important.  Moreover, the details of daily Dharma practice and 
details of eating food and so forth, and actions of conduct should be briefly told.  First, on arising, rise after remembering 
the three jewels and bodhicitta, if even in dreams we have done evil deeds, they should be confessed right away, and if 
there was virtue, that alone should be rejoiced in.  This is because both day and night the habitual patterns of mind are the 
same.  The Middle Length Prajqaparamita says:

		Shariputra, if one meditates daily on the perfection of prajqa, it will increase.  By meditating 
in dreams, it will also increase.  This is because daytime and dream are without distinction.

	Then with the previously taught liturgy take the vow of arousing bodhicitta.  The aspects of day and night should 
not deteriorate at all, so that they will be enhanced and increased.  Then whether or not we want food, remembering the 
three jewels, offer one of the four parts.  One is left to be given to those who may unexpectedly arrive.  One pinch and so 
forth is offered as a torma.  One part is eaten by ourselves.  Also one part may be given to the three jewels, one to the 
protectors, and one to ourselves. The leftovers are offered to bhutas who are able to receive them.  The Compendium of 
Action says:

	Food should be divided in four parts.
	The first is offered as pure food for the gods.
	After that one to the guardian protectors.
	Very large tormas are to be presented.
	Remaining from one's personal food and drink
	The leftovers are given to the bhutas.

	According to what is taught in the vinaya of the holy Dharma, of three parts the first is offered to the three 
jewels, the second left for monks, brahmins or kshatriyas who may happen to come by, the third one enjoys.
	At the time of eating, eat with the attitude that food is unclean, the attitude of sadness, and the attitude that one is 
benefiting a city of the family of worms and that for a little while one should dwell in a great ship crossing to the essence, 
enlightenment.  However, do not eat with any attitude that increases desire and greed.
	Also of the four parts of the body, one is empty, two are food, and one is drink.  The Eight Aspects says:

	Two parts are food that is eaten
	One part is said to be drink
	One part is of air and so forth.
	Those complete the four parts.

	Or also according to its arising from the basis of food, there are three parts, two of which are food and drink, and 
one of which is empty.  If there is starvation, a host of worms will harm one, certain illnesses will arise, and one will not 
be able to undertake actions.  If one is very full, in consequence many illnesses will arise, and it is said that there are the 
faults of samadhi becoming unworkable and so forth.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:  5.85

	One should eat no more than what is sufficient
	
	That is how one should eat.  Then the subsequently-impermanent mind establishes the dedication of food.  As 
explained in the scriptures:

	The patron king and
	The host of other beings,
	also living in cities
	May they always gain happiness.

	Then if one is going somewhere, looking ahead just a yoke's distance to examine the path for living beings, one's 
mind will not be deceived.  The Prajqaparamitasamgatha says:

	Look for just a yoke's distance, and in going one's mind
will not be confused.  Also look with eyes cast down and if someone comes smiling say, "It is good."  At dangerous times 
look in all directions.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	As for giving in to useless distraction,
	We should never aimlessly look around.
	Keeping my mind always true and resolute
	We should always keep the eyes cast down.

	However simply for the sake of comfort
	Sometimes one should look to the directions.
	If some  should then appear before one's eyes.
	One should look at them and bid them welcome.

	To watch for dangers on the path and so on
	Look again and again to the four directions.
	For comfort, having turned the head around,
	One should look and check the path behind.

	Having examined both before and behind,
	One should proceed and either come or go.
	Thus on all occasions one should act
	by because of having knowledge of what should be done.

	Then, sitting under trees and so forth, perform what is good, meditating, reading, and so forth.  Sometimes if one 
wants to listen to the Dharma, one should see noble persons.  Never speak haughtily and roughly.  One should speak as is 
taught in the Moon Lamp

	Before a great being like you, how could I not be confident.  You have great prajqa.

	That and so forth is how one should speak.  If someone wants to hear the Dharma, it is explained that we should 
examine whether they are a vessel.  If great things are explained to those of small mind, they will abandon Dharma and go 
to the lower realms.  The Prajqaparamitasamgatha says:

	When they hear, those of small mind will abandon.
	Having abandoned, they will be without refuge,
	They will go to the unremitting Hell.

	Likewise small things should not be told to great people.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 5.90

	Those who are suitable vessels of the vastest Dharma
	Should not be joined to teachings meant for lesser beings.

	Explaining the Dharma to a woman alone without a companion is inimical to pure conduct, and one will become 
the object of slander.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 5.89

	Nor to a woman without some other person there.

The White Lotus says:

	The wise, when at any time
	They explain the Dharma to women,
	Should not go alone.
	They should not stay and joke.

	Moreover the path of conduct should not be explained to those who do not respect it and so forth.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says: 5.88

	Do not explain the Dharma to those with no respect.
	To those who wrap the head, like people who are sick
	Who carry a sword or staff, or have a parasol
	Or anyone who wears a hat upon the head.

	Then in a spacious place ornamented with lion thrones and so forth, without personal desire for respect, 
veneration, and so forth, one explains the Dharma with an attitude of benefiting others.  The White Lotus says:

	In a clean and pleasant place, on a spacious seat,
	Excellently arranged and carefully-spread,
	Well painted with the finest excellent colors,
	Well-dressed, wearing a good clean Dharma robe,
	Always without the least desire for these,

	Eating and drinking any food and drink,
	Not having a wish for one's clothes and for one's seat,
	One's robe, and medicines for curing sickness,
	Not receiving anything from one's retinue,

	Skillful in respect to others, may I always
	Establish these sentient beings in buddhahood.
	To benefit the world, may I think of the Dharma,
	As the total requisite of my happiness.

	That is how it should be done.  Whatever sorts of persons one meets with and whatever they say kill pride and 
without disrespect smilingly give the teachings in pleasant speech.  The Moon Lamp says:

	Smiling like the waxing moon and gentle
	To the older generation and the younger
	One should always speak with sincerity.
	And be without pride in everything that is done.

	The pleasant conversation of the world
	One should speak properly in a timely way.
	A variety of distracting words of chatter
	Because of fear one never ought to speak.

	Pleasant speech and praise may be used when without loss for oneself they make the minds of others happy.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says:

	To all of those that we hear who may have spoken well
	We should tell them so and say to them "well said!
	If one sees persons performing meritorious actions,
	praising them creates supreme and excellent joy.

	If they are hidden, good qualities should be spoken of.
	And if they are spoken of, we should repeat that later.
	If someone talks about our own good qualities,
	Think that virtue in general is known and understood.

	All undertakings are done so that we can be happy
	This is rare for even those who have the price.
	In view of that, let us be happy at finding joy
	In any virtuous deeds that may be done by others.

	Nothing will be lost by acting in this way,
	And in the coming life we have great happiness.
	But faults will make us here unhappy and miserable
	And in the life to come we have great suffering.

	When speaking we should be relevant and to the point
	Keeping the meaning clear and speaking with pleasing speech.
	We should have abandoned both passion and aggression
	Speaking softly and only for a moderate time.

	Then by this rejoicing, excellent ones are perceived as teachers, middling ones as companions, and lesser ones as 
retinue, old ones as fathers and mothers, young ones as children.  Those of the same age are perceived as brothers and so 
forth, and by that they are made devoted.  The Sutra of the Ten Dharmas says:

	By body, speech, and mind being separate from receiving evil topics perception is produced of the 
preceptor as teacher.  Perception of the preceptor as master is produced.  Behaving purely for the older, 
middle, and young generations, they are so perceived, and devoted reverence is produced.

Generations of Beings says:

	Holy ones will never pamper their bodies.
	The spiritual friend relies on a gentle manner.
	If one is near them a particle of their virtues,
	Even if one does not practice, is established.

	Hidden transgressions and subtle improprieties should not be done.  The same text says:

	As for unseen evil deeds that may be done,
	As with poisonous food, how will there be happiness?
	That by the gods and the purified eyes of accomplished yogins
	These will not be seen is quite impossible.

	Thinking how the freedoms and favors are so difficult to obtain and how the arising of a buddha is difficult and 
so forth, be conscientious.  The Sutra requested by Guarder of the Horizon says:

	A buddha, a great sage who benefits the world
	Only arises once in a thousand million kalpas,
	Now that they have attained the holy freedoms and favors,
	Those who want liberation should abandon unconscientiousness.

	This body, to guard the Dharma, should be guarded from sickness and dvns.  Thinking of it as a ship, do not 
reject its food, clothing, and so forth.  We should not torture ourselves with useless mortifications and ascetic practices.  
The Bodhicharyavatara says:  5.70

	Even as a mere support of coming and going
	The body should be thought of as being like a ship.
	In order to establish benefits for beings,
	The body must become a wish-fulfilling body.

The Four Hundred says:

	Though this body indeed is seen as an enemy,
	Properly regulated, it lives for quite a long time.
	From that a large amount of merit can be attained.

	Also it is impermanent and the mind that aspires to enlightenment should be produced.  The Expression of the 
Realization of the Seven Princesses says:

	Samsaric bodily life is a dewdrop on the grass.
	If one is long accustomed to not depending on it,
	One will always attain the state of mahasukha.

	Life is also guarded because of its bestowing wealth.  For the sake of the great Dharmas of arousing bodhicitta 
and so forth, life must be guarded without deprivation.  The Sutra of Instructions to the King says:

	By me, the bestower of wealth, the body, is guarded.
	Bestowing wealth and the body, life is guarded.
	Bestowing wealth and body, as well as life,
	The Dharma especially is to be guarded.

	The mind should be examined.  By eliminating faults that are seen, the kleshas will not become firmly 
entrenched.  The Request of Bhrama says:

	If one completely knows the faults of mind,
	The faults of mind will not be stabilized.
	If mindfulness is good within the mind,
	One will attain the place of faultless peace.

	Moreover, a tooth stick, spit, excrement and so forth should be disposed of in a solitary place not frequented by 
people, where it will inconspicuous.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 5.91


	Personal refuse such as tooth cleaning sticks and spit
	Should not be thrown away where they will be visible.
	It is vulgar for persons to urinate and so forth
	In water or on good land that is used by other people.

	The Vinaya also teaches that defiled things should not be thrown away in usable water and so forth.  Also at 
mealtimes, the Bodhicharyavatara says: 5.91


	We should never eat with a mouth that is full of food, Noisily, or with talking, or with an open mouth.

	Wherever we are, and particularly with the guru or among many people, indecorous bodily behavior, sleeping, 
lying, stretching the soles of one's feet forward, rubbing ones hands together, and so forth, should not be done.  Be 
straightforward.  Everything should be done gracefully.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 5.92-3


	One should not stretch the soles of the feet toward other people,
	And likewise not rub the hands together in their presence.

	One should never travel lying in a bed
	Nor be alone with women who are committed to others
	Having seen and asked the conduct the world approves,
	One should abandon anything that will be offensive.

	Sloppy worship, laughing at the view, flirting, and all such unpacified aspects body, speech, and mind should 
above all be completely controlled and tamed.  The Flower Garland of Vinaya says:

	Songs, and dances, and jingling ornaments,
	Any seeing and entering into them
	As well as the evil of having directly transgressed,
	Are causes of straying from the life of discipline.

	So doing necessarily leaves one far from enlightenment.  The Sutra Requested by the Guarder of the Horizon 
says:

	Uncontrolled, and wild and arrogant;
	Disrespectful and proud, with much desire;
	With rigid kleshas and overcome by them,
	Such people are far from supreme enlightenment.

	As those who do not tame themselves cannot tame others, first we should make ourselves peaceful and tamed.  
The Compendium of Limitless Good Qualities says:

		Some, while they have not tamed themselves speak the words of noble enlightened beings.  
Acting in contradiction to their own words, they cannot tame others.  When we have realized this, 
placing all beings in our hearts, we should try a little to tame what is untamed in ourselves.

	The Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

	Those who have not crossed cannot bring others across.
	Those who are not liberated cannot liberate others.
	Those who are blind cannot show the path to others.
	Those who are liberated can liberate other beings.
	Those with eyes can show the path to those who are blind.

The Ten Dharmas says:

		Just as I make an effort so that all sentient beings may cross over, make an effort so that all 
sentient beings may be liberated, make an effort so that all sentient beings may enter into peace and 
gentleness; since by not taming, pacifying, and guarding myself, this will not be my lot, I should be 
pacified, tamed, and guarded.

	Similarly, if by others benefit is received and harm arises for myself, let it be a cause of good karma and 
enlightenment.  Among all like one who endures sadness and weariness from others by producing a very humble mind or 
outcast-like  {{612.2}} perception, become gentle, do what needs to be done, and remembering all that is said, be heedful 
and conscientious.  Disparaging others and behavior because of desire and aggression should not occur even in dreams.  
Daily, morning, noon, afternoon, and night, and again late at night, at midnight, and early in the morning, there should 
be threefold accumulation of prostrations, confession of evil deeds, and dedication of merit.  Train in chanting the Three 
Accumulations,  and confessing falling away from enlightenment.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 5.98

	Three times in the day and also three at night
	Chant The Sutra of the Three Accumulations.

	Moreover in all actions and behavior one should spend one's time in virtue alone.  The Mahayanasutralankara 
says:

	As in the activities of the buddha sons
	They formerly entered into the various realms of the senses,
	Just so by words according with my family,
	What they formerly did for beings I too shall do.

	That is the idea.  It is taught extensively in the Completely Pure Realization of the Flower Garland of 
Buddhahood:

		When bodhisattvas enter into a house, they arouse bodhicitta, thinking "May all sentient 
beings attain the city of liberation."  Similarly, When they go to sleep, they attain the dharmakaya of 
the buddhas.  When they dream, they realize that all dharmas are like a dream.  When they awake, they 
awaken from ignorance.  When they arise, they attain the body of buddhahood.  When they kindle a 
fire, the fuel of the kleshas is burned.  When it blazes, the fire of wisdom blazes.  When they move, they 
attain the amrita of wisdom.  When they eat food, they attain the food of samadhi.  When they go forth, 
they are liberated from the city of samsara.  When they descend stairs, they are entering samsara to 
benefit sentient beings.  When they open a door, they open the gates to the city of liberation.  When 
they shut a door, they shut the gates of the lower realms.  When they set out on a path they tread the 
path of the noble ones.  When they go upwards, they bring all sentient beings into the happiness of the 
celestial realms.  When they descend, they cut the continuity of the three lower realms.  When they 
meet sentient beings, they meet buddhas.  When they step forward, they are going to do benefit for 
sentient beings.  When they lift sentient beings,  they are bringing them out of samsara.  If they see 
persons who possesses ornaments, they will attain the major and minor marks.  If they see persons 
without ornaments, they will possess the qualities of purity.  If they see a full vessel, it is filled with 
buddha qualities.  If they see an empty one, faults are emptied.  If they see people rejoicing, they will 
rejoice in the Dharma.  If they see them sad, they will be sad about compounded things.  If they see 
happy sentient beings, they will attain the happiness of buddhahood.  If they see sufferings, all the 
sufferings of sentient beings will be pacified.  If they see sickness, there will be liberation from sickness. 
 If they see returning of kindness, they are returning the kindness of all the buddhas and bodhisattvas.  
If they see it is not acknowledged, they are not acknowledging wrong views as kindness. If they see 
disputes, they can eliminate all the disputes of the fathers.  If they see praise, all the buddhas and 
bodhisattvas are praised.  If they see discussions about the Dharma, the confidence of the buddhas is 
attained.  If they see bodily form, they see all the buddhas without obscuration.  If they see a stupa, they 
become a stupa for all sentient beings.  If they see merchants, they will attain the seven aryan riches.  
 If they see homage, they arouse bodhicitta, thinking, "May the world along with its gods attain the 
non-manifestation of the center at the crown of the head.

	Moreover, for all who are uselessly disturbed, with sadness and fickleness of mind, doodling in the sand, 
babbling, thinking discursive thoughts and so on, when distractions arise, until they have abandoned these by mindfulness 
and awareness, may all the actions of body and speech and the thoughts of mind be caused to become Dharma.  When 
they go to sleep at night, lying on the right side, may they sleep with their heads in a northerly direction.  Remembering 
death and recollecting the three jewels, may they sleep resting their minds in dharmata like the sky.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says: 5.96

	As the Lord slept, passing into in nirvana,
	So should we sleep in the desired direction.
	
	Day and night aspire to the activities of the excellent noble ones, or sing the meditation songs of the masters, the 
Seventy Aspirations and so forth, performing them before statues, stupas, and so forth.  Here as to what is taught by the 
"Twenty Verses"  The Precious Mala says:  {{616t}}

1	To the Buddha, the holy Dharma, and the Sangha,
	And also to the assembly of bodhisattvas
	Always paying homage and going to them for refuge,
	Let us prostrate to those who are worthy of veneration.

2	We should bring evil deeds to a state of total extinction
	Completely accomplishing all that is meritorious
	As for the merits of the host of sentient beings
	We should rejoice in any merits that they have.

3	Having bowed our heads and joining our palms together,  616.2
	For the sake of their turning the wheel of the Dharma
	And so that they will remain among beings in this world,
	We therefore make supplication to the perfect buddhas.

4	By the merits of having performed this liturgy
	Whether it is performed or not performed by me
	As a result may sentient beings without exception
	Possess the unsurpassable attitude bodhicitta.

5	May sentient beings have perfect spotless faculties
	Their lives transcending any lack the excellent freedoms
	And have complete control over all their actions
	And be well nourished having all their needs fulfilled.

6	May all embodied beings abiding in the three realms
	Have jewels in their hands as a sign of ultimate wealth
	May all the requisites be utterly limitless
	And in samsara may they be inexhaustible.

7	Always having all that is indispensable
	May they become supreme and turn into excellent beings.
6	May embodied beings have all the required knowledge
	And the ability to do what must be done.

8	May they have excellent color, and excellent healthy bodies.
	May they be exalted and brilliant in their presence,
	May they be without any illness and suffering,
	And may they have tremendous power over life.

9	May they all be capable in the ways of upaya,
	Free from any kind of fear of suffering,
	May they be diligent in relation to the three jewels,
	And possess the great wealth that is the Buddha and Dharma.

10	May they be joyfully kind and very compassionate
	Resting all the kleshas in equanimity,
	Adorned with generosity and discipline,
	Along with patience, exertion, meditation, and prajqa.

11	May they completely perfect the two accumulations.
	May they be glorious with the major and minor marks.
	As well as the ten bhumis, which are beyond conception;
	May they attain the various powers and masteries.

12	May we and other sentient beings, whoever they are
	Be adorned by virtues such as these above,
	And be liberated from all our various faults
	Like the kind and excellent being known as Maitreya.

13	May we be the hope of every sentient being.
	Completely having perfected all good qualities;
	And always may we have the power to clear away
	The suffering of all embodied sentient beings.

14	In all the various worlds whatever beings there are
	Who are afraid of anything, may all those beings
	Who even hear so much as the sound that is our names
	By having done so, later become completely fearless.

15	May beings by seeing us and by remembering us
	And even by their only having heard our names
	Be sure of the natural state that is free from all disturbance
	And so attain complete and perfect enlightenment.

16	And in all succeeding generations of beings
	By means of having gained the five-fold higher perceptions.
	Always for any sentient beings that there may be
	May we continue to do such benefits as these.

17	Whatever beings there may be within the world of samsara
	Desiring the performance of any evil deeds
	Nevertheless may even these be without harm,
	Reversing evil action once and forever after

18	The physical elements, earth and water, fire and air,
	Are like a field full of health-giving medical herbs
	Or a forest of trees that grows in the wilderness.
	They ceaselessly provide what people naturally want.

19	Though the lives of sentient beings are impoverished
	May I become even poorer by making this exchange:
	May their evil deeds all ripen in myself.
	May all my share of happiness ripen in other beings.

20	All the sentient beings who remain in the world of samsara
	Who are not liberated, may as many as that
	All without exception be completely transformed
	Attaining the unsurpassable state of enlightenment.

	Saying this three times, three times a day brings inconceivable merits.  The Bodhicharyavatara says

	Therefore, in the presence of a representation
	Or otherwise as it may be appropriate,
	Say these twenty verses from the Precious Mala
	Three times every day and three times every night.

Also this was taught by the Buddha Bhagavat:

	If the merit of saying these words were given form,
	As for being more numerous than the sands of the Ganges
	Even the realm of the world could not contain it all.

	Moreover as the sutras and the Bodhisattvapitaka say, devote day and night to training.  Why?  The dreamlike 
freedoms and favors are only there for an instant.  They are impermanent like a bubble in water.  If while we have them 
we do not set out on the path, we cannot do so later.

7.  The explanation of the twenty downfalls, together with the associated qualities:
	
	Train in keeping these two bodhicittas without harm.
	Five downfalls like wrong view are said to be like a king.
	Five like staying in cities are like his ministers.
	Eight are like his subjects, and two are common to all.
	Altogether, twenty is the number of these.
	It should be known that what accords with these is harmful.
	Not having them, one avoids the harm of these downfalls.
	It should be known that practicing this accords with goodness.
		
This follows the Essence of Space Sutra, where altogether nineteen root downfalls are taught.  The five characterized as 
being like a king, are:   619.4

1  appropriating the property of the three jewels,
2  inflicting punishment of a monk who possesses discipline,
3  drawing a renunciate away from discipline,
4  committing one of the five inexpiable actions, and
5  holding to wrong views.

	Those which are characterized as being like a minister are  staying in

1  villages,
2  their vicinity,
3  cities,
4  towns and
5  their environs.

The eight characterized as ordinary are

1  teaching emptiness to those of untrained mind,
2  turning back from dwelling in the mahayana
3  having abandoned individual enlightenment, to join the mahayana, 4  to fixate the shravaka and pratyekabuddha 
vehicles and enter into fixation
5  for the sake of  possessions and veneration to praise oneself and disparage others;
6  and to speak of one's own profound patience.
7  to cultivate and take the property of the three jewels
8  to give the wealth of shamatha to recitation.

As for those common to all, abandoning the mind of entering makes nineteen, on top of which The Edifice of the Three 
Jewels says

abandoning the mind of entering, not uniting with the wholesome,

making twenty.  The Moon Essence Sutra and the Akashagarbha Sutra also explain abandoning the mind of entering as a 
downfall.

	If these downfalls arise, since this is unsuitable for a bodhisattva, one should try to remedy them.  In the Twenty 
Vows four root downfalls are taught:

1  For the sake of possessions and veneration praising oneself and disparaging others,

2  To those who are suffering and without a protector not giving goods and dharma because of miserliness;

3  not hearing confessions storing up anger,

4  Abandoning the mahayana and teaching a facsimile of Dharma.

The four root downfalls, they are intended being like being conquered.

	By desire of possessions and veneration
	Praising oneself and disparaging others,
	And those who suffer without a protector
	Stingily not giving wealth or dharma
	Not hearing confessions of other people
	But rather heaping up anger at others,
	Leaving the path of mahayana
	Teaching facsimiles of the Dharma.
{{621.2}}
	According to the teacher Asanga and his followers, four root downfalls are explained and also the manner of 
receiving bodhicitta is explained as arising from pure mind, depending only on homage and offerings, first by asking 
whether one's being has been defiled with obstacles, they will have very little ripening, and later one says the precepts,
	If any of the four root downfalls have arisen, the way of remedying them is that the twenty vows should be taken 
again, during which ones defilements should be confessed three times to one's superiors before one.  So it is maintained.  
This should not be accepted more than three times, as it is explained in the
 Bodhisattvabhumi.
	The followers of the master Nagarjuna explain the way of receiving as karma arising in pure continuum, 
producing the seven limbs.   The ocean-like assembly does not ask about former obstructions and does not talk about later 
training.  What is to be guarded against is the nineteen or twenty root downfalls.
	The way of remedying in the Akashagarbha Sutra is that after supplicating, one remedies them.  This is done as 
many times as the downfalls received.  As for these two traditions, the mind only and madhyamaka are different.
	Now the associated factors are explained.  As for the factors associated with these downfalls, for example, 
associated with wrong view is the obscuration of mere devotion.  From this fault, one should have the idea of them all.  
The virtuous attitude and so forth that abandon wrong view are said to be without the fault.  By not being obscured by the 
association, one is also said to be without the fault.  All that is associated with virtue is said to be what one should train in. 
 In particular what is connected with benefiting others is the real thing that should be trained in.

8.  The individual ways of guarding aspiring and entering,

a.  The way of guarding aspiring
has two sections. 

1)  The brief teaching

	Now the individual ways of guarding aspiring and entering will be explained.  Now as to how aspiring is 
guarded by accepting and rejecting, as many things as are to be trained in the details of those, in brief:
	
	Briefly four black dharmas ought to be avoided.
	Four pure white ones should earnestly be performed.
	

2)  The extensive explanation,

a)  The instruction to abandon the four black dharmas.   {{ 622.5}}

In detail, as for the first four:
	
	These are the four black actions that are to be avoided:
	Cheating any persons who are worthy of respect,
	Feeling regret for things that should not be regretted,
	Speaking unpleasant words to those who are holy ones,
	Behaving deviously toward sentient beings in general.

	Since these are the four black dharmas, they should be abandoned.  The Edifice of the Three Jewels Sutra 
Requested by Kashyapa says:

		Kashyapa, if one posses these dharmas, bodhicitta will be forgotten.  What are these four?  
Slandering the guru and those who are worthy of respect.  Producing regret in others for things that 
should not be regretted.  To bodhisattvas who have aroused bodhicitta speaking with the fault of an 
angry mind.  Behaving deviously and deceptively to sentient beings.

b.  The instruction to practice the four white dharmas

	As for the four white dharmas:
	
	These are the four white dharmas in which we should place our trust:
	Relying on holy ones and giving praise to their virtues,
	Encouraging sentient beings to do what is truly good,
	Arousing the perception of the teacher within the children.
	High-mindedly do goodness and benefit for beings.


	Abandoning what is false has the ground of the virtue of benefiting sentient beings.  As for producing 
perceptions of bodhisattvas as teachers, they become special companions on the path.  Dwelling in the excellent thought of 
non-deception is symbolized by relying on the holy ones and praising them.  This is the consequence of all virtues.  As for 
establishing all sentient beings on the path of mahayana, having particular purity, first producing bodhicitta is urged.  The 
Edifice of the Three Jewels says:   {{624.1}}

		Kashyapa, if one has these dharmas, bodhicitta will not be forgotten.  What are these four?  
Conscientiously not speaking falsely, producing perception of bodhisattvas as teachers, dwelling in the 
excellent thought of not behaving deviously and deceptively toward sentient beings, and truly 
establishing all sentient beings in the mahayana.

	As for guarding by means of what is to be stabilized, the Shri Samadhiraja Sutra says:

		O prince, if one has four perceptions, bodhicitta will be stabilized.  What are these four?  they 
are perception of true spiritual friends as buddhas, perceiving the Dharma taught by them as the path, 
perceiving those who practice it as companions on the path, and perceiving all sentient beings as one's 
only child.

b.  Guarding the Mind of Entering

As for explaining the details of guarding the bodhicitta of entering:

	Considering others' welfare as more important than ours,
	This is the practice trained in by the bodhisattvas.
	If they benefit others the seven evils of body and speech,
	Are actually beneficial, when they can be performed,
	However, the three of mind are never to be done.
	
and also:
	
	By desiring peace and happiness for one's own benefit
	Even goodness is a downfall for the buddha-sons.
	For the benefit of others, even that which is evil,
	Ought to be practiced, the Victorious One has taught.

	There are three aspects. 

1  One should learn to abandon what is to be abandoned.
2  One should learn to know what is to be known.
3  One should learn to practice what is to be practiced. 

{{625.2}}	Within the first is the way of guarding the mind from the root downfalls, the kleshas, and the fault of 
useless activity.  From the four ways of training in knowing when to give and hinder, the first three were spoken of above. 
 As for the last, if there is an opportunity of giving through the ten non-virtues of body and speech, if it will be for others' 
benefit, know that it should be done.  The greatness of one's own virtue will not be obscured by that, and on top of that, 
having observed an occasion for the three increases mahasattvas should perform the seven non-virtues.  What is the 
benefit?  Minak Dunguchen, having seen many persons killed by selfish desire, the guide, by compassion, in order that 
there may be liberation from limitless samsara, seems to cut off life.
	Some though there is wealth, by miserliness will not give.  
	When there is a time of famine, if it will save lives, for the benefit of both, what was not given by the rich is 
taken, to give to the poor.
The bhramin's child skar ma la dga' ba is tormented by the desires of others.  By desiring the goal of reversing the 
certainty of death, wrong activity seems to be performed.  In order that those who will certainly be killed may be liberated, 
there seems to be false speaking.  Having deceived the companions of the evil-doer, for the purpose of reversing them 
from being led into the lower realms, there seems to be slander.  In order to purify the suffering of those who have 
suffering, making up and telling various stories, or telling jokes, there seems to be frivolous speech.  In order to reverse 
those who will certainly undertake evil deeds, they seem to speak harsh words.  These things are done because the purpose 
is virtuous.
	The three evil actions of mind, should never be done, because they are only bad.  Though some say that there is 
an opportunity of doing them, the vow is total.  Manjushri having reversed the first ones, by dwelling among the Hindus, 
when he was taming Kuntu Gyu, he is taught not to have fallen into accepting the wrong views that arose, and though 
such a teaching is thus practiced, thus, by that in body and speech, to Kuntu Gyu he taught language with the rising of 
wrong view, but when wrong view arose in their minds, to these by and by he expressed the virtues of the three jewels, so 
how would this come about?   Therefore he never performed these actions of mind.
	Well by doing unvirtuous actions of body and speech, he transgressed.  Isn't it like eating poison?  Virtuous 
mind, as in mantra, by grasping poison is without fault.  The Twenty Vows says:

	If these are done with compassion and for the sake of kindness
	It is virtuous mind and the act is without fault.

	But the Objects of Mindfulness says:

		Though it is taught that a sentient being who cuts off one life will be tormented for an 
intermediate kalpa in the ephemeral hells, and though it is taught that an evil deed is always done if 
one thinks that;  because the Buddha's word is intended for the minds of sentient beings of different 
capacities, that sometimes one and sometimes many and sometimes certain and sometimes uncertain 
are taught should be known not to be contradictory.

The Praise of the Teachings says:

	Because of what is given and what is being held back,
	Sometimes the words to you are "it is one and certain.
	Sometimes "it is not certain" also has been said.
	Therefore these are not in mutual contradiction.

	In such a way there is provisional meaning and true meaning.  Having the intention and what should be known 
to have the four hidden intentions, is very much in contradiction. 

	These divisions will be explained extensively below.  As for training in the means of knowing knowables, the 
Mahayanasutralankara says:

	As for any not known by the buddha sons,
	Such knowables as these do not exist.

	Contemplation and learning should be earnestly undertaken in the worldly topics or sciences, and whatever 
world-transcending dharmas there are.  This is so that omniscience may be obtained.  If one summarizes these, there are 
five divisions to keep track of; arts, crafts, the art of reasoning, the reasoning of Buddhists, and the reasoning of non-
Buddhists.  The same text says:

	If there is no effort with the five topics of reasoning, Even the supreme noble ones will never be 
omniscient.  Cut off other pursuits, strive for your own omniscience.

	In particular when the details of the vow of training are known, it is very important to guard them.  Moreover, in 
the way previously taught, downfall and non-downfall, associated qualities, what is to be trained in, and the reason why 
this is done should previously be known.  There are twenty root downfalls.  Because these downfalls are absent, we are 
joined to virtue and there is no downfall.  Moreover when we enter into meaningless speech, entertainments, and so forth; 
if passion and aggression are produced, the fault of having kleshas will be produced.  Even if these have been produced, 
when one enters there is no need to grasp them, and by mindfulness and awareness, meaningless kleshas are produced.  If 
we enters into passionless for the sake of others, there is no downfall.  If we enters into desire, there is the fault of that.  It 
is associated with it.  If one enters simply the joy of others, it is the same.  One should learn, meditate, and so forth that the 
antidotes are impermanent.  When one has seen transgressions, confess and renew the vow.  For example, if for reasons 
not connected with virtue, we dig up the earth, we commit faults of uselessly cutting roots and so forth.  If the same thing 
is done for the sake of virtue, there is no downfall.  While we does not remember that it is useless, there is the associated 
fault of doodling in the sand.  One should learn that this should be accomplished with mindfulness and awareness.  
Having remembered what is to be learned, it will be renewed, and our vow will be renewed.  All actions of body, speech, 
and mind should be known to be joined to that.  If there is transgression, from also knowing how to renew, if aspiration is 
transgressed it can be cured.  Moreover, as for the conditions of transgression, discouragement, procrastination, and 
entering into other paths; as for discouragement, if we thinks that we cannot produce the benefit of others as we can one's 
own benefit, we get discouraged.  As for the antidote, because we have attained the freedoms and favors at this time of 
arousing bodhicitta, discouragement is abandoned.  As for the praise of confidence, the Mahayanasutralankara says:  
{{630t}}

	Sentient beings become human
	So that every measureless instant
	They can try to gain perfect enlightenment.
	So let us not be discouraged.

	As for procrastination, not seeing the benefits of the path, and having seen the faults of asceticism, as an antidote 
to that, having been taught the benefits and joy of it, as for the instruction in patience, the Bodhicharyavatara says:  7.30

	Therefore, having mounted the horse of bodhicitta,
	Which clears away all weariness and discouragement,
	One goes on from happiness to happiness.
	Knowing bodhicitta, who could then despair?

	If one grasps the paths of the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas as being better than the mahayana, also one will be 
sent into them, so as an antidote, from the two meditations on transgression and benefit, as for the shravakas and 
pratyekabuddhas being far from perfect enlightenment the Manifestation of Enlightenment of Vairochana says

	The paths of the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas are eighty-thousand great kalpas away from the 
unsurpassable fruition.

	As to the immeasurable benefits of the mahayana, the Bodhicharyavatara says:  7.29

	As for this, because of the power of bodhicitta
	Former evil deeds will completely be exhausted.
	Because a heap of merits is accumulated,
	It is nobler than the path of the shravakas.

	The Precious Mala says:   630.6

	There is no looking at the benefit for oneself
	The benefit of others is joyful as one taste.
	The arising place of virtues in the mahayana.

	If mind is sent outward one is far from enlightenment, and the sufferings of samsara and the lower realms are 
immeasurable.  As for the way of curing, before statues and so forth with remorse and repentance confess and take the 
vow.  Also this arises by practicing as before.  The number required is uncertain.
	As for the method of remedying the bodhicitta of entering, conditions of defilement are three: the bodhicitta of 
aspiring is lost;  The opposing root downfalls arise; the condition of abandoning training is offered.
	As for the faults of defilement.  If formerly accumulated merit manifests, by its being degraded later, we will 
have no happiness, we will not meet with the mahayana, and by breaking one's vow our place will become degraded.  By 
the heaviness of defilement, we will wander for a long time in the lower realms.  The Letter to Students says:

	Those even when alone will truly examine their minds
	Producing an association with genuine karma
	On the earth, at the center they become principal holy ones.
	These excellent students will respect the guru
	Modest, producing a host of virtues, noble people.
	Supremely motionless, they follow the view of kindness

	For even those brilliant ones rejoicing in truth and tradition,
	Life is easily lost and there are no promises.
	For a while all beings have faults and evil deeds
	That will send them all into unbearable hells
	Throwing away the natural state, indeed they suffer.
	For the wise on earth what suffering is worse than this?

	Whoever receives the sages' life-granting Dharma path
	Like a great ship, having received it, they throw it away again.
	In the midst of the ocean of samsara like dancers
	Think the deceptive thought that their joy is assured.

	Therefore, the Bodhicharyavatara says:

	Though merit is easily defiled
	Mind is never defiled.

dge ba gzhan yang nyams bla yi
sems ni nam yang nyams mi bya

	If one breaks the session, if it is lost, with repentant mind having confessed as before by practicing the rite three 
times it will be renewed.  The count is uncertain.  By the mahasiddha Nagpopa three means of renewal are taught.  Lesser 
ones by the power of grasping things as solid, having apprehended them in their minds, confess their faults before others.  
By subsequent vows, as they are gradually distanced from those faults, rising from the downfall occur.
	The middle ones, having pleased the deities of vidya mantra and secret mantra, the bodhisattva Akashagarbha 
and so forth, having attained the blessing of the deity, arise from that downfall.
	Some who are excellent, when someone says they have a downfall, remain effortlessly within bodhicitta. As to 
how, it is taught in the Noble Mahayana Sutra Teaching that all dharmas are Without Arising:

	Manjushri, the bodhisattva who knows no-action and no-arising attains complete purity from karmic 
obscurations.

	Here, "we should follow this" is well-thought.  Those of inferior mind do so before the bodhisattva Sangha or a 
special object.  They supplicate having performed the seven-fold service, or should renew them, or supplicate such and 
such a mahasattva to consider them:

	For I, so and so, such and such a downfall has arisen.  This for the sake of all sentient beings, I confess 
and supplicate it be made pure.

Say this three times, and because of others:

	These transgressions I see as transgressions and from now on I will control and vow well to avoid them 
 633.6

Let that be vowed.  By saying that one is liberated from faults, according to the Bodhisattvabhumi.  Also in between 
perserveringly doing the developing and fulfillment stages of the deity before their respective yidam deities, having done 
the seven-fold service, by confession and having retaken the vow, they remedy the downfall.  Here the deity of vidya 
mantra in general is Shri Akashagarbha.  If one wants to confess before him, one should confess continuously day and 
night.  From the time one arises this is done.   In the later part of the night to all the buddhas and bodhisattvas of the ten 
directions, and in particular Shri Akashagarbha, call by name and prostrate, and continuously speak out strong 
confessions of one's evil deeds of transgression.  When dawn comes, say this:

		Please do what I ask.   For Shri Akashagarbha, if I confess my transgressions, having 
purified them, by consider, quiet them and grant your blessings.

	Say that three times.  When the sun rises, in view of purity of transgressions, body and mind are happier than 
before, and even the sun arises more gently.  The air is pure, and good dreams display themselves, so it is taught.
	Some excellent beings, sitting cross-legged, first call by name whatever dream and illusion-like transgressions 
there are.  In the space in front are the buddhas and their sons.  After confessing to them, identify the essence of these very 
transgressions outer, inner, and in between, by having examined their color, shape, and so forth.  They do not arise from 
anywhere, do not abide anywhere, and do not go anywhere.  Knowing them to be in nature like space, resting within that 
state, one will be liberated from all transgressions.  The Extensive Sutra of the Great liberation in the Ten Directions says:

		If the bodhisattva has four dharmas, all will arise separated from degeneration of discipline 
and the faults of the kleshas.  What are these four?  Because dharmas have no coming, dharmas are 
ceaselessly seen, because dharmas arise interdependently through causes and conditions, and because 
they are empty of nature.  If they have these four, there will be no arising of degeneration of discipline 
and faults of the kleshas

	The Dharmaraja Sutra says:

		One sentient being, if one knows non-duality, all obscurations will completely be abandoned.  
For example, as on a mirror a with a thousand years accumulation of dust, there can later be not a 
particle, this too is like that.  For example, in a dark empty house, dark for a thousand years, though 
darkness has lasted for a thousand years, a lamp will make it non-existent.  So by the mind knowing 
the genuine truth of essencelessness, the evil deeds of countless kalpas will instantly be removed.

The Sutra of Entering into the Absolute says:

		The son of the gods White Lotus asked, Manjushri, "How should karmic obscurations of be 
abandoned?"
	He replied, "Son of the gods, as for karmic obscurations, if one knows that karma itself is primordially 
unreal, it will effortlessly be cleared away.  That is like wiping with a cloth a conch that is covered by 
charcoal.  These are guarded against by means of knowing their objects, it has been taught.

9.  The teaching of the stages by which beings should practice this

	Now, by means of practicing what is to be practiced, guarding is taught.  From the two sections of the individuals 
by whom it is practiced and how it should be practiced, as for the first:
	
	As for the buddha-sons, there are three kinds of them.
	Those who have freed themselves and desire to free all beings,
	These are the bodhisattvas, who are like a king.
	Those who want liberation for both themselves and beings
	These are the bodhisattvas who are like a helmsman.
	Those who free beings and then desire their own peace
	These are the bodhisattvas who are like a shepherd.
	It is taught in the sutras that these are liberated,
	In thirty-three measureless kalpas, in seven, or in three,
	Respectively, in accord with their powers of gaining it.

	This is called arousing the great desire of bodhicitta of a bodhisattva.  After first having become enlightened 
ourselves, later we free beings; for example, as a king, having attained a kingdom, desires to establish his subjects in 
happiness.  Arousing such bodhicitta like Manjushri is explained in many sutras.
	The desire to liberate oneself and other beings equally is called "arousing the bodhicitta of true wisdom."  The 
boat-passengers and oneself equally want to go to the other side of the river.  First having liberated sentient beings, 
desiring to liberate oneself primordially, is called the arousing of bodhicitta of which there is no example.  Shepherds of 
sheep, goats, and oxen, when they see narrow defiles and fearful places, or else when in front of them these have entered 
them, make every one come out again.  This is arousing bodhicitta for sentient beings like that of Manjushri and 
Shakyamuni.  Here those of dull powers take thirty-three and the middling seven, and the sharpest three lifetimes to 
perfect unsurpassable enlightenment.  The Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

		Those arousing the bodhicitta of the great desire will be liberated from samsara in thirty-three 
countless kalpas.  Those who arouse the bodhicitta of genuine wisdom will reach it in seven.  By 
arousing the unexampled bodhicitta, they will become completely enlightened in three inconceivable 
kalpas.  Why so?  Because they have powers that are small, middling, and great.  For example, they are 
like a universal monarch, the pilot of a ship, and a parent.

	Thus, and so forth it is extensively taught.

10.  from the two methods of training in what should be practiced, the activity of the victorious ones,

a.  The brief teaching of the six perfections

	The buddha sons must train themselves in everything,
	But chiefly in the practice of the six perfections.
	
  	The Spiritual Letter says:

	Generosity, discipline, patience, and exertion
	And likewise the paramita of imponderable prajqa,
	By that treasury of powers of the Victorious One
	One reaches the other shore of the ocean of samsara.

	One trains in what is explained.  From the common and individual natures, the common also has six parts.
	Without conceptualizing the three spheres of actor, action, and object, the thought of giving one's possessions to 
another, along with the seed of virtue, is the perfection of generosity.  Its action is to pacify the poverty of others.
	Without conceptualizing the three objects, thoughts of abandoning the faults of samsara and nirvana, along with 
their seeds, are the perfection of discipline.  Its action is to eliminate obstructions.
	Without conceptualizing the three objects, bearing harm and weariness and not being afraid of their nature is the 
perfection of patience.  Its action is agressionlessness.
	Without conceptualizing the three objects, joy in virtue is the perfection of exertion.  The action is that merit 
increases.
	Without conceptualizing of the three objects, one-pointed mind is the perfection of meditation.  Its action is that 
the kleshas are pacified.
	By not conceptualizing the three objects, realization of the nature of dharmas becomes the perfection of prajqa.  
The action is that knowables are realized and, that one is liberated from samsara.
	These paramitas have four virtues.  By envisioning enlightenment as the benefit for others they are vast.  By 
establishing true goodness and loftiness, they are precious.  By transcending the world, they are without materialism.  By 
the increase of merit, they are inexhaustible.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Vast and not materialistic,
	Precious and inexhaustible,
	Of generosity and the others
	These four virtues should be known.

	In three inconceivable kalpas or more depending on the first paramita, loftiness is established and the kleshas 
abandoned.
the count of six paramitas is fixed.  The same text says:

	Enjoyment and the body are both completely perfected.
	By perfect acts and retinue one is elevated.
	One never again will be in the power of the kleshas,
	And anything one does will always be correct.

	Second, in terms of doing benefit for others, with a view to accomplishing benefit for oneself, the count of six is 
fixed.  The same text says:

	Not impoverished and completely not injurious,
	Patient with injury and not growing weary of action,
	One has an excellent reason for one's feeling of rejoicing:
	The benefit of others is one's own benefit.

Third from the viewpoint of the three trainings, as for the count of six paramitas being certain, the same text says:

	Of the six paramitas of the Victorious One,
	When they are classified from the viewpoint of the three trainings
	The explanation is that the first has three divisions
	The second has two divisions, and the third has one.
	One includes all three, with three divisions described.

	The first three are gathered under the training in supreme discipline.  Generosity is the cause, discipline the 
essence, and patience the particular expression.
	The next two are gathered under training the mind in meditation.
	Prajqa is gathered under the discipline of prajqa. 
	Exertion alone gathers them all together, being associated with them all.

	Describing them as being understood in stages, the same text says:

	The later depend on the earlier
	Since they are lower and higher,
	And since they are fine and coarse,
	They are taught to be in stages.

	Since they arise in successive order from earlier to later, these are stages of cause and fruition.  Since discipline is 
more excellent than generosity, there is a gradation from worse to better.  The earlier they are, the coarser they are, and 
the easier to understand and realize.  The later they are, the subtler and more difficult they are, so there are gradations of 
fine and coarse.  They are described from those three viewpoints.
	As for the way of practicing, practice generosity with no hope of complete ripening.  Again and again in this 
samsaric realm guard discipline that does not aspire to the higher realms.  To endure everything patiently, meditate on 
patience.  Exertion gathers all these virtues together.  Meditation eliminates ideas of the formless realms.  Prajqa should 
be established non-dually with upaya.  The same text says:

	Generosity without hope
	Discipline not desiring
	Samsaric agitations.
	Patience bearing everything,
	Exertion gathering virtue,
	Dhyana that is not formless,
	Prajqa possessing upaya,
	These are the six paramitas.
	By their stability
	We are united with truth.

As for the ascertaining features the same text says:

	Removing poverty, obtaining coolness, and bearing anger,
	Union with passionlessness, and grasping of the mind,
	Are said to be done for the sake of knowing the absolute.

	Removing poverty is generosity.  Cooling the torments of the kleshas, and guarding against them is discipline.  
Forbearance of inner anger is patience.  Union with the level of buddhahood is exertion.  One-pointedly grasping mind is 
dhyana.  Knowing the nature of dharmas, absolute truth, is prajqa.

b.  The extended explanation of the individual natures of the perfections,

1)  Generosity,

a)  Identifying the object,

	Now from the six explanations of the individual natures, as for the nature of generosity:

	Seeing that sentient beings are tormented by poverty,

b)  The general teaching on the nature:

	They give them limitless gifts of desirable articles,
	Like food and clothing, horses, wagons and oxen.
	Greater are such gifts as one's own sons and daughters.
	But greatest is to give one's head and eyes and such.
	This establishes worldly and spiritual benefit.

c)  The benefits of generosity:

	Thus we will conquer all our avariciousness.
	Consequently giving rise to wealth for others.

	Material generosity perfects the accumulation of merit and Dharma-generosity the accumulation of wisdom.  
Without avariciousness, the continuity of birth as a preta is cut off.  Actual wealth arises for the benefit of others.  The 
world of the noble ones is grasped.  The Sutra Taught by Questions says:

		By material generosity the accumulation of merit is perfected.  By Dharma-generosity, the 
accumulation of wisdom is perfected.  These two establish omniscience.  	What is material 
generosity?  It is like this.  There is giving, great giving, and supreme giving.  Giving is of food, 
clothing, chariots, and elephants to others.  Great giving is of sons, daughters, and spouses.  Supreme 
giving is of things difficult to do.  Heads, eyes, arms, legs and so forth are given.
		What is Dharma-generosity?  The lesser is giving pens, ink, and books.  The greater is giving 
teachings, of the shravakas, of the pratyekabuddhas, or of the supreme Dharma, according to the 
fortunes of beings.  To enter into grasping unsurpassable enlightenment and display the inconceivable 
Dharma like the sky is the supremely great.

	Householder bodhisattvas practice chiefly material generosity, and renunciates Dharma-generosity.  About this 
the Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Bestowing benefits,
	And depending on mind, the root,
	Perfect both action  and mind
	Accepting these two and perfecting
	While being without stinginess,
	Giving dharma and things without fear.

	Having known such generosity,
	There is genuine accomplishment
	For those who are capable.

	The essence is being without miserliness.  The cause is pure, generous thoughts.  The fruition is perfection of 
body and enjoyment.  The action is taking care of both oneself and others, and perfecting the two accumulations.
	As for distinguishing the qualities, the same text says:

	Buddha sons, when they meet with students, give even their lives.
	Even if they receive compassion from other beings
	They take no care of fruition of human hopes and wishes.
	Generosity brings all beings to the three enlightenments.
	By the wisdom of generosity having been perfected,
	They are placed in the inexhaustible realms of purity.

2)  Discipline,

1)  Explanation of the nature and expression of praise

	As for the explanation of the perfection of discipline, since externals are non-existent, the inner abides in 
enlightenment:
	
	By controlling ourselves with the highest discipline,
	Peace and happiness of mind will be attained.
	By prajqa we will gain perfection of the two benefits.


2)  the brief explanation of what is to be trained in and the instruction  to guard it:

	The vows and accumulations of Dharma and benefiting beings,
	Buddha sons will always guard these three disciplines.

3)  The divisions of individuals who guard it and the explanation of the root as bodhicitta:

	Householders take the precepts of a lay disciple.
	Renunciates take the vows of monk, shramanera, or novice,
	And the discipline of guarding both the two bodhicittas
	
	Here, in addition to whichever of the seven pratimoksha, or self-liberation vows may be appropriate, there is the 
vow of the bodhisattva discipline, including vows of arousing the two bodhicittas of aspiring and entering.  The single 
bodhisattva vow has no divisions corresponding with the seven families of personal enlightenment.  Those seven families 
are the male and female genyens, getsuls, and gelongs, and the lay disciples.  Counting male and female observers of the 
precepts for a day there are nine families.  On the side of householders, the vows of genyen and day-precepts are divided 
into two.  On the side of renunciates, there are getsuls, genyens, and fully ordained gelongs.  It is said that on top of these 
the vows of arousing the two bodhicittas are possessed.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	As for those who dwell on the side of the renunciates,
	They have an amount of virtue that is immeasurable.
	With regard to householders industrious with their vows
	They are more excellent than even those bodhisattvas.

	That explains the renunciate bodhisattvas.  The sutras say:

	Householder bodhisattvas and renunciates,
	Those who have the forms of females and of males
	Supremely many billions and millions have one means.

	Of the two kinds of genyens, as for genyens who observe a few precepts, there are the "root four genyens," who 
keep the four root precepts, and abandon wrong objects of sexual desire.  Genyens of pure conduct, keep these basic four 
and also abandon impure conduct.

	As for the getsuls, the Radiant says:

	Renouncing cutting off life, and taking the goods of others,
	Impure acts and false speech, alcohol and so forth,
	Dances, garlands and such and sitting on high seats,
	And receiving food, gold, or silver any time after noon,

	Because of taking these ten precepts, the mind is also guarded from the associated faults.
	For women there are also the twelve renunciation producing antidotes of not touching anyone and so forth.  
Since women have greater kleshas, they are studied for two years to see if they can keep their vows and if they are stable.
	For gelongs there are four basic rules involving expulsion from the Sangha, the additional thirteen precepts, and 
the thirty of abandoning, which if they are broken one must abandon the object involved and so forth, 253 precepts in all.  
Gelongmas, fully ordained nuns, have 364 or more.  This is according to sarvastivadins, mahasangikas, sthaviras and 
many others in the collections that they individually revere regarding training in different disciplines.  The Bhumi 
Collection says:

		When in addition to the precepts of renunciation, they have those of arousing the bodhicittas 
of aspiring and entering without corruption, this is said to be bodhisattva renunciation.  Those who 
have this discipline have a discipline that binds their being away from corrupting activity.  This is 
called the precept of supreme discipline.

	In terms of the merit of the attitude of renunciation these are together with Bvn.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:  
5.11

	Attaining the wish for renunciation of such things 
	Is what is explained as being the perfection of discipline.

	Restraining natural degrading activity, the vows of personal liberation  bind non-merit.  In samsara the gods 
must take human bodies in order to attain the happiness of the benefit for oneself.  Not only do they not take care of others, 
but accomplishing benefit for them is only is taught within the bodhisattva discipline.  As for mantra discipline, in 
addition, the karma and kleshas involved in ordinary grasping are abandoned, and in the two stages of meditating in the 
stages of development and fulfillment, one is made into a worthy vessel.
	At the time of the vows of personal liberation there is no opportunity of properly committing faults of the nature 
of the ten non-virtues.  In the bodhisattva vow seven can be committed to benefit others.  Mantra depends on the skillful 
means of non-abandoning or non-renunciation.  As fire arises from wood, this cause of the arising of wisdom is produced 
only by that profound path.
	Within the continuum of a single being, the single essence exists with different aspects.  If objects of choice occur 
simultaneously, the higher ones are preferentially guarded.  The lower part is gathered into it.  Though there seems to be 
complete contradiction with the lower part, the essence is not lost, and so there is no real contradiction.
	For example, in tantric practice drinking is not a violation, even though drinking liquor is taught to be a 
downfall by the shravakas, and by the bodhisattvas said to be an associated fault.  At that time, the object must not be 
consumed by the practitioner as a monk or bodhisattva.  But when the deities are visualized, things change.  Things must 
become intoxicating liquor.  By mantra, mudra, and samadhi, they are transformed into amrita and one is supposed to 
enjoy them. Perceptions and thoughts must become many other things, transformed into perceptions of gods and 
mandalas.  By their becoming amrita and faultless divine offerings, feast practice is perfected.  By meditating with the 
accompaniment of view and samadhi, the good qualities become exalted, and in such a way the nature of these precepts 
will all be known.
	In brief, however faults are produced, they are stopped.  The good qualities if goodness is produced, are 
bestowed.  Generally, to know this clearly by visualizing is very important.  The Precious Mala says:

	Generally it is done by visualizing
	Therefore this is praised in all the shastras.

	In brief, guarding the mind from harmful behavior for the benefit of others is the vow of discipline.  By the two 
accumulations and the six perfections, an assembly of good qualities which have not previously arisen are produced.  
Increasing this arising is the discipline of gathering virtuous dharmas.  They are chiefly gathered by discipline of mind.  
Those skilled in upaya, whether real or from one's mind, accomplish the benefit of sentient beings.  By the four bases 
being gathered, others are made joyful, their situations uplifted, and good and virtuous seeds of ultimate certainty planted. 
 Such caring for the happiness of others is the discipline of producing benefit for sentient beings.
	By these three disciplines, the three disciplines of the path are accomplished.  Having perfected the two 
accumulations, one becomes enlightened.
	1)  By the discipline of the vow, one attains perfect abandonment of the two obscurations and their habitual 
patterns.  	2)  By the discipline of gathering virtuous dharmas, perfect realization is attained of nature, extend, and 
so forth.
	3)  By the discipline of benefiting sentient beings, one attains perfect buddha activity, taming whatever needs to 
be tamed along with the spontaneous arising of the two benefits.  The Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

		Kashyapa, this bodhisattva discipline has three aspects.  There are the discipline of the vow, 
the discipline of gathering virtuous dharmas, and the discipline of accomplishing benefit for sentient 
beings.  	By the discipline of the vow, the mind is guarded from what is unwholesome.  By the 
discipline of gathering virtuous dharmas, the virtuous roots are established.  By the discipline of 
accomplishing benefit for sentient beings, one devotes oneself to the benefit of others.

The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	These six accomplish peace by having wished for it.
	They will give the gift of life in the higher realms,
	They are the supports of peace and fearlessness
	By them one will possess the accumulation of merit.
	One attains the nature of the symbolic signs.
	One has the topics that are contained within the vow.
	Having completely known a discipline like that,
	Those who are capable will really establish it.


	The essence has seven limbs.  These are the topics of discipline.  Bound by the vow of personal enlightenment, 
are 

1).  The perfect procedure 
2).  The sphere. 

Only the subtlest faults are viewed as topics of fear.  The bases of the precepts are genuinely received.  They are learned.  
So it is explained on the level of the shravakas.

3).  As for the cause, it makes one attain peace, nirvana.
4).  As for the fruition, one exists in the higher realms.
5).  As for the action, it produces the support of all the good qualities.  The kleshas are pacified and one is made fearless 
about oneself and others.
6).  As for the good qualities, it possesses the accumulation of merit.
7).  As for the divisions, there is that arising from receiving the harvest of genuineness, and that attained by dharmata.  
The first, is personal liberation.  In attaining dharmata, both samadhi and spotless karma arise.  There is the mind of 
actual samadhi and the path of seeing and so forth, the undefiled level of the noble ones.  The Abhidharmakosha says:

	It is called the vow of personal liberation
	Spotlessness and samadhi will arise as a result.

	These disciplines are undefiled.  They are not changeable by downfalls.  They are not mixed with the personal 
liberation of the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas.  The sutras are not lacking, since they are part of the mahayana.  Having 
those four aspects, they should be produced as the support of good qualities.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	Your discipline is undefiled, and indeed not lacking.
	Not mixed, and unchangeable, it is a pure reliance.
	Discipline, whether at the levels of cause or causeless
	Is taught as the ground and support of all good qualities.

	As for these virtues of discipline, The Mahayanasutralankara says:

		The buddha sons always receive discipline of the nature of the vow and effort.  Though they 
have no desire for the celestial realms, they genuinely attain them even though they produce no desire 
for them.  By this discipline, all beings are also established in the three enlightenments.  By the wisdom 
of discipline being completely accomplished, they are inexhaustibly established in the pure realms.

3)  Patience,

a)  the general teaching on the divisions,
{{652.3}}
	Then as for the perfection of patience:

	Three kinds of patience also need to be established.
	One gives no thought to how much suffering is involved
	In the various kinds of outer and inner injuries.
	Because of compassion one has devotion to the Dharma.
	Third there is that of compassion that has no reference point.
	
	Not getting angry at harm or injuries produced by externals is the patience of fortitude.  Enduring hardships in 
liberation and in establishing the dharma for oneself and others, this patience does not care how much suffering is 
involved.
	Compassionate patience is being tireless in benefiting others.
	Not being afraid of the profound meaning of emptiness is the compassion having no reference point of nature.  
As for the meaning of these, the Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Fortitude knows but does not care how much it must bear.
	As for compassion, patience depends upon that dharma.
	As for the five benefits, they are truly explained.
	They are the producers of the two benefits.

	Having the main thing and all the ascetic practice
	There is the patience that aspires to those three things.
	When patience such as that has been completely known,
	By the wise it is said that it is truly established.

	The essence is not being angry with others and bearing adversity.  The cause is compassion.  The five benefits 
are the fruition.  The sutras say:

	1  There is not much resentment and discord.
	3  There is much happy and blissful mind.
	4  There is no regret at the time of death.
	5  The body abides in peace,
	6  and one will be born in the bliss of the celestial realms.

	Their result is to produce benefit and happiness for both oneself and others.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

		The buddha sons bear all the harms of human beings which is very hard to do.  Since they 
cannot care for the celestial realms, they are not afraid of not going there, and do not care about their 
benefits.  By that same patience they establish all sentient beings in enlightenment.  By the wisdom of 
patience being completely accomplished, they place beings inexhaustibly in the pure realms.

b.  The way of meditation
{{653.6}}
	As for the brief teaching of meditating on patience:
	
	Just as no greater evil exists than that of aggression,
	No merits are so difficult as those of patience.
	By strenuous efforts in these various kinds of patience,
	Let us strive to quench the great fires of aggression.

	The supreme good is enlightenment.  Moreover, the merit established by patience is greater than others.  The 
greatest suffering is hell.  Since this is produced by aggression, and since there is no greater evil than that, by various 
means, it should be joined to austere meditation on patience.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 6.2   {{654.3}}

	Just as there is no evil which is as bad as aggression,
	No austerity is so difficult as that of patience.
	Therefore it is proper that we should strive earnestly
	Meditating on patience in various different ways.

The Spiritual Letter says:

	There is no austerity like that of patience
	Though we cannot do away with occasions of anger
	By abandoning anger, there is irreversibility.
	By this being attained, buddhahood is promised.

c)  Many objects are tamed by taming mind alone

	If each of many objects of anger has to be dealt with, it will never be accomplished and they will not be pacified.  
As for the means of bearing them:

	The uncontrolled harm of things is entirely limitless.
	We can never succeed in pacifying them all.
	When mind alone is tamed, then everything will be tamed.
	So guard the diligence of keeping mind subdued.

	The Bodhicharyavatara says: 5.12  {{655.1}}

	Unruly sentient beings are as limitless as space
	It will never be that all of them are subdued;
	But if thoughts of aggression alone have once been overcome
	That will be like conquering all our enemies.

d)  How harm is a condition of establishing patience:

	The good of patience comes about depending on harm.
	Such qualities as kindness and compassion rise.
	Enemies, like teachers, are friends to enlightenment.
	Rely on them patiently, feeling respect and joy.

	Just as masters and preceptors are beneficial to renunciation, if one has no enemy, patience will not arise, and 
therefore we should put up with enemies.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 6.103-5
{{655.3}}
 	If we do not endure them in a patient way,
	The cause of gaining merit will thereby be prevented.
	It is only we who are our own obstruction
	Hindering what is the cause of gaining merit.

	That which if it there another comes to be.
	that is the vary thing which is called the other's cause,
	That on whose occurrence something comes to be
	How can that be called a hindrance to it?
	
	The timely appearance of a beggar seeking alms
	Does not produce a hindrance to generosity
	Calling those who are bestowers of renunciation
	Obstructions to it is equally unsuitable.

	Times of harm, conditioned by minor suffering of unhappy mind and so forth condition the arising of 
compassion and sadness and so forth, and therefore we should bear them.  The same text says: 6.21
{{655.e}}
	Moreover as for the virtues arising from suffering,
	By sadness, it clears away arrogant haughtiness
	For those within samsara compassion will arise.
	Evil is avoided and we rejoice in virtue.

	Those without merit can attain it by meditating on bearing angry thoughts.  They can feel joy in them and be 
devoted to them like the teacher.  The Uttaratantra says:

	With Joy and devotion like that for the teacher.

Also it says there:

	Therefore if we have a completely angry mind
	And patience arises only in dependence on that
	Since that is the very thing that is the cause of patience,
	It is worthy of homage like holy Dharma itself.

e)  The thought that the condition of anger arises from oneself.
	
	This will never be accomplished without ourselves,
	Just as an echo arises from mutual dependence.
	This mass of terrible harms that one has turned to evil,
	Proliferates due to karma and incidental conditions.
	So it is to be expected that this would come about.
	The only means by which this karma can be exhausted
	Is taming the mind and therefore we should strive for this.

	If we were not there, our anger and contention with others would not arise.  Anger and contention mutually 
depend on each other.  If we do not harm others, harm to ourselves will not arise.   Therefore it is useless to do harm, 
and certainly it is proper to bear it.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 6.106

	Thus if we do no harm to any other persons,
	There will be no one who will then do harm to us.

	Therefore not established with work and weariness
	This is like a treasure appearing in our house.
	As they are associated with enlightened activity
	Then I should rejoice that I have enemies.

    	When some little condition to harm me is produced, that arises from my own former karma, and so it is proper to 
bear it.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 6.46

	Being summoned to action by my personal karma,
	Those who do harm to me arise within my life.

	If I am angry, with what actually harms me, that materialistic anger is properly directed at sticks and so forth or 
at unpleasant words.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 6.41
657.4
	Though actually it is done by the stick that he is using,
	If it is to the user that I address my anger,
	As he as well as I is motivated by anger
	It is all the fault of anger--I should be angry at that.

	In particular, if we are angry when unpleasant words are spoken by other people, not being angry at the inner 
source, one's own ear, but being angry at the external speaker is illogical, because it produces suffering.  If one thinks like 
that, fame and praise are harmful, and drive us to the lower realms.  Patience is the opposite.  The Bodhicharyavatara 
says: 6.100

	As for me who am devoted to liberation
	I should not be bound by possessions and social position.
	Why should I be angry at the very persons
	Who are producing liberation from this bondage

	When they wish for me to be in suffering,
	It is actually like a blessing by the Buddha,
	I will go by that to the level without outflows.
	Why should I be angry at the occurrence of that?

Also:  6.103

	If it is merely because of obstruction by my faults
	That I will not be patient with this enemy
	It is only I who will be hindering
	That which is an occasion for and cause of merit

	If harm is a prerequisite for patience, anger is not the right response.  If harm comes from one's own karma, it is 
not the enemy that harms us.  If it is nonexistent, even generosity will not help.  Having let it go, everything becomes like 
waking from a dream.  The limitless purposes of beings and harms of wealth are bondage.  Again: 6.55

	Since worldly possessions are producers of hindrance,
	If I do not want these hindering blockages,
	I should throw away these troublesome possessions
	Lest the evil of my deeds be stabilized.

	It is even better if I die right now.
	There is no profit to living long in wrong livelihood.
	Even if I should live for a very long space of time
	There will always be the suffering of death.

	Supposing that one person awakens from a dream
	In which was experienced a hundred years of happiness,
	And another person awakens from a dream
	Having experienced happiness only for an instant.

	For both these persons, who have woken from their dreams,
	That happiness they dreamed about will not return.
	Likewise whether life is either long or short
	At the time of death it is over just the same.

	Having great possessions, and great abundance of wealth
	Even though I live happily for a very long time,
	As if I were ravished by a conqueror
	I shall go forth in nakedness with empty hands.

	Being angry about being disparaged and insulted makes no sense. Fame is just words.  Such words are mere 
material things without the least benefit.  The same text says: 6.90

	As for veneration and honor, praise and fame
	Coming from these there is no merit and no life,
	There will be no more strength, and sickness will not be absent.
	Nor will the body be better off than it was before.

	If we truly know what is to our benefit,
	What is the benefit of things that are such as these?
	If we wants only a little nominal happiness,
	Let us rely on gambling, liquor, and so forth.

	The benefit of fame takes away one's wealth,
	Or If we should be killed in the pursuit of honor
	How will anything be done by these mere words?
	If we die, then who will have that happiness?

	If their castles of sand collapse and fall to pieces,
	Children start to cry, hurt by the pain of that.
	Thus when there is damage to my praise and fame,
	My own mind is like the mind of a little child.

	Some think that because of unpleasantness, there is anger.  If we become angry and say unpleasant words, why 
not be angry at our own words?  We may wish to say them, but nothing requires us to be angry because others are 
arrogant.  Since we are unhappy, anger that our own mind is angry is what is suitable.  We are just being unhappy with 
ourselves.  Others' words are formless and do not transfer to us, but we eagerly assimilate them and, therefore, become 
unhappy.  If we were not unhappy, there would be neither harm nor benefit.  All happiness and unhappiness of the 
preceding instant have ceased, like the definite appearances of yesterday morning.  As last night's dream will not return,  
is not perceived, and is without nature, then equally there are no feeling to be the ground of anger.  The appearances of 
today, and the dream of last night are similar.  Neither is worthy of attachment with joy and sorrow as truly existing.

f)  The thought about fabrications existing or not:
	
	If sudden unwished-for events unpleasantly occur,
	If such fabrications exist, then why should they be unpleasant?
	If they do not why bother to be concerned with them?
	Therefore let us try to be patient with conditions.

	When desirable and undesirable things arise, if these fabricated things are there, in an effort of upaya there will 
be unhappiness, so skillful means are no use.  If they are not there,  there is no making or not making unhappiness.  That 
there is unhappiness, cannot be reversed.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	If such fabrications as these the fabrications exist
	Why should we be unhappy because of such an existence?
	If the fabrications are actually non-existent
	What is the sense if we are made unhappy by them.

	Therefore, sentient beings each performing their own actions, know relationships of mother, father, and so on; 
For the benefits of samsara and so forth these should not be put up with. But for the sake of the master, preceptor, guru, 
and the three jewels, we should not be angry with others.  If there is such a harmful misfortune, it cannot be reversed.  If 
there is not, it will not be produced.  By the praise and blame of others immense benefit or harm can therefore not result.

The teaching of the nature of anger as emptiness.

g)  What is the nature of this unpleasantness and harm:

	If examined, they depend on a nature like empty space.
	Happy and sad and joy and sorrow, good and evil,
	Grasping these dualistically has no use or meaning.
	Try to see everything with equanimity.
	
	Harm-producing forms and one's own form are without a particle of difference, and so doing harm and being 
harmed do not exist.  The minds of both are not perceived at all externally or internally.  Their words too, if examined 
have no nature at all, and so the one who harms, harm, and the object of harm are empty of nature.  As for joy and non-
joy, good and bad, nothing is ever lost at all.  For even the appearance of harm no essence is established.  These phantoms 
and mirages etc. are like the eight examples of the confused relative.  In the absolute, meditate on patience like space,  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says:  6.32

	If thus we knows these apparitions as phantom-like,
	There will be neither subject or object for our anger.

	Also, if we consider primordially unborn emptiness, The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	Thus for things like that which are completely empty
	What is there to gain, and what is there to lose?

and also the Bodhicharyavatara says:

	What joy is there to be found, and also what non-joy?
	If one tries to examine these and look for them
	Everything like this is like the space of the sky
	It should be grasped as being completely like the ego.

	Thus, if one meditates with many skillful means, patience will be established without hindrance.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says:

	If we are thirsty, they will not easily be at hand.
	These are things do not exist in any way at all.

	By familiarity with that, in this life we are on friendly terms with everything, and by things being pleasant we are 
happy.  Later we attain the special celestial realms and enlightenment.  The same text says: 6.133

	Arising from the cause of rejoicing by sentient beings,
	May we see in the future attainment of buddhahood.
	Why do we not see that in this very life
	There could be great splendor, glory, and happiness?

	By the patient endurance of samsaric life,
	There are lack of sickness as well as beauty and splendor.
	There is support of life that lasts for a very long time
	And the bliss of becoming a universal monarch.

4)  Exertion,

a)  How it is for individuals who have it

	Now there is the explanation of the perfection of exertion.  For beings..

	Joyful in the wholesome nature of this effort,
	Wholesome dharmas are not exhausted, but gather like clouds.
	Or bees within a cluster of fragrant lotus flowers.

	The scriptures say:

	By exertion enlightenment exists,
	But by non-exertion it does not.
	By exertion happiness is gathered.
	By exertion good qualities increase.

b)  The incompatible aspects:
	
	What does not accord with this is the three kinds of laziness,
	Attachment to bad actions, discouragement, self-contempt,
	Not accomplishing good is the ground of every evil.
	What is excellent is damaged and troubles will increase.
	
	With laziness, faults increase, virtue is obscured, and our wishes not accomplished.  To give the divisions: 

	Laziness attached to bad actions concerns acts that hinder holy Dharma, and agitate the mind, like always 
counting our goods and so forth.  
	Seeing difficulties, joining ourselves to the thought "Surely it can't be done," is the laziness of discouragement.  	
	"Someone like me couldn't do it!"-- such a discouraged attitude is the laziness of self-deprecation.  The 
Bodhicharyavatara says: 7.3

	There is the laziness of attachment to bad actions
	That of discouragement, and that of self deprecation.

c)  The measureless good qualities

	As for the good qualities of the opposite of laziness, exertion:
	
	Whoever has exertion is praised by all the world.
	Whoever has exertion, accomplishes human wishes.
	Whoever has exertion, their virtues will increase.
	Whoever has exertion will pass beyond suffering.
	
	To summarize the immeasurable benefits of exertion, we will be praised by worldly ones and will accomplish the 
goals of our aspirations.  Good qualities will increase.  Buddhahood will be attained.  The same text says: 7.1

	That only with exertion enlightenment exists,
	Is like there being no motion without the wind element.
	So without exertion no merit will arise.

d)  The instruction that one must have exertion as a means to these benefits:

	Whether in the highest dharmas of worldly goodness,
	Or in those of the path that leads beyond the world,
	There are dharmas of defilement and those that are without it,
	What is bad is abandoned and what is good accomplished,
	So let us make strenuous exertions, and truly stay with them,
	So long as buddhahood has yet to be accomplished.
	Going ever-higher to greater and greater truth,
	Let us strive that long without any slackening.

	For as long as we have not attained buddhahood, we should try to attain its superior qualities.  In doing so we 
should rejoice in virtuous actions.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	Who without exertion enjoys happiness.

	As for the divisions, the armor of exertion is practicing virtue as a cause of overcoming the four maras.
	The exertion of preparation completes the ten paths.   Having formerly done that the exertion that accomplishes 
the goals of sentient beings is the cause of completing the goals of oneself and others.
	There are the also three exertions in the dharma by exertion in body, striving in speech, and endeavoring in 
mind.    Also the Compendium says:

		There are the exertions of armor, preparation, absence of despondency, irreversibility, and 
never regarding as enough, with the mind completely joyful.

Or the Lankavatara Sutra says:

	With exertion is that by which there is striving in the upper and the lower parts.  Having seen what 
accords with yoga, exertion in order to eliminate discursive thoughts, is the perfection of exertion.

The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Truly rejoice in virtue
	Rely on faith and on zeal,
	Increase the virtues of mindfulness,
	As an antidote for the kleshas.

	Its quality  is passionless;
	As for the seven kinds
	Having known such exertion,
	The wise will truly accomplish it.


	Joy in virtue is the essence.  Faith and zeal is the cause.  Increasing mindfulness, samadhi and so on is the 
fruition.  A happy mind without the three poisons is possession of the quality.
	If it is divided, in each of the three precepts, it is always produced and is devotedly produced, by body speech, 
and mind respectively.  With armor-exertion that makes seven kinds.  As for the qualities, the Mahayanasutralankara 
says:

	The nature of the exertion which is without example
	Is the armor-application of the buddha sons.
	Having destroyed the hosts of their own and others kleshas,
	They attain the fruition of ultimate enlightenment.
	By this very exertion, all beings are established
	In the possession of the three enlightenments.
	By the wisdom of exertion being completely accomplished,
	They are established inexhaustibly in the three realms.

5)  Meditation,

a.  The cause establishing meditation,

	Whoever has the wish to cultivate meditation
	Should abandon all the distractions of various entertainments.
	Pleasurable objects, like clouds in an autumn sky,
	Ephemeral in their nature are no more stable than lightning.
	Enjoyments are no more lasting than illusory palaces.
	They are untrustworthy, and we should abandon them.
	Instead we should rely on the peace of leafy forests.

	All compounded things are impermanent.  Wealth is fickle.  Life is impermanent.  Since all this is always 
essenceless, we should try to meditate alone in peaceful forests.  The Personal Liberation says:

	After they have heard much,
	Abiding in leafy forests,
	Their lives slip away in happiness.

The Talk of Solitude says:

	In cloud canopies of enjoyment,
	Displays like flashes of lightning.
	Are destroyed by the winds of this life,
	Like lotuses floating on water.

	Quickly seeing the deceptions
	Of youthful embodied beings,
	The wise will therefore establish
	Meditation and samadhi,

	Turn quickly to the practice
	Of the ultimate yoga.

b)  The concordant qualities:
	
	The presence of desires will only produce a struggle.
	In seeking, collecting, and guarding them there is suffering.
	Arrogance, craving, and greed, increase our stinginess.
	We are led to the lower realms, and kept from the higher ones.
	Therefore be content, and let desires be few.

	External amenities are the source of much unhappiness of seeking, guarding, endangering, unhappy mind, 
craving, arrogance, hypocrisy and so forth.  Since they make one fall into the lower realms, they should be abandoned.  
Nagarjuna says:

	By the suffering of seeking, guarding, and gathering,
	Wealth should be known to be a limitless destroyer.

	 "Therefore be content, and let our desires be few."  The Spiritual letter says:

	Knowing how to be content among all wealth,
	Is said to be the best teaching of gods and human beings.
	Let all know content.  If they know that excellence,
	Even possessing no wealth, there will be genuine wealth.

i)  Things as a cause of suffering.

	With many things there are also many sufferings.  For example:
	
	Though by bodily wounds we may be full of suffering,
	The suffering of riches is even worse than that.
	Those who cut down their possessions have limitless happiness.
	There will be less danger of being persecuted.

	There will be no fear of thieves and enemies.
	Praised by everyone, we stay upon the path.
	Duties will be few and mental karma less.
	So let us always train in having few desires.
	
	If our desires are few, we are praised by all.  If we have no wealth, we do not have to guard it from enemies and 
thieves.  With few actions and body and mind at ease, we will practice samadhi, with little hypocrisy and so forth, and 
with many good qualities.  The more the wealth, the more the suffering for those who possess it.  As nagas have many 
snake-like heads, they have much suffering.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	As many as the possessions are the sufferings.
	However, those with few desires are not like that.
	As many as the heads of supreme kings of the Nagas,
	So many are the sufferings rising from possessions.

	Great desire for external things produces suffering.  Internally, the desires of sentient beings involve 
immeasurable faults.  By contention, passion, and offenses against pure conduct, the lower realms arise.  All concerned 
are degraded and so forth.  Since these arise from grasping desire and craving as pure, this should be abandoned.  The 
Precious Mala says:

	Sexy bodies of women
	Are mostly in the mind
	Their bodies in reality
	Are really no so nice.

	The mouth has rancid saliva.
	Garbage sticks in the teeth.
	In the nose are pus, and mucus.
	The eye is a glass of tears.

	The torso is full of filth,
	And buckets of lungs and livers.
	Fools who have not seen women
	Desire their bodies most.

	Like an ignorant person craving
	A bucket of shit as a bauble
	Such are these fools of this world
	In their ignorant lust for women.

Also:

	Whether bodies are good or bad,
	Whether they are old or young,
	If the bodies of women are nasty,
	How will desire arise?

	What is filthy, though secretly
	It may have good color and form,
	Is not worthy of desire,
	Such is the form of woman.

	The inner bones are covered
	With an external skin.
	There is a decaying stench,
	That seems quite unbearable.

	When what is unseen is like that,
	This pretty skin is unclean.
	A container of filthy heaps,
	How could it ever be clean?

	A jar full of shit is degrading
	To even its outer brightness.
	This body so full of shit,
	How is it any different?

And more:

	However you wash the body,
	it shows the dirt it is.
	If that does not teach impurity,
	What good will a lecture do?

	Of this body so received
	To make a graceful display
	E ma, how thoughtless and foolish!
	E ma, how worthy of shame!

ii)  The faults of worldly people and companions:

	Limitless evil comes from gladly suffering fools.
	The increase of evil deeds is the source of unhappiness.
	Good decreases, giving rise to strife and kleshas.
	We become ungrateful and are hard to satisfy.
	There are many frivolous actions and distracting entertainments.
	As we would from fire or snakes or vicious beasts,
	Let us give a wide berth to all the attentions of fools.

	In particular in sentient of the present dark age, who were not liberated by seven generations of previous buddhas 
and so forth, ultimate wildness, evil deeds, and kleshas increase.  Virtue and peace are abandoned.  They return benefit 
with harm.  They uselessly afflict others in body, speech and mind.  They disparage holy dharma and individuals 
associated with it.  They have many purposes and many actions.  With many occupations and distractions, kleshas 
naturally arise.  Like living among carnivorous beasts, fire, or poisonous snakes, they are hard to deal with.  The Entering 
into the Sphere of All the Tathagatas says:

	As we will never be joyful
	Among fierce ravenous beasts,
	Likewise dealing with fools,
	There is no happiness

The Bodhicharyavatara says:

	If we acts like those with the fortune of fools,
	We will certainly go to the lower realms.
	Letting ourselves be led by those of unequal fortune,
	What will come of associating with such fools?

	For a moment or two they may be our companions,
	Then within an instant they turn into enemies.
	They become angry even when things are going well.
	Ordinary people are difficult to please.

	If we speak of their benefit, they get angry at that,
	They go on to reverse our benefit as well.
	If we do not go along with what they have to say,
	Because they get angry, they will go to the lower realms.

	Higher ones they envy, competing with their equals.
	Arrogant to inferiors, or when they are praised,
	If something unpleasant is said they give way to anger.
	What benefit can be expected from these fools?

	If one associates with them, it is impossible that passion, aggression, and empty chatter will not arise.  The same 
text says: 8.13 

	Whenever one associates with fools like these
	They always praise themselves and denigrate anyone else.
	With talk of their rejoicing in samsara and so forth,
	Some sort of unhappiness will certainly arise.

	The suffering of those who so depend on their own partialities of desire and attachment becomes our own 
burden.  By such real bonds, our minds are bound.  By associating ourselves with their thoughts, one's dharma will be 
damaged.  If we are with them, there is no devotion.  If we are separate, there are immeasurable damages of unhappy 
torment.  The same text says:  8.7-8

	If for sentient beings we have produced desire,
	That which is genuine is entirely obscured.
	Even the thought of being sad at samsara is destroyed.
	In the end we shall surely know the pains of suffering.

	There by thoughts that are concerned with only this
	This life will pass away in futile meaninglessness.
	By our associating with impermanent friends
	Even the eternal  dharma will be destroyed.

	From the desires of foolish individual beings, comes our own non-completeness.  the Dharma of holy liberation 
is not  established because of depending on these.  Instead, first staying alone in forest and mountain solitudes, not 
meeting with human beings, we should meditate.  The same text says:

	By these one's benefit will never be accomplished.
	Since for oneself this benefit will not arise,
	For a long time we will be distracted by these fools. 

	That is how one should think about it.  Moreover, even if the oral instructions have been heard from the holy 
gurus, if they are not kept familiarly in mind, one will not be liberated from samsara.  Therefore it is important to become 
familiar with them.

iii.  The instruction of resorting to solitary places
 
	As long as the mind has not attained stability,
	So long will we be seduced by the wiles of external objects.
	So let us stay in the joy of secluded forest places.

	That is how mind and the oral instructions are mixed into one taste.  Until one attains stability, the beginner 
should rely only on solitude free from occupations.  The Basket of the Three Jewels says:

	Beginners, in order to fully pacify the mind
	And completely tame it, should stay in solitude.

iv)  The instruction to remain in solitude all one's life

	Once one is in a solitary place where no one is, isolated from all beings and fears, one is urged.
	
	Until this body is hoisted by four pallbearers,
	And turns to smoke upon a crackling funeral pyre,
	Strictly keeping to peaceful places of meditation,
	Conquer the enemy of sidetracks of body and mind.
	
	Thinking of the impermanent nature of life, one practices samadhi in a peaceful place.  The Talk on Solitude 
says:

	Until this body by four persons
	Is hoisted up upon a litter,
	For so long strictly solitary,
	Samadhi's peace should be my practice.

This is also taught in the Bodhicharyavatara  8.34

v)  the praise of forest solitudes.

Now the virtues of the forests are explained:

	In forests clear water, flowers, and fruits are plentiful.
	There is excellent housing in mountain caves and sheltering rocks.
	In solitudes graced by the shade of overhanging branches,
	Many birds and deer dance by the river banks,
	Exquisite with colorful flowers and the songs of bees.

	Forest solitudes in shady valleys are the best.  The ground is covered with verdant grass, adorned with a myriad 
of flowers.  It is full of sounds of cool waterfalls and the songs of humming bees.  In the faces of the rock mountains, under 
sheltering rocks are many fine natural houses.  Clean water adorned by flowers and leaves is sufficient food.  
Accompanied by birds and wild animals, one has happy companions.  Living with them in those places of samadhi, our 
aspirations from the beginningless past will be joyfully fulfilled.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:  8.25

	Trees and birds and various wild animals
	Who dwell within the forest make no unpleasant sounds.
	There is happiness if they are one's companions.
	Therefore, may we always stay together with them.

	When we am staying in caves or in empty temples
	Or we make my dwelling by staying under trees,
	May we never look back, but instead of that
	May we always cultivate passionless detachment.

	In places on the earth for which we have no grasping
	Which are by their nature wide and unconstrained,
	Acting autonomously and without desire
	May we always stay in places such as these.

Also:8.37

	Therefore very bright and joyfully content,
	Happy in a pleasant forest with few thoughts,
	All agitations will vanish and be pacified.
	Therefore may I always remain in solitude.

Also: 8.85

	Contention and kleshas are emptied in these peaceful forests.

	In the fortunate, cooled by moonlight in groves of sandalwood,
	Whose fine and joyful houses are tremendous slabs of rock
	Fanned by the soundless motion of the forest wind
	The wish to help other beings is naturally engendered.

The Spiritual Letter says:

	Adorned by the waxing disk of the moon
	Great rain clouds pile up, as if buckled at the waist
	By seeing mountain forests there is passionlessness
	The nature moves like wind touching one's life with fortune.
	With the crowd of capering wild animals seen in the forest
	All is very delightful, and one is full of happiness.

	This forest where one does as one likes goddesses secretly
	Arriving come to visit one in one's rock shelter.

vi)  How it arises in solitude with impermanence.

	In those places fragrant with juniper trees and various kinds of sandalwood, with the scent of grass and flowers 
arising, with the aroma of incense and medicinal herbs:
	
	Meditation naturally grows in pleasant solitudes.
	Sweet with the fragrances of incenses and herbs.
	Enjoy the four seasons, as they turn in a lotus pond,
	The heat of summer, fall and winter, and the spring.
	Let your sadness grow along with the gradual change,
	As you contemplate the impermanence of life.
	

	Filled by the fragrance of incense and medicinal herbs, pleasantly scented like ponds of great lotuses, fresh 
breezes softly rise.  By the example of the passing seasons, impermanence and strong sadness arise in one's being.  
Relating to no one, there is neither passion and aggression.  There is no need for mental grasping.  Other people are not 
viewed and need not be.  One need have nothing to do with the struggles of life.  Without desire or discouragement arising 
from others, happiness is autonomous.  Even by the powers of the gods this is not attained.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:  
{{677.1}}
8.87-8

	In Empty houses, under trees, and in natural caves,
	Abiding in such places for as long as we wish
	Abandon all the suffering of grasping and guarding
	Without dependency, and acting as we will.

	Passionless because of acting autonomously,
	Without the least relationship with anyone
	Knowing the contentment of such a happy life,
	For even powerful lords attaining this is hard.

The Spiritual Letter says:

	On the shores of forest streams of pristine water,
	Blissful solitude is full of happiness.
	As if daughters of the gods were swaying their fragrant censors of fragrant smell.

	Bearing as ornaments continuous garlands of flowers,
	Overpowering, as if it were divine,
	The trees are perfect in root and fruit and leaves of green.
	In forest independence fall cooling mountain streams,
	Flowing in a place where there is no desire.

	Beside its wide rivers fruit and flowers fall as ornaments
	We are free and delightfully unseduced by a hell hole house.
	In wide mountain valleys without any people very happy,
	With vast experience of waving garlands of blue forest growth

	At the waterside pleasant waterfalls, sounding like a drum,
	Not a place for kleshas, so travelers proclaim.
	Conquering our relationship with desires and the three worlds,
	Shown as illusion, mirage, the moon in water, or waves.

vii.  In those places how the mind becomes workable:

In some of those peaceful places:
	
	See how bones are strewn about in a charnel ground,
	Think how our bodies will be scattered in that way.
	As we see the futile compounds of samsara,
	Any joy we feel vanishes in the distance.
	Always at peace, because there are no strife and kleshas,
	Let the happiness of our minds be workable.
	
	There are limitless good qualities such as samsara's sadness, contention, and kleshas being completely pacified.  
The Gongpa Zhupa says:

	By devotion to places of mountains and forests,
	The source of good qualities will be increased.
	By resorting to solitary places,
	The five desires will be completely abandoned.

	Therefore living unprofessionally
	Remaining with that which is not spoken by words
	Having virtuous dharmas must not be harmed
	By mutual confusion and talkativeness.

	Peaceful empty solitude, is praised by the buddhas.
	Therefore let aspiring bodhisattvas
	Always put their reliance in solitude.
	Do not produce desire in the cities.

viii)  The benefits of relying on solitude

	As for these groves or excellent qualities:
	
	Victorious ones have praised such forest groves as these.
	Saddened by samsara they keep to solitude.
	The merits of making seven steps in their direction
	Are such that the heap of merit that we would accumulate
	By making offerings to the buddhas for a kalpa,
	Buddhas as many as the grains of sands in the Ganges,
	Would never equal the hundred-thousandth part of them.
	Therefore let us keep to these forest places of peace.

	If someone worships the buddhas with material things for a kalpa, if with the mind of sadness one takes even 
seven steps to go forth into the solitude of forests, charnel grounds and so forth, that has a much greater merit.  The Shri 
Samadhiraja Sutra says:

	If one person offers flowers, incense, food, and all the articles related to happiness to all the buddhas for a kalpa, 
and another with completely sad mind keeping to solitude, takes only seven steps, the heap of merit of that is 
immeasurably greater than the first.

	Completely abandoning any view of body and life,
	Meditating in the highest peace of emptiness,
	The mind with exertion and with supreme exertion
	Like a wild animal should stay in solitude.

ix)  The divisions of how to meditate, together with the qualities

	Now as for the explanation of how to meditate.  In the forest:
	
	Therefore, taking a cross-legged posture on our seats,
	Meditate with a one-pointed mind without distraction.
	Practice the attitude of a child in a temple;
	Then the perfect discrimination of reality;
	Then the holy meditation of the happy tathagatas.
	We should know the names of the three kinds of samadhi,
	Experienced by the noble ones who have entered the path;
	As well as the four-fold dhyanas and four-fold formless attainments, 
	The experiences of those who have yet to enter it.
	The mind that delights in desirable things will be abandoned.
	Insight, samadhi, and higher perceptions will manifest.
	There will be the five eyes and the four legs of miracle.
	The mind will be transformed, becoming autonomous.

	The essence of dhyana is that the mind one pointedly grasps a good object, whatever it may be.  The Light of the 
Path says:

	On whatever object may be suitable
	The mind should be well-placed.

	Sit on a seat.  When the mind is placed in meditative equipoise, the complexities of appearance subside.  As we 
undertake to make apparent objects of one taste with the eye of dharmata, they do not become invisible, but become 
ungrasped phenomena.  Thus in one's own time, seeing apparent objects is like opening the eyes to two natures at once.

	Sir or madam when the eyes are closed,
	Such is the mind that is poised in meditation
	Sir or madam when the eyes are open,
	Such is the attainment of subsequent knowledge.

	Meditation on the single nature is shamatha.  Post-meditation is vipashyana.  These two have one mind, one 
essence, one time, one object, and are one in their action of abandoning obscuration. The Small Commentary says:

 		The pure world, having the aspect of completely not grasping subject and object, includes the 
subsequent mind as a fruition in accord with itself, reversing perception of form and so on.

	The appearances of meditation do not block appearances, but they are pure of concepts.  Apparent rocks and so 
on, the ordinary objects of the five senses, are worldly and are so labeled.  But since at that time they are without the 
aspects of grasping and fixation, they are also non-conceptual mind.  The very mind of appearance at that time, labeling 
appearance and emptiness as equal, is included in subsequent mind.  Meditation and the substance  which is mind are 
one, so meditation naturally abandons grasping and fixation.  Accordingly post meditation is of one nature with the 
dharmas of form, feeling and so forth.  It has abandoned perception attached to them in terms of grasping and fixation.
	Post-meditation purified by meditation is called "letting loose" attachments of grasping and fixation and so on.  
As for meditation and post-meditation being of one nature, everything exists at the time of meditating in samadhi until the 
seventh bhumi, and this letting loose of existence.   Up to then individuals do not exist as a single essence.  The 
Uttaratantra says:

	The mind always accomplishing actions
	Blazing like fire,
	Peaceful samadhi and absorption
	Are always equalized.

	There are three divisions to the extensive explanation.  The formless dhyanas of samadhi in the mind of someone 
not dwelling on the path, are called "the samadhi of a child's enjoyment."  For those dwelling on the path, the samadhis of 
the paths of accumulation and preparation produce the path of liberation.  Completely revealing the meaning, this is called 
the samadhi of completely revealing the meaning.  From the first bhumi onward, the samadhis of the noble ones are called 
the spotless samadhi or the joyful samadhi of the tathagatas.  The Lankavatara Sutra says:
{{682.4}}
	The samadhi of child's enjoyment,
	Fully revealing the meaning
	And the samadhi of the tathagatas.
	
	The stages are as in that passage.  As for the fruition, the Prajqaparamitasamgatha says:

	By samadhi, lesser desirable qualities are rejected
	Insight and higher perception with samadhi are established.

	As for the meaning of these, the Mahayanasutralankara says:

	As for mind, it dwells, and rests internally.
	Mindfulness and exertion are what are depended on.
	By that the production of bliss is subsequently produced.
	One is empowered with the objects of higher perception.
	Then the three chiefs of dharmas come into existence.
	Having known such samadhi, skillful ones fully establish it.

		The essence is grasped within the mind.  The cause is continuous mindfulness and exertion.  The same 
text says:

	Having realized a flash of this with agitation,
 	One should do this repeatedly again and again.

	The action is production of bliss.  This is the support of establishing miraculous ability.  The fruition is 
establishment of the higher perceptions, miraculous abilities and so forth.  Among the divisions are the three samadhis of 
abiding in happiness within this very life,  the establishment of all good qualities, and performing benefits for sentient 
beings.
{{683.4}}	As for the first dhyana,  as good qualities arise from inner dhyana, one attains joy and bliss.   In the 
stage of access,  and in having barely attained the main part there are conceptual thoughts  and sustained scrutiny.   
The main body in particular has no conceptual thoughts and only sustained scrutiny.
	The main parts of the second, third, and fourth dhyanas, have mental apprehension  without thought and 
analysis.  These dhyanas of which the earlier ones are preparations for the later, are explained in the Bhumi-Collection.
	The samadhi that establishes all good qualities when the six pure perfections and so forth are established is the 
samadhi of one-pointed mind.
	The samadhi establishing benefit for sentient beings, focuses one-pointedly on the benefit of beings, from the 
main body of this samadhi, one produces the benefits and so forth of what is desired and what one is interested in.
	As for the good qualities, the Mahayanasutralankara says:

		The sons of the Victorious One have many samadhis, establishing all samadhis.  The 
samadhis exist by invoking bliss, and by the arising of compassion they support lesser beings.  By that 
very samadhi all sentient beings are established in the three enlightenments.  By the wisdom of 
samadhi, when this has been completely accomplished, they are inexhaustibly established in the pure 
worlds.

6)  Prajqa that realizes the natural state also has three sections. 
a)  The extensive explanation of the nature of the three prajqas

Then as for the perfection of prajqa:
	 
	There are three stages as we develop in prajqa.
	These are hearing, contemplation, and meditation.
	By vipashyana the host of kleshas will be abandoned.
	By completely knowing the natural state of dharma and dharmin,
	From living within samsara, we go to the peace of nirvana.
	
	Hearing is the producer of knowledge of the nature, the natural state of all dharmas as they are.
	By contemplating what has been ascertained, and producing liberation from the ocean of samsara by meditation, 
it is maintained to be prajqa, which means supreme knowledge or awareness.  The Small Commentary says:

		Its sources are hearing, contemplating and meditating, or the union of samadhi.  By the prajqas arising 
from the main body of meditation and post-meditation..."

	Prajqa is called vipashyana or clear seeing.  It is more excellent than the other perfections.  However, the prajqa 
arising from hearing on the level of an ordinary being is also important, because someone who has not heard, one cannot 
contemplate and meditate.  The Uttaratantra says:

	Practice of generosity is the establisher.
	As discipline meditates on the celestial realms,
	Defiling kleshas are completely abandoned.
	Prajqa entirely abandons all kleshas and knowables.
	By that there is supremacy caused by hearing.

Also:

	Prajqa is supreme.  As for its ground
	It is hearing, so hearing too is supreme.

	In this case, wishing to know the nature of all dharmas is resolved by hearing.  Here the presentation follows the 
Precious Key that Makes One Meet and Evaluating the Treasury of Holy Dharma.  From the two sections of the first, as 
for the presentation of provisional meaning and true meaning, the dharmata of all dharmas is suchness, naturally pure 
space, the nature of mind, in naturally pure luminous realization.  Changeless, it transcends birth, abiding, and 
destruction.  Its essence is the space of the sky.  This is the true meaning.  Words of the Buddha and shastras that teach 
this are included within the true meaning.
	The dharmin is things that appear.  this includes arising and ceasing, coming and going, pure and impure; the 
details of the skandhas, dhatus, and ayatanas and so forth.  This is the dream-like appearance of variety evaluated by the 
details of speech, thought, and expression.   All these teachings of exaggeration are the provisional meaning.  All words of 
the Buddha and shastras that teach this are included within the relative.
	For example, saying or thinking, "The nature of the mind is like the sky." and becoming haughty about that is 
relative.  To say, "That which has the nature of the absolute is the true meaning," is as it should be.  The Praise of the 
Madhyamaka Inconceivable by thought says:

	The emptiness of dharmas is the true meaning, so it is taught.
	What arises and ceases, the life of beings and so forth,
	Is taught to be the provisional meaning and relative.

The Shri Samadhiraja Sutra says:

	As the Tathagata, who is the teacher, formerly taught,
	There are particular sutras distinguished as the true meaning.
	Those which teach sentient beings who are ordinary people,
	All such dharmas are those within the provisional meaning.

The Sutra Taught by the Noble One Inexhaustible Intellect says:

		If it is asked which sutras are sutras of the provisional meaning?  Which are sutras of the true 
meaning?  Those sutras which are teachings for the purpose of entering into the path are called the 
provisional meaning.  Those sutras which are taught for the purpose of entering into the fruition are 
called the true meaning.  Those sutras are called the provisional meaning which teach a self, sentient 
beings, life, persons, individuals, the arising of emotions,  and an ego who owns the emotions and is 
a doer and a feeler, explaining these in a variety of words, and teach being egoless and having an ego.
		Those sutras are called the true meaning that teach emptiness, marklessness, wishlessness, 
uncompoundedness, the unborn, the non-arising, no things, no ego, no beings, no life, no individual, 
and no self, and that the gate of complete liberation is unobstructed.
		It is said that one should rely on the sutras of the true meaning and not on the sutras of the 
provisional meaning.

	In brief, the natural state, and the sutras that teach it are called the true meaning and the sutras of the true 
meaning.  The many means for entering into the nature, involving confused, impure dharmas which instruct the minds of 
sentient beings, and all the teachings of their divisions and so forth, are known as the provisional meaning and dharmas of 
the provisional meaning.  This is how it is explained in the Mirror of Viewing the Aspects of Dharma and the First Key of 
Revelation.  In order to explain these and so that the intended meaning may be realized, from the two explanations of the 
intention and the concealed intention, first, as for the intention, explaining with a little exaggeration, these teachings have 
a manner which is not completely straightforward.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Equality and other-meaning
	And similarly other times,
	And the thoughts of individuals
	Should be known as the four intentions.

	The intention of equality has the intended meaning that dharmakaya is equality, saying "at that time we will 
completely see the tathagatas."  It is like that.
	As for the intention of meaning as other, having intended the three naturelessnesses, "all dharmas are 
natureless," is taught.  Thus, the characteristics of false conceptions are essenceless, since these are not established as real 
at all.  The arisings of paratantra are essenceless, since, their arising is not established from any of the four extremes:  
They do not arise from themselves,  because for these arising and an instant in which they arise are contradictory.  They 
do not arise from something else, since if the essential marks of these others are analyzed, they are not established.  That 
they arise from both would be doubly contradictory, so that is not established.  They do not arise without a cause, as that is 
impossible.
	The mere arising of whatever appears, mere interdependent arising like dream or illusion, is appearance of what 
does not exist.  The Sutra of the Appearances of Wisdom as the Ornament says:

		Manjushri, as for dreams, what appears there does not exist.  Similarly all dharmas are 
appearances of what does not exist.

	From that they are taught to be illusion, mirage, a city of the gandharvas, the moon in water, reflection, and 
magical emanations in space.  In true reality, they have no absolute essence.  This is the absolute.  This is because their 
nature is impure and so forth and their complex essence does not exist.  The commentary Ascertaining the Intention of the 
Sutras says:

		Characteristics are essencelessness.  Birth is essencelessness.  The absolute is essencelessness. 
 Having realized that, I taught that all dharmas are essenceless.

	The intention of other times, it is like saying, "by merely grasping the spotless moonlight of the Tathagatas 
marks, buddhahood is attained."  This is not attained in isolation, but having gathered the former assembly of these, one 
will always become enlightened by them.
	As for the intention of thoughts of individuals, for some attached to the view of grasping supreme discipline, it is 
like praising generosity as a lesser discipline.
	Second, the hidden intention is so that those who delight in external things can grasp the genuine path or 
meaning.  "Spotless moonlight,"  doesn't depend very much on what has that name.  While according with their 
phenomenal style, a non-according meaning is explained.  The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	The hidden intention of making one to enter,
	The hidden intention of other characteristics
	The hidden intention of the antidote
	The hidden intention of a transformation.
	Shravakas and the essence
	Thus tame faults and as for profound expression
	These are the four called the hidden intentions.

	As for the first, the hidden intention of making enter has the goal of making enter into the mahayana some of the 
family of shravakas who do not enter because they have been frightened by emptiness.  To them it is said that form exists. 
 The hearers, understanding that it really exists, enter.  The actual intention of the explainer is that all appearances exist 
like a dream.
	The hidden intention of characteristics is so that the essenceless natural state may be known.  It is taught that all 
dharmas are essenceless.  The three essencelessnesses of parikalpita, paratantra, and parinishpanna have already been 
explained.
  	As for the hidden intention of the antidote, some say Shakyamuni's body and length of life were short, with the 
intention of implying that he was less than other teachers.  When it is said, "At this time I become the tathagata 
Vairochana,"  the hearers understand that he is equal to rupakaya.  The explainer intends that he is equal to the completed 
accumulations, attainment of dharmakaya, and the benefits done for sentient beings.  The Abhidharmakosha says:

	As for the assembly of all the enlightened buddhas
	In the sense that all the buddhas go to dharmakaya
	Their body and the like are said to be equal to this
	It is not that their bodies and families are literally so big.

	As for the hidden intention of transformation, this dharma may be easy to understand, and in order to pacify the 
fault of people thinking that a dharma which is actually easy to understand is less than others, they teach it so that it is 
very hard to realize.  For example, the Shrine Room of Telling the Reason Why says:

	Father and mother are to be killed
	The king is doubly cleaned, and
	If one conquers the country
	Together with its surroundings,
	Those people will become pure.

	Here "father and mother" are craving and grasping at samsaric formations.  Alaya is a "king," since it is the 
support of the various habitual patterns.  The bhramin's view of a transitory collection and discipline training in virtue and 
grasping supreme asceticism are those who have the two purities of nature and the incidental.  The "country and 
surrounding regions" are the eight consciousnesses having the inner ayatanas of grasping and fixation.  "Conquering" 
them means that if they are purified, one becomes enlightened.
	Here two secret intentions, whichever is appropriate, make of one nature what is particular and different.  As for 
the distinction of these two, Lotsawa Loden Sherap says that another meaning than what is thought by the speaker is 
understood for the speaker's words by the hearers.  This is the intention.  The meaning understood by the speaker, but not 
understood by the hearers is the secret intention.  So it is explained and the Thekpa Dukyi Drelpa Shejar says:

		This intention, is only mentally presented in mind, and from the viewpoint of the external 
grasper it is not openly proclaimed.  The intention is secret to this viewpoint of the external grasper.


These two should be known to be without contradiction.  Someone may explain that it has such and such an aspect, and 
intending that it does not depend on whether it is in fact grasped or not grasped by the other.  This may be asked by 
another and so forth.  Since not all proclamations of the teachings are complete,  the rest of what is intended is the real 
intention.  In order to bring benefit to others, to some degree depending on a double meaning, teaching in according with 
their appearances, it is called secret intention.
	Understanding depends on the other understanding what is said by the sayer, as completed by another meaning.  
Therefore it is merely not false.  These are the two keys of the view of scripture.  Thus word, meaning, intention, and the 
purpose of the occasion since they are of many kinds, knowing that the sutras and tantras are revealed in this manner is 
very important.
	That two meanings are evaluated from two presentations of the Dharma treasury, first, as for the teaching in the 
style of the two truths, The Mulamadhyamakakarikas says:

	The buddhas having taught the dharma
	Properly depends on two truths.
	These are the worldly relative truth
	And the truth of the ultimate meaning.

The Sutra of the Meeting of Father and Son says:

	The truths of those who are skilled in the world are just these two.
	You have received no others, nor were they seen by me.
	These are the relative truth and the absolute truth
	Besides them there is no third truth of any kind at all.

	Here the mere nature of so called dharmas is made into a basis of division.  Then the way things appear is called 
the relative truth and the way things are is the absolute truth.  These two are divided.  Also, within the way things appear, 
there are the confused and non-confused.  The first is the nature of speech, thought, and expression at the time of existence 
as a sentient being.  This is all and everything that arises as confused appearance, grasping, and knowledge.  This is also 
all that is delusive, changeable, miserable, and so forth.  It is the appearance of objects to a confused mind.  They are the 
labels of speech, thought and expressions of the minds of sentient beings.  As the imputed labels of such a mind, they do 
not touch the reality of buddhahood, and are called confused.  The appearances and understanding of this time depend on 
dualistic appearances of incidental truth and falsity,  the true and the false relative.  These have an effective power 
according with appearances.  They arise from causes.  They are isolated by examination.  They appear in an accordant 
way.  Collected under earth, water, fire, and air, with the knowledge of what is intrinsic to these, they are the true relative. 
 Appearances that have no effective power, like the appearance of two moons if we put pressure on the eye, are the false 
relative.  The Two Truths says:

	They appear to have an effective power,
	By whether they really have it or do not,
	They are distinguished as being true or false.
	These divisions of the relative are made.

	Both of these, when their nature is examined, are equal.  They are equal in arising from habitual patterns of 
confusion.  They are equal in appearing to the individual senses.  Though temporarily from the viewpoint of confusion 
they are effect-producing appearances, all the objects viewed by the eye-consciousness and so forth are equally natureless.
	The non-confused relative is two.  There is the non-confusion of fruition, the wisdom of the ground, together 
with the buddha qualities, and the previous impermanent, called non-confused from the viewpoint of crossing over to the 
nature.  The commentary to the Uttaratantra says:

	All truths of the path are compounded.  All compounded things are deceptive.

	This is taught because such things necessarily change and develop.  However the compounded other and the 
deceptive are not the same.  By attaining the fruition, alone with knowledge of the rupakaya of the buddhas, these dwell in 
Akanishta.  This is changeless.  It is permanent and self-existing.  It is the treasury of perfect buddha qualities.  As the 
great appearance of the mandalas and so forth, it is perfected mastery of the wisdom of extent.  Though as appearance it is 
called relative, since it is inseparable from dharmakaya, it abides changelessly like the sky.  These will be extensively 
explained below.
	Nirmanakaya is composed of the appearances of students.  By the compassion of the buddhas these are 
spontaneously present.  From the viewpoint of the minds of those who are to be tamed there seems to be change, but in 
reality no change exists.  Like the moon in water, from the condition of vessels it appears to change, but the real thing, 
whose characteristics are not established, is changeless.  Just so, though a body appears to beings who are to be tamed, its 
essential characteristics are not established.  These three kayas are of one nature without gathering or separation.  This is 
because dharmakaya is changeless.  Moreover, just as the moon in the sky though establishing the moon in the water is 
not of one nature with it, similarly, though emanations spontaneously appear from the state of sambhogakaya, 
sambhogakaya is really changeless, and nothing is really established.  Though from the viewpoint of those who are to be 
tamed there appears to be change, none of the things that change are established.  Therefore, all aspects of appearance, 
pure and impure, are gathered under relative truth.
	Absolute truth is the nature of things as they are.  The Mulamadhyamakakarikas says:

	Not known from another, and peaceful,
	Not complicated by complexities.
	Without discursive thought and different meanings.
	These are what are called its characteristics.

	All the dharmas of samsara and nirvana are primordially natureless. They transcend all objects of speech and 
thought.  Not realized by concepts, they are not classifiable by mind.  They have no proclamations of sameness and 
difference.  The same text says:

	The buddhas, the protectors of the world,
	Are also the amrita of the teachings.
	The meaning is not one, nor is it different.
	It is neither nothingness nor eternal.

	From the viewpoint of mind, the phenomenal world of samsara and nirvana is labeled with differences of good 
and bad.  However, since everything is primordially pure as the nature of the sky, there are no pure, impure, both, or 
neither.  "It is completely pure"  means it is beyond this sense presented by the mind.  The same text says:

	All is not true and not not true
	It is not both true and not true,
	It is not neither true or not true.
	That is the teaching of the buddhas.

	The viewpoint of the nature is beyond all proclamations.  This is because it is beyond all identification of 
essences.  Though, "It is like this," has been proclaimed, this is the view of ego and so forth.  Such statements fall into the 
extremes of eternalism and nihilism.  The Sixty Verses on Reasoning says:

	If it is proclaimed that this is a actual thing
	Passion and aggression will arise from such a view.
	It will be impatiently and unsuitably grasped.
	From that contention and controversy will arise

	Since the nature is without assertions, it proclaims no objects, has no proclaimer, and is not identified as 
anything at all.  This is why it is said, "It is faultless."  The Elimination of Controversy says:

	If I had any assertions,
	Then I would have these faults.
	But since I have no assertions,
	I do not have these faults.

	The natural state or naturally pure essence of all dharmas is profound, peaceful, and free from all the extremes of 
complexity.  It has no assertions or proclamations.  It is the purity of primordial space.  Though its essence is inseparable, 
if one divides it in terms of mental exaggerations, there is birth and the unborn.  Though these and everything else are 
established by the mind as emptiness, as complexities of the unborn there are the unliberated accountable absolute and the 
unaccountable absolute liberated from all the complexities of born, unborn and so forth.  The Two Truths says:

	Though birth and so forth are hindered by proper reasoning,
	They are explained in a way according with the real
	The birthless where all complexities are pacified,
	Is given the merely symbolic name "the absolute."

	Here if one explains the divisions according to the oral instructions, from the sphere of dharmadhatu which 
alone is classified as the ground, come the apparent aspects, like illusion, mirage, the moon in water, and so forth.  Since 
the nature of what appears does not exist, this is called relative truth.  The Sutra Requested by Jvnpa says:

	In the surface of a spotless mirror,
	Just as the moon may seem to be appearing,
	Even though its nature is not established,
	So the forest of dharmas should be known.

	Ordinary people see appearances as really truly existing, but yogins see them as uncertain, merely like a dream.  
Elusive and evanescent, tenuous and diaphanous, they are simply unexaminable.  Knowing all these misty appearances to 
be unexaminable is realizing relative truth.  They are not harmed by the conditions of appearance.  When there is 
attainment, these appearances are established as the beginningless miracles of beings and so forth.  Not proclaimed as 
anything at all, whatever appears is natureless; mind reaches it without any differentiating of truths.  If one attains this 
wisdom of the noble ones, the buddha fields and so forth appear, and since there is no attachment to their true existence, 
this is called the true relative.  All conceptions and appearances of a mind attached to their true existence  are the false 
relative.  The source of arising of lack of attachment to true existence and all its appearances are the true relative.
	In the absolute too, there is no attachment to the nature of mind, the natureless way things are, and all the 
dharmas included within that nature like the moon in water.  Confused appearances are known to be essentially natureless 
as groundless mere appearance.   Liberation of existence and non-existence and such mental conceptions into space is 
realization of the natural state.  Realization of that nature as the absolute is called mind that realizes the absolute.  The 
Praise to the Mother by Rahula, one of the sixteen sthaviras, says:

	Prajqaparamita inexpressible by speech or though
	Unborn, unceasing with a nature like the sky,
	Only realized by discriminating awareness wisdom.
	I prostrate to the mother of the victorious ones of the three times.

	According to that, discriminating awareness wisdom is absolute.  Realizing that is realizing the absolute.  The 
two truths are not different like two horns on a yak.  When the way things are in the relative is like the moon in water, the 
apparent form of the moon is the relative.  The moon's being without true existence is the absolute.  The single nature of 
these two, appearing as what does not exist in the water of a pond, are the inseparably united two truths.  Mind that 
realizes the two truths.
	The dharmas of appearance, form, sound, smell, taste, and touchables, along with mental conceptions that assert 
and deny them, are all confused appearances like the eight examples of illusion.  Realizing that what appears does not 
exist is called setting out from the monastery of samsara on the path of liberation.
	If one mentally analyses, what does not bear analysis is relative.  What does is absolute.  The details of the 
conceptual are found to be only relative.  How so?  That which bears the analysis of mind either depends or does not 
depend on the mind.  What does not is not classified conventionally as bearing the analysis.  If it does,  whether or not 
mind bears the analysis, these two are not a single aspect, since the mental examination is one thing, and it is only an 
object of mind.  Therefore it is relative.  The Bodhicharyavatara says:  9.2

	The absolute is not within the sphere of mind.
	It is maintained that mind is merely relative.

	That is how it is explained.  In brief, the complexities of mind and the appearances of complexity are the 
viewpoint of the relative.  The non-existence of complexities, the mind in which grasping and fixation have dissolved, and 
the appearances of such a mind are known to yogins as the absolute.  Since the two truths are inseparable, the relative 
therefore may also be absolute, as different aspects of a single essence.
  	According to what is proclaimed here, though the essence has no singularity or difference at all, according to 
worldly usage it is said that the two truth are of one nature.  According to what is proclaimed by doctrine, what appears 
according to the relative,  and should appear either according to the relative or not appearing according to the relative, 
therefore has the fault of also not appearing according to the relative. The Commentary Ascertaining the Intention says:

	As for the compounded and the marks of the absolute,
	These have separate marks of one and different
	What is characterized as being both one and different?
	This has not been properly dealt with up to now.

	Though it is taught to be without the division of one and different, it is really non-dual.  Of these the Miraculous 
says:

	Inseparable absolute and relative
	Is the great mandala of truth.

	Moreover, regarding the differences used in presenting the two truths, there are:

1.  The difference of two aspects of one essence,
2.  Difference of essence,
3.  The difference that refutes one, and
4.  The difference of different distinctions within one meaning.

	From those four differences, this is the first, making distinctions of aspects within a single essence.
	It is not a distinction merely of conventional names, since there are different characteristics and aspects.  The 
essence is not different, because the essence does not exist, and because the two truths are "inseparable" merely 
conventionally.  It is not merely the difference that refutes one, since there are no individual natures within it, and since 
the single ground would have to be divided.  Therefore, merely conventionally, it is like water and the moon in water, 
different aspects of a single essence.  The Commentary on Bodhicitta says:

	As molasses has many natures
	And the nature of fire is heat,
	Therefore of all dharmas
	The nature is emptiness.

Also:

	The relative is explained as emptiness.
	Because it is produced and impermanent,
	Emptiness alone is relative.
	If it does not exist, it does not arise.

Also the Five Stages says:

	The relative and the absolute,
	Are individual aspects.
	What is true is mixed.
	This is explained as union.

	In the absolute there is no distinction of one and different at all.  The Sutra Requested by Maitreya says:

	The inexpressible space of compounded characteristics is neither these themselves nor something other.

	In the true account there are:

1.  other extremes are hindered,
2.  existence of/as things, and
3.  the true account depending on purpose.

Of those three, it is the first.  Certainly being liberated and not liberated from things is really contradictory.  By refuting a 
third heap, the partialities of asserting and negating, these two are a valid account.
	Since objects depend on the perceiver, when they are postulated, objects are confused mind that has not reached 
the ultimate, and ultimate non-confused mind does not go beyond duality.   {{703.4}}   Here the dharmas of samsara and 
nirvana are all confusion, and since dharmata is the non-confused object, that for the powers of mind there are two objects 
is certain.  The causal power is something like the high points of art in relief.  The Prajqaparamitasamgatha says:

	By seeing all things as being true and false,
	Things are grasped as having a dual nature
	Seeing what objects are is the absolute.
	False seeing is taught to be the relative.

	If one divides according to the different doctrines, the shravakas analyze the absolute as instantaneous awareness 
by mind and things that cannot be harmed by being broken up by a hammer and so forth.  Continuity of awareness and 
coarse things are relative things that are really instantaneous.  The instantaneous partless atoms of coarse things are 
maintained to be absolute.  The Abhidharmakosha says:

	Whatever is said by the Bhagavan to be other than mind
	That does not enter into being the same as mind.
	Like water and a vase such things are relative,
	Such existence is other than absolute existence.

	Some Sautrantikas according with reasoning say according to the Complete compendium of Valid Cognition:

	That which has a productive power is absolute
	What is otherwise exists as the relative.
	So the general definitions are explained.

	In the mind-only school the object and perceiver of dualistic appearance are relative truth.  Non-dual knowledge 
is maintained to be absolute truth.  The Compendium of the Essence of Wisdom says:

	So-called parts of things do not exist,
	Therefore it follows that there are no atoms.
	Conceived appearance of individual things
	does not exist in experience like a dream.
	Liberated from grasping and fixation,
	Consciousness alone is absolute.
	This perfection of the ocean of mind
Is famed as the tradition of yogachara.

	For svatantrika madhyamaka whatever appears is relative, and is like illusion and so forth.  It is not absolutely 
established, like space.  The Conquest of Illusion says:

	The conceptual relative, like the absolute,
	Is liberated from conceiver and conceived.

	As for the prasangikas, what appears is relative and emptiness is the absolute; but what is called these is without 
difference, dharmata transcending all sameness and difference, free from all the extremes of complexity.  From the time it 
appears this is rightly maintained to be unborn, unceasing, and without coming and going.  The proclaimed relative alone 
is refuted.  The Prajqaparamitasamgatha says:

	While you maintain paratantra to be real
	I do not proclaim the relative.

	This is saying: If you think, "These appearances, are indeed established to arise and so forth,"  Arising and non-
arising, establishment and non-establishment are external labelings of mind, so how will they really exist?  However, 
though your doctrine is refuted, mere appearance is not refuted.  Aryadeva says:

	Just as appearances are not refuted,
	Because they arise in mutual interdependence;
	In this repeatedly becoming suffering,
	Conceptions of true existence are cleared away.

	Appearance in this case is appearing as if non-existent.  The Mulamadhyamakakarikas says:

	Form, sound, and taste and touch
	And smell's arisings are only
	Like a castle of the gandharvas
	Like dream or like illusion
	Like an illusory person
	And like a mere reflection
	Pleasant and unpleasant
	Even if they arise,
	Where and what are they?

	Here what is grasped is that all-inclusive all-good aspect of natureless appearance.  When each of these aspects is 
joined to its own attachment to true existence, they become very silly bad doctrines.

	As for the distinction between these two truths, the nature without speech, thought, or expression is absolute 
truth.  Appearance and what is imputed, being said, thought, and expressed by mind is relative truth.
	If it is asked whether this absolute truth is realized or not realized by mind, the essence of the absolute transcends 
realized and realizer, and is not classified as being realized.  The Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

		Kashyapa, what is the absolute, emptiness?  It is not viewed by anyone.  It is not actualized.  It 
is not accomplished.  It is not attained.

	Well don't the noble ones realize it?  "The mind arisen in accord with the absolute," is a string of emptied words. 
 Chandrakirti says:

	For the person with a mind in accord with emptiness, "Emptiness is realized," is said, but really there is 
no such thing as realization of emptiness.

	For example, by realizing that the sky is accommodating, the sky itself does not become an inseparable part of 
the mind.  The Diamond Sutra says:

	Those who see me as form
	Those who know me as words
	Are dwelling on wrong paths.
	These persons have not seen me.
	What is meant by the buddhas
	Is the view of dharmata.
	The leaders are dharmakaya.
	Dharmata is not a knowable,
	So consciousness cannot know it.

	At the time of enlightenment, since the absolute and buddhahood are not different, realized and realizer are non-
dual.  The time of seeing the truth of the noble ones, is also the time of seeing the nature of mind and the wisdom of 
actuality as non-dual.  Since realizer and realized are non-dual, becoming exhausted in a struggle between realization and 
non-realization is meaningless.   By saying that the essence of the absolute is without realized and realizer, it follows that 
it will not be realized by individuals.  But since this is not connected with the meaning, there is a gap in the explanation.
	"This fire is hot and burns."  By saying this, it follows that it was not done by the acts of persons.  We should 
think of the former expression as also like that.  Though space is beyond the extremes of thinking and conception, it is still 
encountered by persons.  Just so, the absolute beyond the expressions of complexity is encountered by yogins.  What's 
more, it liberates from suffering and manifests the ultimate luminosity of mind.  It is genuine, true, and right.
	Moreover, if one does not know the nature of the two truths, one does not the profundity of suchness.  The 
Mulamadhyamakakarikas says:

	Whoever does not completely know
	These divisions of the two truths,
	These also do not completely know,
	The profundity of the Buddha's teaching.

	As for the good qualities of knowing this:

	Those who put their reliance on these two-fold truths,
	Glean the accumulations of enlightenment.
	These will cross from samsara to the perfection of wisdom.

	Moreover, as for all dharmas being the appearance of what does not exist, insofar as they are completely 
contained within the play of emptiness they are suitable, and otherwise they are not suitable.  The 
Mulamadhyamakakarikas says:

	Whenever emptiness is suitable
	Then everything will be suitable.
	Whenever emptiness is not suitable,
	Then everything is unsuitable.

Also:

	Though these emptinesses are entirely proper
	Non emptiness is not proper in the least.

	In brief, impure, confused dharmas, the dream-like relative are not true, deceptive,  a childish betwixt and 
between. Except as mere evanescence, they have no nature or identity.  The luminous nature of pure dharmata, the 
profound peace and simplicity of the natural state of wisdom, is changeless, self-existing, inconceivable dharmata.
	In relative truth, the accumulation of merit is hollow like dream and illusion.  The accumulation of wisdom of 
absolute truth is dharmata like the sky.  By meditating on that as a fruition, the holy rupakaya and holy dharmakaya are 
both made to manifest.
 		With that, the first storehouse, the presentation of the two truths, has been taught.  Now the nature of 
all dharmas as dependent arising will be taught.  The Mulamadhyamakakarikas says:

	There are no dharmas
	That do not arise interdependently,
	Therefore there are no dharmas,
	That are not emptiness.

	In explanation of this, the nature arises interdependently.  Samsara arises interdependently.  Nirvana arises 
interdependently.  From these three, as for the first, the dharmata or nature of samsara and nirvana does not come from 
anywhere.  It does not go anywhere.  It does not abide anywhere.  Since the dharmin depends on dharmata,  the dharmin, 
from the very time of appearing to arise and cease, is free from all the extremes of complexity of birth, abiding, and 
destruction.  This is the nature of the middle way. The  Mulamadhyamakakarikas says:

	What arises interdependently is explained as emptiness.
	It is classified in dependence on that  relationship.
	That itself is called the path of the middle way.

The Lankavatara Sutra says:

	Abandoning eternalism and nihilism,
	Free from partialities of existence and non-existence,
	Total realization of the middle way,
	This very thing which is known as the path of the middle way,
	Has been explained by me and also by all the buddhas.

	All impure appearance and the awareness that grasps it is the dimness of hairs floating in the eyes.  From the 
very time of their seeming appearance, they do not exist at all.  The same text says:

	No nature, no apprehension,
	No reality, no support,
	This corpse-like foolishness
	Is labeled as wrong knowledge.
	These errors float like the hairs
	That are seen by persons with floaters.
	Likewise conceptions of things,
	Are wrongly imputed by fools.
	The three worlds are mere imputation.

	The confused appearances of dream do not exist before sleep and after waking, but in between they seem to 
appear.  These present appearances of the six realms are non-existent within the primordially pure realm of the first nature 
of mind.   Since the nature of mind is completely pure of these present confusions, there is no such thing as a time when it 
becomes enlightened.  In the middle these appearances appear while they are non-existent. Their arising, abiding, and 
destruction does not exist, and therefore in their essence there is neither birth nor destruction.  Earlier, now, and later they 
have no arising in space.  The Subsequent Tantra of the Creator of All says

	Since later space is changeless,...

To explain, confused appearance is a mere labeling with names. Its nature does not exist like a sky-flower or the son of a 
barren woman.  If that nature is realized, one is liberated:

	There is no worldly birth or destruction
	Like a flower in the sky.
	By your prajqa and your compassion,
	Do not conceive of existence
	Nor yet of non-existence.
	All dharmas are mere illusion.
	Abandon mind and consciousness
	With eternity and the void.

	Moreover, the eight consciousnesses depend on the alaya of the various habitual patterns, and confused habitual 
patterns of appearance as external objects.  All this is false conception.  It is temporary, without benefit, apparent though it 
does not exist, and ignorant.  Confused thoughts that grasp at ego and ego-fixation rendered it without benefit.  As for 
suffering within this dreamlike attachment to true existence of sentient beings, the Song of the Inexhaustible Treasury 
says:

	The game which I have made,
	Fools grasp and solidify.

	At the time of appearance, from the very time when memory and understanding arise, they are primordially 
empty, beyond all the extremes of complexity.  The Samadhiraja Sutra says:

	The sons of the conquerors are destroyers of everything.
	Samsara is primordially empty of existence.
A partial emptiness is that of the extremists.
	The wise do not dispute with any fools like these.

	Existence and non-existence, having or not having a certain quality, true and false, pure and impure are all 
mind-created doctrine and therefore false conceptions.  They should be cast away.  The same text says:

	Those with conceptions impute existence and non-existence.
	By such examination suffering is not pacified.
	Both existence and non-existence are extremes.
	In the same way, pure and impure are mere extremes.
	Those who are wise do not abide in the middle either.

Also, the Sutra of the Irreversible Wheel says:

	Existence is one extreme.
	And non-existence a second.
	One as such mere extremes
	Are ego and non-ego
	And eternalism and nihilism.
	
	As for people being bound by their respective conceptual doctrines, the Lankavatara Sutra says:

	Words that know things are grasped
	Like proliferating insects.
	Fools unskilled in relationships
	Are bound by inferior doctrines.

	All dharmas whatever and whenever arise interdependently.  They are unborn, unceasing, without coming and 
going, not single things and not different things.  They are neither nothingness nor eternal.  They have a nature in which 
all complexities have been completely pacified.  The Mulamadhyamakakarikas says:

	What arises interdependently
	Is ceaseless and unborn
	Neither nothingness or eternal
	Without any coming or going
	Not different things nor one thing.
	Pacifying complexity
	Is the teaching of peace
	To the perfect buddhas who said this,
	To those holy ones I prostrate.

	In brief, the nature of all dharmas is primordially pure.  This is the nature or ground of interdependent arising.
	Now, the interdependent arising of samsara will be explained.  What appears as external objects, the mind's 
apparent objects, appear in the form of mountains, walls, earth, water, fire, air, and space, conventionally symbolized as 
forms, a roll of cloth, the combined strands of a rope, single strands of long yak hair woven into cloth, the phenomena of 
things arising from causes and condition, and that and that being produced of similar and dissimilar kinds.  All these are 
called external interdependent arising.  They arise one depending on another, and therefore there is seeming external 
appearance of material things.  Compounded from ignorance up to old age and death, there is inner interdependent 
arising.  The Lankavatara Sutra says:

		Mahamati, just as from a lump of clay a pot arises, similarly from threads come cloth, from 
individual hairs weaving, from seeds a sprout, a stalk and so forth, from people churning diligently 
curds of butter, so Mahamati, in external interdependent arising, from earlier to later they arise.
		Internal interdependent arising is like this.  Arising from the dharmas of ignorance and 
craving and so forth, has been given the name of internal interdependent arising.

	Not recognizing primordial individual and personal wisdom is the great ignorance.  From that samsara is 
produced, and from consciousness up to old age and death the nidanas arise in an unbroken interdependent connection 
from one to the next.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	From ignorance comes formations, and from that consciousness, 	Then there is name and form, and from that 
the six ayatanas, 	Then contact, taught to enable the source of everything.
	From contact there comes feeling, which is the source of all.
	From the ground of feeling, craving will arise.
	From craving, comes clinging, from that is birth from life to life.
	If birth exists, there is suffering, sickness, and old age
	Loss of what is desired, death, and destruction and so on.
	Suffering and the skandhas thus become very great.

	From the twelve extensive treatments of the divisions of this, as for 1) ignorance, first there is the natural state, 
the primordial purity of dharmata, the essential nature, and the dharmas exhibited by that  By not correctly knowing these, 
because of formations of samsaric karma, patterns of conditioned 2) formations arise.  Here body, speech, and mind, 
obscured by ignorance, are not in accord with what is wholesome and meritorious.  The ten virtues and non-virtues and 
the three neutral actions are formations.
	By these virtues the celestial realms are attained and by the non-virtues the lower realms.  The neutral ones 
associated with these two are like non-virtue.  The Mulamadhyamakakarikas says:

	From the obscurations of ignorance there is therefore rebirth.
	The three formations and manifestation of formations,
	These are the karmas go into our being beings.

	By the karma of formations, there is that which is produced and one enters into the corresponding phenomena.  
The awareness so-produced is 3) consciousness.  The Mulamadhyamakakarikas says:


	Having the condition of formations there is consciousness
	
	By consciousness entering into ones own happiness as a sentient being.  The red and white bindus, the aspect 
consisting of  gathering prana and mind, come feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness.  These are the four 
skandhas of name.  Form is frozen by being established as the skandha of form.  This is called 4) name and form.  The 
same text says:

	If one enters into consciousness,
	If there is name and form, there will be desire.

	In the mother's womb from entering into consciousness, name and form are established.  That form goes on from 
the embryonic stage of an oval and so on to the completed body.  At that time by the arising of the eye, ear, nose, tongue 
body and mind, there are the 5) six ayatanas.  The same text says:

	As for name and form, if desire arises,
	Then the six ayatanas will arise.

	Then by gathering together objects, the senses, and mental attention, 6) contact arises.  For example, as from 
bringing together form, the eye organ, and the eye consciousness, the eye-awareness arises, just so, from name, form, and 
consciousness, in the mother's womb, contact arises.  The Mulamadhyamakakarikas says:

	In dependence on these six ayatanas
	After that true contact will arise.
	In dependence on name and form, and production of memory
	There can only be arising or birth.
	Thus depending on name and form,
	Consciousness will arise.
	From name, form and consciousness
	That which is gathered together
	is known as contact.  From that contact...


	From contact arises 7) feeling.  From objects being pleasing, displeasing or in between therefore arise feelings of 
pleasure, displeasure, or neutrality.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	Feeling is the source of all.

	From feeling, 8) craving proliferates.  The child in the mother's womb by feeling pleasure, and liking that, has a 
craving for happiness and, from feeling pain, and wanting to get rid of that, has a craving to get rid of unhappiness.  From 
the neutral there is craving for equanimity.  These three arise.  The same text says:

	By the condition of feeling there is craving
	The object of one's feeling will be craved.

That which is desired from craving will be the object of 9) clinging.  The same text says:

	Because of craving there is also clinging.
	There are four different kinds of clinging.

	The Prasannapada says:

		Thus there is attachment to feelings, and as for that desire, from having the condition of 
craving, there is the cause of being impelled, desire, and discipline, and view, and practice, and 
complete grasping to the four kinds of expressions of ego.
		Also at the time of craving there are according, non-accord, what is between the two, and 
clinging to oneself, those four.

	From clinging there is 10 becoming srid pa As for the five skandhas, form, feeling, perception, formation, and 
consciousness, since they are becoming, that arises.  The same text says:

	When close clinging to this object exists
	Of the clinger becoming will arise.
	If there is no close clinging to the object,
	One is liberated with no becoming.
	That becoming therefore is the five skandhas.

	What is first generated from that, is that future 11) birth arises.  The same text says:

	From becoming there is birth

	Having been born, growing up, 12) aging and dying, with the cessation of life, arise.  The same text says:

	Old age and death and fearful suffering
	And pain together with cries and lamentation
	Unhappiness and quarrelsome discord
	All of these arise from having been born.

The sutras say:

	From that birth old age completely ripens
	In death, the decrepit skandhas are destroyed.

	As for suffering, while one is a sentient being, while dying, because of delusion there is torment of the heart 
together with desire.  As for lamentation, through suffering such expression of speech is motivated.  Suffering is harm 
within the five senses.  Unhappiness happens when unpleasantness occurs.  Quarrels arise from so much suffering and 
unhappiness.
	From these interdependent arisings from earlier to later comes what is called causal arising.  Since consciousness 
of inner earth, water, fire, air, space is produced by gathering together the six dhatus, the former said to arise from them as 
a condition.  The Noble Rice Stalk Sutra says:

		Similarly the causes for the two inner interdependent arisings arise.  What are these two?  
They are the cause and condition.  What is the cause of inner interdependent arising?  This is when 
conditioned by ignorance there are formations.  Conditioned by formation, there is consciousness.
		What is condition of interdependent arising?  It is the gathering together of the six elements.  
What is that like?  It is like this.  The gathering of the dhatus of Earth, water, fire, air, space, and 
consciousness is viewed as the condition of inner dependent arising.

	This is from the viewpoint of the mahayana.  According to the shravakas, the skandhas are ignorant when there 
is the karmic action of kleshas from former lives.  These five skandhas are formations when there is obscuration from the 
karma of former lives.  The five skandhas are consciousness on the occasion of entering a womb.  The five skandhas are 
name and form in an oval embryo and so forth, before the five senses have developed prominently.  The five skandhas are 
the six ayatanas from the time the gates of sense have developed, and the five skandhas until one is able to perceive 
objects.  The five skandhas become contact after one is able to perceive and grasp objects, but while one does not yet know 
the particulars of pleasure and pain.  The five skandhas are feeling from the time when one grasps the particulars of 
pleasure and pain, but cannot copulate.  The five skandhas are craving from when one grasps the power to copulate but 
has not accepted an object of desire.  the five skandhas are clinging on the occasion of accepting an object of desire.  The 
five skandhas are becoming while subsequently collecting karma.  Then in the beginning of the next life, when the five 
skandhas arise from the mother's womb, that is birth.  Then in the name and form of the next life, the four nidanas of the 
six ayatanas, contact, craving, and feeling age and die.  The Rice Stalk says:

	What are the ayatanas of name and form?
	They are what is subjected to age and death
	From feeling up to birth is similar.

The Abhidharmakosha says:

	The first ones and the last ones, two and two
	Have eight more between completing them.
	Ignorance is the occasion of former kleshas.
	As for formations it is the five skandhas
	Unified with the karma of former consciousness.
	Name and form it continues from that time
	Until the six ayatanas are developed.
	From there until the three collections is contact.
	Until feeling knows the causes of pleasure and pain.
	From feeling to copulation is called craving.
	When one desires the act of copulation
	That is the activity of clinging.
	Because one has attained it, very quickly
	Its fruition, becoming, will arise.
	The resulting action also is becoming.
	Actually being reborn is the stage of birth.
	While one has feeling, there is old age and death.

	There are two ways, instantaneous and gradual, of exhausting these twelve links of interdependent origination.
	From the instantaneous viewpoint, by the power of self and other, it is impossible that there is a time when life is 
cut off.  Therefore doing evil deeds is ignorance.  The aspect of entering into karma from doing evil deeds is formations.  
The awareness at the time of producing karma is consciousness.  Then there are the name and form and the six ayatanas 
of oneself and others.  Then being pierced by the weapon of desiring happiness for oneself and suffering for others is 
contact.  The pleasure and pain of that is formation.  From that entering further and further into joy is craving.  
Remaining into the later arising of that is clinging.  Possessing the five skandhas of that is becoming.  The present and 
future aspect of that is birth.  The aging and death of that is completed in the instant of completing the action.
	Involved in this there are three kinds of instant.  First is the smallest instant of vividly entering into knowledge of 
knowables.  Then there is an instant of action, which is a hundred and twenty times that.  From the time an action is 
begun until it is completed is called an instant of completing action.  	If the continuity is counted, the mind only 
school maintains that one cycle of cause and effect is completed in two lives.  In a former life the six causes are completed. 
 In this the six fruitions are completed.  By that one goes to the next life.  The six causes are ignorance, formation, 
consciousness, craving, clinging, and becoming.  The six effects are the rest.
	According to the shravakas, one round of cause and effect is completed in three lifetimes.  Depending on the 
cause of the ignorance and formations of the former life, the fruition in this life is the five consciousness and so on. In 
dependence on the cause of the craving, clinging, and becoming of this life, the fruition in the next life is birth, and old 
age and death.  As to the purpose of knowing these the Abhidharmakosha says:

	By those between the earlier the and later extremes
	Ignorance can completely be eliminated.

	With that the explanation of interdependent arising within samsaric existence is completed.  Now there are the 
two kinds of interdependent arising of nirvana.  These are those of the path and the fruition.
	As for the path, the root of entering into the twelve manners of samsaric interdependent arising is ignorance.  
That is reversed by the insight of wisdom.  By familiarity with the three prajqas, hearing, contemplating, and meditating, 
the first root, ignorance, is eliminated.  By eliminating that, the others depending on that are eliminated one after another. 
 By exhausting the cause of entering into craving, one will cross over from abiding in samsara.  The Spiritual Letter says:

	By the cessation of birth, all of these will cease.

The Mulamadhyamakakarikas says:

	As soon as ignorance ceases
	Formations will not arise.
	On cessation of ignorance,
	By knowledge one meditates.
	By the ceasing of that and that
	That and that will not manifest.
	Suffering and skandhas alone
	In that way really cease.

	Yogins who aspire to liberation from the cause should not collect the confused karma of samsara.  The fruition is 
that later there will be no samsaric arising, and therefore formations will have been blocked.  The same text says:

	The root of samsara is conditioned formations.
	Therefore the wise do not produce formations.

	As for the interdependent arising of the fruition, after buddhahood, the production of benefits for beings is like 
dream or illusion.  This will be extensively explained below.  As this knowledge of the inclusion of all dharmas under 
interdependent arising is itself included within the absolute truth, one passes beyond suffering to nirvana.  The same text 
says:

	Whoever has seen interdependent arising
	By that has seen the truth of suffering,
	The cause of suffering, and its cessation,
	And the path to that is seen.
	
	These are called the two storehouses of the great teachings of the Buddha because all dharmas are included 
within them.  Among things that should be known they are of the highest importance.

b)  The teaching of appearance as unborn, the explanation of prajqa itself,

	The meaning resolved by that:

	These appearances have been unborn primordially.
	Being without an essence, they are like reflections.
	Nevertheless, they still appear as variety.
	Having seen the interdependence of the pure nature,
	We quickly contact the highest level of non-dwelling.

	Thus all the appearances of outer and inner dharmas are like the reflection of the moon arising in water.  What is 
without an essence appears as variety.  The Samadhiraja Sutra says:

	When at night there seem to be moons in water,
	Though these appear in clear and untroubled lakes;
	The moons in water are empty, hollow, and essenceless.
	All dharmas should be known to be like that.

	Meditate like that, knowing that the dharmas of samsara and nirvana are natureless.  Things appearing as 
external variety are actually within the insight of non-existent arising.  If the mind lets these two rest without emanation 
and gathering,  not perceiving any dharmas other than that, the mind enters into a sky-like state.  This absolute space of 
subsiding is the perfection of prajqa.  The Bodhicharyavatara says: 9.34

	When things and non-things
	Do not exist before the mind,
	Then without phenomena as other
	Without conception, there is perfect peace.

Saraha says:

	Liberated from meditation and meditator,
	Not moving from that is what is called meditation.
	Mind does not exist at such a time.
	Mahamudra has no hope of fruition.

The Mahayanasutralankara says:

	Revelation of true and excellent knowables
	Depends on the samadhi of meditation.
	It is completely free from all the kleshas.
	Prajqa well explains the livelihood.
	They are the highest dharmas of fruition.
	The existence of these is said to be three-fold.
	Having completely known this kind of prajqa,
	Capable ones establish reality.

	The essence is that knowables are realized.  The cause depends on samadhi.  As fruition, one is liberated from 
the kleshas.  The Prajqaparamitasamgatha says:

	By prajqa, when the nature of dharmas has been completely known, one is completely released from 
the three worlds.

	As for the action, with pure livelihood, after the Dharma has been well explained, doubts are cut off.  The same 
text says:

	The herd-bull of men, as he turns the precious wheel,
	Teaches Dharma to beings so that suffering will be exhausted.

	As for the qualities, by prajqa one reaches the city of liberation.  The divisions are hearing, contemplating, and 
meditating.  The preliminaries, main body, and post-meditation of samadhi are the three prajqas.  As for their virtues, the 
Mahayanasutralankara says:

		The buddha sons know all aspects of what phenomena are.  Why even mention that they have 
passed beyond suffering, and that they are the retinue where attachment of mind is completely unborn.

c)  Summary of Prajqa

	By this same prajqa all beings are established in the three enlightenments of body, speech, and mind.  By the 
wisdom of prajqa being completely grasped, one is inexhaustibly established in the pure worlds.  Without prajqa one will 
not have the fortune of liberation:
	
	Having prajqa, we will be set free by upaya.
	Just as saying a mantra can stop the action of poison,
	If there is no prajqa, upaya will put us in bondage.
	Tormenting us like a medicine that itself becomes a disease.
	Therefore, arouse the prajqa that sees the natural state.

	The Edifice of the Three Jewels says:

		Kashyapa, those who possess prajqa are completely liberated by upaya.  Those who do not 
possess prajqa are completely bound by upaya.

The Dohakosha says:

	Those who dwell in emptiness, separate from compassion
	Never will attain the path to supremacy.
	But if one meditates on compassion alone
	These too abide in samsara, and do not attain liberation.

	Those who are able to join the two of these
	Have an abode in neither samsara nor nirvana.

Also:

	By that which is a chain for binding fools,
	Capable ones are quickly liberated.

	Knowing the nature of all dharmas, if one strives to the utmost, one will quickly be liberated.  The  Noble Sutra 
Showing the Arrangement says:

	Those who with great earnestness and exertion fully practice this dharma; the unborn, unceasing, 
utterly profound emptiness; will quickly become conversant with the dharmadhatu of the bodhisattvas.  
They will have perfect retention and confident speech, completely gather the unsurpassable dharmas, 
be praised by the buddha bhagavats, and abide in completely pure discipline.  Having attained 
completely pure patience, unsurpassable exertion, meditation without conception, and the great prajqa, 
they will quickly become completely enlightened.  By being in the heart of enlightenment, with their 
parasols borne by the four great kings, they will be supplicated to turn the wheel of Dharma.  Producing 
the great light for gods and human beings, they will fully establish them in enlightenment.

7)    Summarizing the meaning of these six perfections

	Now, for the concluding summary, from generosity to prajqa:
	
	When we are in the practice of the six paramitas
	We should know that we are beings like illusion.
	Not perceiving their three-fold division in samsara,
	By the wholesomeness of the two accumulations
	We attain the peaceful level of the Victorious One.
	
	Thus by the collective wholesomeness of these six perfections, from the moment of performing them without 
attachment to the true existence of the ego of a doer, an object of action, and a virtuous act, with the attitude of an 
emanation or illusion-like action, one will quickly attain buddhahood.  The Sutra of the Clouds of the Three Jewels says:

		Whoever does not conceptualize virtue or anything that is done, will gather the two 
accumulations of merit and wisdom with non-conceptual perfect exertion.  These should be practiced 
with the attitude that they are like a mirage, an illusion, or an emanation.

	If by prajqa there is pure view, and by upaya there is pure action, one will not stray from the path.  Flawless 
buddhahood will be established.  The siddhis of flying in the sky and so forth will be accomplished.  Atisha says:

	Thus if the view is completely unobscured
	And the action is completely pure,
	One will not go upon the path of straying,
	And will go to the place of Akanishta.

c.  The dedication of merit for the three general topics

	Now the merit is dedicated for the benefit of sentient beings:

	Thus by the rain that falls from these clouds of auspiciousness,
	The crop of sanity grows within the minds of beings.
	Impoverished by the host of evils of samsara,
	May the weariness of mind today be brought to rest.

	The virtuous roots of intellect and the pure space of the spotless fields, arising as the natural state, pile up as 
thick clouds.  By the cooling rain of Dharma amrita continuously falling, for all beings, when the harvest of exertion in 
the supreme virtue of Holy Dharma has been established, may the poverty of samsara and all its sufferings of poverty 
mentality be pacified.  May they be satisfied by the virtues of the essence of enlightenment.  May their weariness be eased.

	In the assembly of tormenting fires of suffering of this world
	By the continuous falling of the rain of Dharma amrita
	After all beings have realized the absoluteness of mind,
	Cooled and refreshed, may they attain the ocean of wisdom.

	In this beautiful ocean filled with lotus buddha qualities,
	Relying with sincere devotion on the paths and bhumis,
	Moved by the shining waves which are the six perfections
	May they swim in the sea of vastness of the two accumulations.

	Having seen all dharmas to be like dream and illusion
	May the mind of attachment to true existence vanish.
	May the state like emanation produce the  accumulations.
	May the entire phenomenal world of samsara/nirvana
	Be revealed as total purity in a single instant.



Chapter IX: UNIFYING THE DEVELOPING STAGE AND THE PERFECTING STAGE

	After training our being by the paths of the ordinary vehicles, comes the path manifesting the unified kayas 
within one lifetime.  The ninth topic of the main subject is the chapter on the Practice of Unifying the Developing Stage 
and the Perfecting Stage.  The general topic has three sections,

A.  Resolving the view
B.  Practicing the meditation
C.  Dedicating the merit.

A.  Resolving the view,

	There are nine sections

1.  The instruction to train in the vajrayana, the essence of the teachings:

	When the excellent mind of bodhicitta has been aroused,
	We can enter into the stages of developing and completion,
	As they occur in the outer and inner secret mantra.

	As just explained, after being taught how to enter according to the vehicles of cause and characteristics, as the 
fruition, there is the instruction to enter the vehicles of secret mantra.  The details of these vehicles are the current topic.

2.  Why mantrayana is more noble than the stages of characteristics.

	Why?
	
	Here there are many means and also no difficulties.
	Though the meaning is one with that of the other yanas,
	There is no confusion about the means of entering.
	Those of the sharpest powers are empowered in these four,
Kriya, Charya, and yoga, and also anuttara.

	Though the buddha taught inconceivably many vehicles in accord with the minds of sentient beings, they are all 
included within three.  The mahayana is taught to have the duality of cause and fruition.  The causal vehicles are taught to 
be the means of first entering.  Their fruition is taught to be the vajrayana.  The Net of Miracles of Manjushri says:

	By the skillful means of the various vehicles,
	Having the divisions of the benefit of beings,
	As for the definite outcome of the three vehicles,
	It exists as fruition, the single vehicle.

	These vehicles are also ascertained as two.  Since individuals in the mahayana have two families, it is taught that 
there are two kinds of skillful means or paths.  Individuals who have little craving for desirable qualities or who have 
renounced these desirable qualities, and wish for liberation, are taught the bodhisattva vehicle.  For those unable to 
abandon desirable qualities, there is the skillful means of the stages of secret mantra.
	These two families train in their two paths until the path of seeing arises.   The time when this arises is called the 
path of seeing by the bodhisattvas.  This same wisdom of complete non-thought is designated "the supreme siddhi of 
mahamudra" by mantrayana.   The time until this arises, using the individual methods  of these paths, is respectively 
long and short.
	In the vehicle of characteristics, apparent aggression is abandoned, and by kindness alone without many other 
means, the attempt is made to gain the one benefit or goal, establishing the fruition.  There are great agonies of asceticism. 
 It is not skillful in profound means of practice.  Since it is a means of practice for those whose powers are relatively dull, 
all this is practiced by dualistic abandoning and antidotes.  Since the aspect to be abandoned is not brought to the path, 
half of what there is never becomes part of the path.  This is a narrow path and a lesser cause of enlightenment.
	The tantras reject those methods.  When apparent aggression is produced, there are many means for dealing with 
it.  Here too there may be kindness, or in the developing stage it is seen as illusion-like, or in the completion stage as the 
wisdom of non-thought, or by working with that very aggression, it becomes the mirror-like wisdom, and so forth.  
Asceticism of body, speech, and mind plays a minor part.  When the single goal is established, since this and that means 
beyond the scope of thought are possessed, it is established with certainty.  Having been produced for those of sharpest 
powers, kriya, upa, yoga, and the great yoga of anuttara-tantra are taught.  The Lamp of the Three Methods says:

	Not unintelligent about the single goal,
	Having many means and therefore not ascetic,
	Having been produced for those with the sharpest powers,
	The mantra vehicles are especially noble

3.  Why those to be tamed are taught

	Why are these four tantras taught?

	They are graded by time and caste, and powers of the mind.
	The yugas are krita and treta, dvapara and kali.
	Bhramins and kshatriyas, vaishyas and shudras  are the castes;
	The powers are dull and average; sharp and very sharp.

	Kriya chiefly teaches baths and cleansing rites.
Chary teaches that actions of the body and speech
	Are equal in importance with meditations of mind.
	Yoga teaches that meditation is most important.
	Actions of body and speech are just accompaniments.

Annotator is free from actions of the three gates.
	There is no conception of separate subject and object.
	Their ultimate concern is the luminous nature of mind.
	Cleansing rites are few, or even are discarded.

	In regard to time, kriya is completed in one kalpa.  Since there will be no cause of manifesting the kleshas of a 
sentient being, like the humanoids of Kurava the northern continent, kriya yogins do not depend on vows and discipline, 
or virtuous antidotes of mind.  Purificatory rites of body and speech and actions alone become the focus.
	In regard to the four castes, the bhramin or priestly caste is tamed by means of rites of purification and 
asceticism, without engaging in others.  Those of dull powers who do not understand the great undertakings of mind, can 
see this Dharma of actions of body and speech, and enter into those.  Depending on those three purposes they are taught 
tantras chiefly teaching washing, rites, and purification, Amoghabasha, and Supreme Insight, Well Established, the 
Appearance of the Three Worlds, etc.
	Also, this is most taught in the first krita yuga, because little secret and stealthy desire arises as a cause of 
manifesting kleshas.
	In the times of enjoyment and light karma of the treta yuga, actions of body and speech are constrained, and 
objects of purification and rites become one of two goals, for those of the warrior-ruler kshatriya caste who are not so 
entirely devoted to purification rites.  Having realized things realizable by middling powers, they are taught upa tantras, 
the Lotus Peak and others with their three families of deities.  Acts of body and speech and meditation of mind are equally 
taught.
	In the dvapara yuga, kleshas are coarser, and meditating according to mental activity and so forth becomes the 
goal.  The merchant vaishya caste is widely devoted, and this is taught for those who are capable and of sharp powers, 
chiefly with mental meditation, with those of body and speech just as an accompaniment.  In yoga tantra they abandon the 
lower realms and are taught the Vajra Space and so forth.
	In the kali yuga, when lives are about a hundred years, the dark age, the time of indolence of impetuous 
stupidity, the goal will come about only by means of mind.  Tribal people or the shudra caste, have no purificatory rites at 
all, but great ascetic discipline.  This is to be realized by those of very sharp powers, from all actions of body, speech, and 
mind not being conceptualized with grasping and fixation, accepting and rejecting, asserting and denying, hope and fear 
and so forth, but being realized as non-dual.  Since the nature of mind, the greatness of primordial buddhahood is self-
existing, there is the great dharma that seeks for no other buddha than that, anuttara yoga tantra.  The Net of Miracles 
with its short explanation of peaceful and wrathful deities, Chakrasamvara, Guhyasamaja and so forth are taught.  The 
Secret Establishment says:

	Since students have the time
	And the fortune of being tamed
	The four great styles of mantra
	Are famed throughout the world.

4.  The three from kriya to yoga

These individual stages are explained:
		
The Sage has said that the tantras of kriya, chary, and yoga
	Are the tantras of action, total comportment, and mental union.

	Kriya is the tantra of action, upa that of comportment, and yoga that of yogic union.  These three famous tantras 
were taught by the Sage.  They resemble the vehicles of external marks in having rites of purification and vows of activity. 
 The Sage called them the tantra or continuity vehicles.

5.  How these are classified as the external secret mantra

	As for these great tantras:

	These are the outer mantra.  One cannot meditate
	On yab yum deities, united in sexual union.
	There is no teaching of the five meats and the five amritas.
	They remain entirely in rites of purification.

		In kriya and upa tantra there are male and female sattvas.  These deities of vidya mantra and dharani 
remain in the manner of master and servant and companion respectively, and there is no union with them.  In yoga tantra 
the great four-fold arrangement of the mandala is taught as sambhogakaya, but there is no union with it.  By meditating 
successively on upaya and prajqa, the developing and completion stages are separated.  There is no use of the five meats 
and five amritas as samaya substances.  These are grasped as defiled objects to be purified.  The Tantra of the Play of the 
Great Power says:

	Clouds of enjoyment of upaya and prajqa
	Are the principal means of establishing wisdom.
	As for the five meats and the five amritas
	And the highest play of mahasukha
	These wonderful ways of being are absent here.
	Those with the lesser fortune of tormenting rites
	Of purity do not have such things as these.

6.  The divisions of the three inner tantras

	As for the divisions of the three inner tantras:

	There are three divisions within anuttara tantra,
	These are the father and mother and the non-dual tantras.
	Respectively each of these has as its emphasis
	The developing and perfecting stages and their union.
	These three yanas are known as maha, anu, and ati.
	The deities may unite, and in holy substances
	There is no distinction of what is clean or defiled.
	Rather it is taught that all is of one taste,
	Regarded as the play of a single mandala.
	

	The Guhyasamaja and the Yamantaka and such yoga tantras are mahayoga, the aspect of the skillful means of 
the developing stage.  the completion stage of mahayoga chiefly teaches prana.  These include Yangdak, Vajrakilaya, 
Chakrasamvara, Hevajra, and so forth.
	 The prajqa mother tantras are called anu yoga.  Chiefly the completion stage of prajqa is taught.  The 
completion stage also chiefly works with the elements of bodhicitta and bindu, desiring the completely non-conceptual 
wisdom of bliss and emptiness.
	The non-dual tantras, The Great Net of Illusion and so forth, are called ati yoga.  This chiefly teaches the essence 
of prajqa and upaya without adding and taking away, the union of the developing and fulfilling stages.  In the completion 
stage from prana, nadi, and bindu are created bliss, luminosity, and non-thought, and the inconceivable luminosity of the 
great wisdom.  	Each of these three, as a symbol of the union of upaya and prajqa, visualizes the embrace of yab yum.  
Since the meaning of this is being without accepting and rejecting, denying and asserting, clean and defiled, and such 
accepting and rejecting of good and bad, there is a play of samaya substances such as meat and liquor and so forth, and it 
is maintained that all dharmas are one in the enlightened mandala of primordial buddhahood.  The king of the tantras that 
ascertain the suchness of the secret essence The Great Net of Illusion says:

	Since it is the characteristic of all dharmas that they have a single essence with primordial buddhahood, 
they are inseparable from it.

7.  How these are individually maintained

	As for the way of maintaining these tantras:

	In kriya we are inferior and the gods supreme.
	We are like servants and the deities are the masters.
	By practicing in that style, the siddhis will be received.
In Chary we view ourselves and the gods as being equal.
	We are samayasattva, the deity jqanasattva.
	The deity occupies the space in front of us.
	Siddhi is received in the style of two friends.
	In yoga while the two are actually non-dual,
	The god is summoned to union and afterward dismissed.
	Siddhi is received like water poured into water.

	In kriya tantra, the jqanasattva deity is said to be like a king.  We as servants hope to receive siddhi.  The Tantra 
of Receiving the Siddhis of all the Families says:

	The lord is viewed as a king,
	And we see ourselves as servants.
	Siddhi, the essence of tantra,
	Is excellently received.

	As for upa tantra, in front of the samayasattva, our visualization of the deity, we receive siddhi from the 
jqanasattva deity, visualized as a friend or companion.  The Razor of the Three Families says:

	With the deity as friend or companion
	Ultimate siddhi is to be received.

	In yoga tantra, we meditate on ourselves in union with the deity.  The jqanasattvas of union are drawn in and 
dissolve into us.  By sealing with the four mudras and so on, even when the offerings, praises, recitation, and so forth have 
been finished, one still supplicates.  When non-duality actually occurs, siddhi is said to arise.  The Dorje Jungwa says:

	We receive non-dual dharmadhatu and
	The highest ultimate siddhi.

	We are blessed with the tathagata, padma, and vajra families of the external mantra, sealed with the samaya, 
dharma, karma, and maha-mudras.

8.  The ways in which the highest three are the principal ones

	As for mahayoga-tantra:

	In maha, the chief means is prana and the developing stage;
	In anu the dhatu and prajqa in the completion stage;
	In ati it is the wisdom where everything is non-dual;
	But in all of them all dharmas are eternal equality.
	The practice is done in the style of knowing that this is so.

	Since all dharmas exist as primordially unborn emptiness, the nature of mind is known to be natureless like the 
sky.  As for the practice, the Secret Assembly says:

	Since these things are primordially unborn,
	There are neither dharmas nor dharmata.
	They are natureless like the space of the sky.
	This is the way enlightenment is taught.

This was explained above.  The Miracles of Fierce Lightning  says:

	E ma'o! free from all dharmas of things,
	Free from skandhas and dhatus, and ayatanas,
	We completely abandon grasping and fixation.
	Since all dharmas are natureless equality,
	One's own mind is also primordially unborn.
	This is what is called the nature of emptiness

	When this is known, the stage of visualizing the mandalas of the father tantras of upaya becomes upaya.  The 
pranas of the five elements are completely purified.  Luminosity/emptiness, the wisdom of complete non-thought, is the 
main point.  By that the supreme and ordinary siddhis are established.
	In the mother tantras of prajqa, complexities of the developing stage are minimized.  The dhatu of the great bliss, 
the space of speech, is the mandala of the bhaga or womb of the syllables. In the stages leading to supreme enlightenment, 
another's body is the prajqa or mudra, and in one's own body, depending on upaya, mahasukha establishes enlightenment 
by the wisdom of the four joys.
  	In the non-dual tantras, as distinguished from both these stages, luminous dharmata, the great wisdom without 
one and many, is the main point and enlightenment is established.  There is the three-fold luminosity of bliss, clarity, and 
non-thought.  First from the workable dhatu self-existing samadhi arises.  From that, supreme unchanging bliss pervades 
the whole of space, filling it with undefiled bliss.  In the central channel the great essential clarity of the other two 
luminosities occurs.  By the power of the inner five pranas, the motionless luminous clarity of wisdom arises in the four 
dhyanas.  Externally the five lights of the five wisdoms, appearing as kaya, bindu, and shining light, fill the whole of 
space.  The Net of Miracles of Manjushri says:

	This vivid shining of the light of wisdom
	Is the lamp of wisdom which is the light of beings.
	This, the great brilliance, is luminosity.
	
Also:

	To view possession of the garland of brilliance is sweet.
	The blazing light of goodness is the glorious knot of eternity.

	As the radiance of the five lights enters into the central channel, when the essence of the earth prana enters, 
mind rests within it.  As external yellow light illuminates Ratnasambhava, pride is transmuted and the wisdom of equality 
is revealed.  We are empowered with the samadhi of the ground of exhaustion, crossing to the southern ratna family pure 
land, Ratnakuta. 
	By the essence of the water prana entering the central channel, within it the essence of undisturbed mind is 
illuminated.  Externally, by white light by illuminating Akshobhya, the mirror-like wisdom is revealed.  Hatred is 
purified.  We are empowered with the exhaustion-water samadhi, crossing to the eastern vajra family pure land, Abhirati.
	By the prana of the fire essence entering into the central channel, within it the blissful heat arises.  Externally by 
red light illuminating Amitabha, discriminating awareness wisdom is revealed.  We cross to the western padma family 
pure land, Sukhavati.
	By the prana of the air essence entering into the central channel, within the movement and increase of mind is 
attained.  Externally, by green light illuminating Amoghasiddhi, the all-accomplishing wisdom is realized.  Envy is 
purified.  We are empowered with the exhaustion-prana samadhi, crossing to the northern karma family pure land of, 
Karmaprasiddhi.
	By the prana of the supreme non-conceptual space essence, universal dharmata, entering into the central 
channel, within there is complete non-thought.  Externally, by blue light illuminating Vairochana, the dharmadhatu 
wisdom is revealed.  Ignorance is purified.  We are empowered with the exhaustion sky-realm, Akanishta Gandavyuha, 
the pure land of Heavenly Enjoyment.  The Great Net of Illusion says:

	Thus the fortunate yogin
	Has the five lights of the wisdoms.
	The five kayas cross to their lands.
	The five exhaustions are gained.

9.  The way of meditating on all dharmas as the nature of the mandala

	Now as for the teaching that all dharmas, as the complete perfection of buddhahood, have the nature of the three 
mandalas:

	Since we and all other beings are primordially enlightened,
	The style of meditation involved in the two stages
	Sees the dharmas of skandhas, dhatus, and ayatanas
	As being the luminosity of a single mandala.

	All dharmas should be known to be of the nature of the three mandalas of primordial buddhahood.  Within the 
mandala of the nature of the ground as spontaneous presence, there is conviction about the view.  Within the mandala of 
the path as profound samadhi, one practices meditation.  Within the mandala of the fruition as supreme enlightenment, 
the two benefits are perfected.
	Within the first there are two divisions.  These are the pure ground, the natural state, and the impure ground, the 
way of confusion.  The first is the primordially empty nature of mind, the essence of dharmakaya.  Its arising as the 
luminous nature of sambhogakaya is the source of nirmanakaya.  It is open and accommodating like the sky.  It is 
luminous like the sun and moon.  As with a wish-fulfilling gem, all that is desired is self-arising.  The five kinds of kaya, 
speech, mind, quality, and action exist primordially as the intrinsic qualities of buddhahood.  The Secret Essence says:

	Emptiness is the mind of self-awareness.
	This is primordial knowledge of egolessness.
	There is neither concept nor conceiver.
	Therefore the fixated memory is transformed.
	Wondrous body and speech and the field of qualities
	Are the same and not other.  That is how it is.

Also the All-Creating King says:

	Kye! listen to me mahasattva:

	The nature of me, the doer of all, enlightenment
	Is a self-existing nature that does not need to be sought.
	This is trikaya, the essence of all the victorious ones.
	My uncreated nature exists as dharmakaya.
	My uncreated essence is sambhogakaya.
	My manifested compassion is nirmanakaya.
	No fruition established by seeking has been taught.
	Primordial self existence, it does not need to be sought.

	Above what is referred to by such passages was called the dhatu or essence.  This exists primordially with the 
spontaneous presence of the buddha qualities.

	The impure ground, the way of confusion, is as already described.  The Secret Essence says:

	E Ma'o, from out of sugatagarbha
	Comes the confusion of karma, our discursive thoughts.
	Variety, mind, and action, existing, suffering and such;
	The "me" and the "mine" are grasped as being individuals.

Also:

	It is faulty concepts that are the root of samsara.
	These have their arising when there are thoughts of self.
	The powers of sense, birth and destruction, body and action,
	The infernal machine of existing, suffering, and so on;
	Is nothing whatsoever except a misconception.

	From the individual rounds of beings within the six lokas, in particular for human beings, at the beginning of 
their confusion, when they are grasped by existence in a womb, at first the two eyes and the knot of nadis in the navel 
develop.  Then the body is produced from the essences which will become the sense-faculties, existing as the three nadis.  
Within them are the three syllables OM AH HUM.  Externally these produce the three supports of body, speech, and 
mind.  Internally, they produce the three supports of passion, aggression, and ignorance.  Secretly they produce the 
supports of enlightened body, speech, and mind.
	The central channel reaches above to the aperture of Bhrama, and below to the secret place.  The white Roma 
nadi and red Kyangma are to right and left of the light blue central channel.  In enlightened body, speech, and mind they 
are the three-fold existence of mahasukha.
	Mutually and continuously they have twenty-one knots.  These are the chakras of the nadis:  The navel 
emanation chakra has sixty-four nadi petals.  The throat enjoyment chakra has sixteen.  The heart dharmachakra has 
eight nadi petals.  If they are joined with the four kayas and the different wisdoms, in addition to these, at the crown of the 
head, there is the chakra of great bliss with thirty-two nadi petals.  From the viewpoint of the five self-existing kayas, in 
addition to these, in the secret place, is the chakra of guarding bliss with seventy-two nadi petals, which has the powers of 
the essential elements.
	If the six chakras are listed in order, the secret center is the chakra of wisdom.  The throat center is the chakra of 
enjoyment-activity.  The central channel is the chakra of mahasukha.  The crown of the head is the chakra of the realm of 
space.  The heart is the dharmachakra.  The navel is the chakra of emanation.
	According to The Net of Illusion, they are the seeds of purifying the impure six kinds of sentient beings.  The 
purifiers are the six sages of the six realms.  When they are purified by the six perfections, the six wisdoms, the usual five 
wisdoms plus the inconceivable wisdom, are attained.
	Each chakra with the first knot between each one makes twelve.  Completing these at the end, pure prana as a 
thirteenth is maintained to complete the bhumi of the great wisdom.
	The Kalachakra has six chakras and six nadis between them. These have twelve kinds of ejection of prana, 
associated with the twelve nidanas.  The power of not ejecting bindu, turning it back above to the secret wisdom chakra, is 
said to be a sign of the first bhumi.  One kind of ejection of prana is stopped.  One nidana is purified.  Similarly, between 
that and the space of the sky chakra twelve levels are crossed.  Twelve kinds of ejection of prana are stopped. Twelve 
nidanas are purified.  By the bindu reaching the sky realm chakra, it is maintained that one is enlightened.
	According to the Root tantra of Miracle there are two chakras.  These are the peaceful heart chakra and the 
wrathful crown chakra.  Within these the coarse nadis are equal to the number of deities.  These are 42 and 58, 100 
altogether.  The fine nadis are countless.  The Great Illusion says:

Roma, Kyangma, and Kundarma.
	Are between the chakras like pillars.
	The branching petals are countless.
	As for elements and pranas,
	The descending wisdom nadis
	Are a thousand in number.
	As the square of seventy two,
	There are twenty thousand
	And 600,000 pranas.
	These have been maintained
	to be the great moving ones.
	There are 84,000 others.

The Five Hundred Thousand says:

	The associated nadis
	Spread and fill the body
	These 72,000 nadis.
	In the body are goddesses.

Also:

	Of the 72000 nadis,
	the different kinds are explained.

	In one day there are said to be 620,000 actions of prana.  They make up a "horse" to carry the 84,000 small 
moving ones, whose number is equal to that of the false conceptions and kleshas.  When kleshas are moving about, it is 
maintained that an equal number of these pranas are moving about.  By nature the male prana, "moving upward," dwells 
above, and the female prana, "downward voiding," dwells below.  As for the mother, if the I prana "equally-abiding" co-
exists, the three existences are explained.
	As for the pranas in the nadis there are the following:

1  life-holder,
2  equalizer,
3  fire,
4  upward moving,
5  downward voiding.

As said above.  The actions are

1  maintaining life,
2  bodily existence,
3  making heat,
4  the exhaling and inhaling of the breath,
5  going, staying and casting off impurities.

These are called ordinary and the five external pranas.

	The five internal pranas are the five pranas of the five elements.  These are:

the yellow earth prana,
the red fire prana,
the white water prana,
the green air prana,
the blue space prana.

	As for their functions, they exist as a support for the inner skandhas, dhatus, and ayatanas.  When impure they 
are the ground of proliferation of the five poisons, and when pure of the five wisdoms.
	The five secret pranas, the five wisdoms, have no coarse forms.
	The great essential elements are two, the white and the red.  From roma and kyangma they abide in the petals of 
the individual nadis.  For women, left and right are reversed.  In particular, the moon, roma, descends from above at the 
crown of the head.  The sun, kyangma, rises from the A below in the secret place.
	In a man's kyangma and woman's roma at the bottom there is a knot, so that the red and white elements do not 
drip.  As the knots in the nadis are released, the virtues of the paths and bhumis are perfected.  As the knots in the central 
channel are released, two by two, each of the ten bhumis are perfected.  In attaining the good qualities of those, each of the 
essential elements and prana elements seem to enter them.
	For example, as the first two nadi knots are released, the two essences enter into the central channel.  When the 
four great nadis of the navel emanation chakra are released, the qualities of the first bhumi appear to arise.  When the 
nadis of the four chakras are released, the four kayas are attained and the four wisdoms manifest.
	Now in the ordinary nadi knots the red and white essences exist as the embrace of the hero and heroine.  The 
veins are like water pipes, and the elements like the water inside them.  Prana is like pressure.  Their going and coming 
when moved by that, constitute the vajra body.  This is the support of the great wisdom.
	In particular in the Mahamaya Tantra, in the empty center of the heart, the essences go into eight subtle nadis as 
if they were being licked up.  There are three dharmata nadis, one wisdom nadi, three autonomy nadis, and one quality 
nadi.  The Secret Drop of Vimala says:

	The way they exist is known to be eight-fold.

The commentary says:

	In the empty center of the heart, the essence in the nadis goes into the eight subtle nadis as if they were being 
licked up.   There are three dharmata nadis, one wisdom nadi, three autonomy nadis, and one quality nadi.  
These eight should be known like that.
		The central three are the support of the unchanging dharmata of trikaya. In front the nadi of 
mirror-like wisdom produces the support of the four wisdoms.  Behind and to the right are the nadis of 
qualities producing the support of the arising of the buddha fields, palaces and so forth.  To the left, by 
the three poisons autonomy nadi, confused appearance of the individuating characteristics of the three 
realms is produced.
		Moreover, in the sheath  of the dharmata nadi, in the midst of drops of yellow light, the 
letters of the ground of purification, SU and TRI, are the seeds of asuras and animals.  The purifier OM 
is the essence of the kayas and wisdoms.  The intrinsic light of the syllables is like a brocade tent.  In 
the square sheath of the blue wisdom nadi, is the purifier HUM and the ground of purification the seeds 
of gods and human beings A and NRI [with backwards kiku]  They have white, red, and blue light.
		In the red semi-circular sheath of the autonomy syllables the purifier is AH and the ground of 
purification is the seeds of the pretas and hell beings PRE and DU.  Also at the time of impurity, 
habitual patterns produced by karma and kleshas are collected above the six syllables.  The retinue 
created by anger, resentment, and so on are collected above the DU; by desire above the PRE; by pride 
above A and NRI; by envy above SU; and those created by ignorance are collected above the TRI.  At 
the time of realization, the virtues of the intrinsically-existing power of wisdom are collected above the 
three syllables of body, speech, and mind.

	Meditations on forms of the deities and so on connected with body are placed above OM.  Those involving 
mantra recitation and so on are above AH.  Meditation on non-thought and so on are above HUM.  The letters that are the 
ground of purification and all the habitual patterns above them are purified.  The same text says:

		In the dharmata-nadi a yellow light dwells. The shape is spherical.  It is like flowing mercury. 
 The essence is OM.  The seed is SU and TRI.  The colors of these three are like a brocade tent.
		Within the wisdom nadi is a blue light.  Its shape is square.  It is like a noose or coiled snake.  
It is like a lump of violet amethyst crystals.  The essence is HUM.  The seeds are A and NRI.
		In the autonomy nadi is a red light.  Its shape is a red semi-circle.  The style is of illusory 
refreshing-cleansing water like the brilliant arising of dawn.  The color is the red of molten copper.  
The essence is AH.  The seeds are PRE and DU.
		At the time of non-realization, with A NRI and so forth, it is the cause of samsara. At the time 
of realization, there are TE O and so forth.  Mixing these two is called "quasi-mixing, since bodhicitta 
is as before."

	The four nadis are the natural state of consciousnesses.  The same text says:

		The four aspects, and six particulars, in the middle of eight...
		Four refers to the dharmata, wisdom, autonomy, and quality nadis.  As for the particulars, 
there is yellow light existing as alaya consciousness, blue light existing as the mind consciousness, red 
light existing as klesha-mind, and dark red light existing as the five sense-consciousnesses.
		At the side of the yellow light are OM SU, and TRI. Covered by the blue light are HUM A 
and NRI.  Covered by the red light are AH PRE and DU.  The dark red light has the faults and virtues.
		A and NRI cause corruption of the breath.  SU and TRI cause corruption of the nadis.  PRE 
and DU cause corruption of the blood.
		As for the arising of gods and human beings, by producing the mind consciousness, the seeds 
A and NRI are embodied.
		As for the arising of animals and asuras, by producing alayavijqana, the seeds SU and TRI are 
embodied.
		As for the arising of the pretas and hell beings, from producing the five consciousnesses and 
klesha mind, the seeds PRE and DU are embodied.
		Thus all the sentient beings of the six lokas individually exist.

	In the center of the eight nadis in the heart center, is the essence of the nadis, like white silk cords, very fine, like 
twisted single hairs of a horse's tail.  The mixed essence of blood and breath, is very subtle, consisting of dharmakaya 
bodhicitta having light of the five colors, the luminosity of dharmata.  The Description of the Marks says:

	The splendid knot of eternity of excellent blazing light.

	In the heart palace of the dharma field of Akanishta, the buddha embodying the tathagatas of the five families, 
Samantabhadra,  remains continuously for all time.  The Two Examinations says:

	The great wisdom has its dwelling in the body.
	Conceptions are abandoned in the truth.
	Universal wisdom pervades all things.
	Embodied existence does not arise from the body

Also:

	This is also known as great sugatagarbha.

The Uttaratantra says:

	Because the perfect buddha kaya radiates
	Because of being inseparable from suchness,
	And because of having the gotra, all embodied beings,
	Always have the essence of buddhahood.

The Dohakosha says:

	Though there is something somewhere, in a certain place,
	That does not entail that it must always be seen.
	It is explained by the shastras of the capable ones,
	That buddhahood in the body is not realized.

	Buddhahood is the wisdom nadi.  When all the essences of prana and mind are gathered together, the field of 
nirvana, spontaneous appearance, the house of light, the wisdom-lamp of the bardo, arises.  This is the completely pure 
field of Akanishta called Gandavyuha.  If yogins make an effort, all the essences of prana and mind will be perfected 
there.  The aspect of appearance, the five lights, and the aspect of emptiness, dharmakaya, will be mixed in one taste.  The 
two accumulations of the path will be completed.  As the two kayas manifest we become "enlightened in Akanishta."  
	The light of wisdom in the central channel and the nadis are one with this, in the sense that the nature of mind is 
the support of luminosity.  How is this explained?  From the central channel, in the center of the heart, comes very subtle 
light like ten separately divided single hairs of a horse's tail transparently existing, connecting the pranas.
	If it is made into a support, some masters say that this is the true central channel, so that the three nadis need not 
be combined in the central channel.  Though they explain it that way, since as all the pranas enter the central channel, the 
essence of the prana of the central channel must enter into the wisdom nadi, it is suitable for them to be connected.
	At the time of death all the essences and pranas collect in the central channel.  The pranas and essences of the 
central channel are gathered into the ultimate essence, and from that luminosity is maintained to arise.  The kayas and 
fields of the five families are taught to arise by the essence of this during five days of dhyana in the bardo.  Therefore this 
essence is the very secret great ultimate secret.  The Commentary of the Secret Drop says:

		"In the center of the eight,"

They are therefore one.  Thus the essences of the nadis go into the eight subtle nadis as if they were being licked up. Their 
shape is said to be like eight twisted cords.
	The eight main essences, the ultimate nadi essences, are like white silk cords, with a shape is like twisted cords.  
In size, they are like ten divided hairs of a horse's tail.  Within these, which are like white silk cords, goes the blood 
essence of a vibrant vermilion like the mother's essence.  Within that the essence of breath like bright, pure gold in a 
brocade, curls like steam.  Within that the breath essence is light of various colors.  The interior of that light is called the 
center.  "Na," in, has the meaning that they abide within it.
	In the center of that light abides the great bindu, bodhicitta.  It is like precious jewel anthers in a pipe of molten 
gold or filled full of the white precious stone kekeru.  It abides there with a color like the rising sun.  Since that is the 
essence of dharmadhatu, the cause of the absolute and relative, "I prostrate to that."
	Since this luminous nature of mind is all-pervading, all beings are primordially enlightened.  Even when they 
are wandering in samsara, that mind does not move and is not harmed or degraded.  By their being enlightened it is no 
better than it was before.  The Uttaratantra says:

	Later as before,
	Changeless dharmata.

The Fierce Lightning says:

		Clouds of bodhicitta spread and pervade everywhere, as oil pervades sesame seeds.

Then also this is taught:

	E Ma'o, Primordial Dharma completely pure.
	Though it appears as variety, conceptually it is secret.
	This is because its essence is inexpressible.
	It is hard to teach to those who are not vessels.

	E Ma'o, In the primordial purity of the three-fold world,
	By faulty conceptions conceiving of ego, the root of samsara,
	Beings who have aimlessly wandered over a very long time
	Grasp at inappropriate objects of joy and sorrow.
	By the power of errors of their wrong conception,
	They wander among the turning wheels of samsara.
	Without things of wrong conception there is bodhicitta.
	Even that hellish machine is its inexhaustible ornament.
	The five degenerations are places of happiness.
	The five skandhas are completely perfected as the kayas.
	The root of samsara itself, all our faulty conceptions,
	Is explained to be the essence of enlightenment.
	The outer and inner vessel and contents of the world
	Are thus the father and the mother of the enlightened state

	By that it is taught that all dharmas exist as bodhicitta.  With that the teaching of the way of confusion of impure 
sentient beings is completed.  Now there is the teaching that all is primordially enlightened.

	The five skandhas, though apparently impure, have the enlightened nature of the five fathers.  The five elements 
have the enlightened natures of their five consorts.  All concepts are enlightened in the mandala of bodhicitta, and there is 
not even an atom of dharmas other than that.  The Secret Essence says:

	E Ma'o,
	As for the five-fold limbs of the vajra skandhas,
	They are known as the five perfected buddhas.
	The many dhatus and ayatanas
	Are the various bodhisattvas appearing in person. 
Earth and water are Lochana and Mamaki.
	Fire and air Pandaravasini and Tara.
	The space of sky is the consort of the Lord. 
	
	Everything in the three realms is the Dharma.
	Without remainder this is the buddha field.
	Dharmas that are other than buddhahood
	Never will be found by buddhahood.

	In particular, buddhahood is the luminous nature of mind.  The Kunje says:

	As for there being a buddha who is other than the mind,
	This has never been taught by the King, the Doer of All.
	It will not be taught later and it is not taught now.
	Therefore we should know that mind is buddhahood

The Secret Assembly says:

	External to the preciousness of mind,
	There are no buddhas and there are no sentient beings.

The Establishment of Wisdom says:

	Ultimate luminosity of mind,
	Total purity of buddhahood,
	Self-arising, unmade by anyone,
	Having existed from all eternity.

	In brief, all appearances are the mandala of body.  All sounds are the mandala of speech.  All cognitive 
apprehension  is the mandala of mind.  These three should be known.  The Kunje says:
		
	Kye! the teacher of teachers! The doer of all, the King,
	Makes a display of the essence mandala of body.
	Thus all the dharmas of appearance and existence
	Have been displayed as the unborn state of dharmadhatu.
	For the sake of their inmost meaning, No accepting, no rejecting, 
	This too is displayed by me, the doer of all, the King.
	
	Kye! the teacher of teachers! The doer of all, the King,
	Makes a display of the essence mandala of speech.
	Thus are all dharmas, resounding with the voice of meaning, 
	Revealed to be  the spoken word of unborn space.
	They embody the inexpressible heart of speech. 
	This too is my display, as the doer of all, the King.
	
	Kye! the teacher of teachers! The doer of all, the King,
	Makes a display of the essence mandala of insight. 
	All concepts involved with knowing and remembering
	Are seen as myself, the unborn, the doer of everything.
	The body, speech, and mind of me, the doer of all,
	Are mandalas resting in uncreated naturalness. 

	Having realized the meaning of this state
	Perfected in a moment, without any need for arrangement,
	One enters the essential heart of the self-existing.
	
	Thus the appearance of variety is produced.  Since it is natureless, it is exhaustion/perfection.   The mandala of 
the fundamental meaning should be known to be without producer or produced.  Regarding the nature of that mandala, 
the same text says:

	Kye, as for the mandala of me the Doer of All,
	It is taught as a perfect self-arising mandala.
	By perfecting the essence of all without remainder,
	There is no birth and there is no proliferation
	The uncreated mandala is perfect all at once.

	Kye, in the center without error, essence of the meaning,
	Samsara is perfected as the bliss of samsara/nirvana.
	That is the mandala that is the root of all essences.
	Realize that all mandalas are included in that.

	Kye, the mandala of me the King, the Doer of All,
	Is the perfect mandala of all without remainder.
	By whoever perfects it, that will be realized
	Learn the meaning of the uncreated mandala.

	Kye by me the teacher of teachers, the Doer of All,
	By the unborn mandala of bodhicitta,
	All-pervading, without any coming and any going,
	By realizing that one enters the meaning of the unborn.

	Therefore, vajra beings, you as well as I,
	Should realize the meaning that does not exist in the world.
	Anyone who has the realization of that
	Will be empowered as the King, the Doer of All.

	All the skandhas, dhatus, ayatanas and so forth, the viewpoint of everything that appears, are enlightened as the 
nature of the deities.  There are no good and evil, or accepting and rejecting.  From the viewpoint of empty dharmata, 
complexities of existence and non-existence are completely pacified.  This is the fundamental mandala of the 
spontaneously present nature.  By realizing that, all the dharmas of the phenomenal world of samsara and nirvana are 
known as the mandala.  Whatever appears is cherished as wisdom.  The Secret Essence says:

	By the yogin who realizes the great perfection,
	The origin of suffering is realized as the mandala.

	By these the teaching of first resolving the view is completed.

B.  the explanation of meditation practice, together with its action of ripening and freeing.

1.  The brief teaching of how to do the meditation of the developing stage

	There are five sections

a.  Meditation in the style of being born from an egg

	Second, within the practice of meditation, there are the stages of the power of ripening the ground, and the stages 
of developing and completion that liberate the path.  From the three sections of extensive explanation of the actions 
associated with these and with the associated samayas, now there is the brief explanation of the way of meditating in the 
developing stage:

	There are four styles of practice that match with the four births.
	To cleanse habitual patterns of being born from an egg,
	By going to refuge and arousing bodhicitta,
	And briefly doing the practice of the developing stage,
	Complete the offerings that invite the field of merit.
	And also by meditation on the absence of self-nature,
	Previously completing the two accumulations,
	Extensive meditation, through their being primordial,
	On both the stage of development and the stage completion,
	Is like an egg from which a bird will then be hatched.
	Perform the short and elaborate development and completion.

	In this first stage of secret mantra, in however many samadhis of visualized deities as we meditate, habitual 
patterns of the four modes of birth are trained and harmonized.  These are taught as four.  The Net of Miracle says:

	There are four modes of birth that are to be purified.
	Therefore, visualization has four different stages.
	These are the greatly complex and the complex,
	And those without and completely without complexity.

	This is explained as it was clearly presented by the great master Vimalamitra.  Those who are born from an egg 
are as if twice-born.  When one meditates on the samadhi of great complexity, first one goes for refuge and arouses 
bodhicitta.  One instantly visualizes oneself as the chief deity and consort.  In the space in front, one invites the mandala of 
the deities.  One makes offerings and praises to that mandala, confesses evil deeds, rejoices, invites the turning of the 
wheel of dharma, supplicates for desirable qualities, and dedicates the merit.  Then after one says "VAJRA MUH go to 
your own places," or meditates for a while in objectless meditation, one gathers the two accumulations of merit and 
wisdom.  This is the brief meditation.
	Then, arising from emptiness and meditating on the mandala of the individual deities is the extensive 
meditation.

b.  Meditating in the Manner of being born from a womb

	From that, there is a brief treatment of meditation with few complexities:

	In purifying vasanas of being born in a womb,
	There is refuge, bodhicitta, and the seed from emptiness;
	The symbol, then the body with its rays of light and such.
	Then the extensive stages, as they were done before,
	Development and completion do not have the brief version first;
	As from prana and mind, and both the red and white bindus
	Come oval, oblong, lumpy, becoming solid and so on,
 	Until at last the completed body has been born.

	Just as for those who are born from the womb the body is born after being gradually completed, in this kind of 
development meditation first one goes to refuge and arouses bodhicitta.  Then with the svabhava mantra from emptiness, 
just as the red and white bindus gather together to constitute consciousness, there is the seed syllable of the deity, for 
example HUM.  Like the development of the embryo as an oval and oblong, from HUM comes a vajra.  Like the oblong 
and solidification, from the vajra as a cause of the body comes a mass of the five lights, and as the embryo, like Vishnu's 
body manifesting as a fish and a tortoise, from the light comes the body, and the meditation of the developing stage is 
completed.
	Sometimes, from the seed comes a mass of light and syllables, from which the body is maintained to appear.  As 
the brief developing stage and offerings to the field of merit are omitted, there are fewer complexities.

c.  Meditating in a way like birth from heat and moisture:

	To purify patterns of birth arising from heat and moisture,
	After refuge and bodhicitta, just from speaking the name
	The luminous deities will arise from emptiness.
	Then one meditates on development and completion.
	As life can be born from a combination of heat and moisture,
	And thus its birth will be accomplished with great ease,
	There is no need for complexities of seeds and symbols.

	Just as birth from heat and moisture is easily established, having gone to refuge, and aroused bodhicitta, just 
from saying and remembering the name of the deity it is visualized from emptiness.  Here the complex stages from the 
seed syllable up to the body are omitted.

d.  Meditation in the manner of spontaneous birth:

	To purify the vasanas that lead to spontaneous birth,
	Development and completion are clear instantaneously.
	As what has spontaneous birth will be born in a moment,
	Meditation in the stages of development and completion
	Need not come gradually from the name [of the deity.]

	As what is spontaneously born is instantly established, on remembering the deity the meditation is instantly clear 
and complete.  The deity is visualized from the name alone and complexities are unnecessary.

e.  Which style should be chiefly used:

	Thus when we deal with these four styles of meditation,
	Chiefly in meditating in these ways which are summarized,
	In order to cleanse the vasanas, meditate on them all.
	In particular the beginners should use the birth from an egg.
	When there is some steadiness, use the birth from a womb.
	When steadiness is great, use birth from heat and moisture.
	When we are truly familiar, becoming perfectly steady,
	Then we should use the instant style of spontaneous birth.


	Persons should train in all the styles of meditation.  Chiefly we should use the style of womb-birth.  Beginners 
should meditate from stage to stage, training in these ways of meditation as summarized.  Moreover, having meditated 
many times on the developing stage, one should then chiefly train in the completion stage.  These four stages respectively 
should precede the first, second, third, and fourth of the four ways of meditating in the completion stage.

2.  the ways of entering into the completion stage,

From the four sections

a.  The ways with and without appearance.

	Now we shall enter into the completion stage:

	From the time they appear, their nature is simplicity.
	As for the stages of unwavering form-meditation,
	Beginners should stop attachment to the developing stage.
	Mere appearance will remedy attachment to true existence.
	Stabilized ones should break attachment to completion.
	Emptiness will remedy fixating characteristics.

	Thus, having gathered in gradually there are nada and bindu, and very fine life letters like a hundred divided  
hairs of a horse's tail.  That dissolves into dharmadhatu and rests there.  Beginners meditate in the formless completion 
stage.  By that conceptual attachment to the individualizing marks of things of the developing stage is overcome.  In the 
developing stage, rest in motionless mind without emanation or gathering.  The arising of the wisdom of bliss, clarity, and 
non-thought is the completion stage with appearance.  As the object of meditation for those with little familiarity or 
stabilization, it produces the antidote to one-sided attachment to emptiness.

b.  The way of arising of developing and completion without gathering or separation.

Of this meditation:

	Later whatever appears is the means of development.
	Awareness without a grasper is the prajqa of completion.
	There is never anything added or anything taken away.

	Here as before, by becoming very familiar and stable, all activities become appearance/emptiness, 
sound/emptiness, insight/emptiness.  This is prajqa in which natures are not truly existent.  This arising of naturally non-
conceptual shamatha is the completion stage of the pure nature.  The completion stage of many individual tantras is taught 
in accord with this.  This is from the general viewpoint.  Some mahayoga texts have five stages:

1).  a self-blessing stage
2).  a vajra variety stage
3).  a jewel fulfilling stage,
4).  a jalandhara (net-holder)  stage,
5).   an inconceivable stage.

 	In the first, to produce shamatha, meditate in the developing stage, within the heart center visualizing bindus as 
globes of light.
	Externally the motion of prana arises.  After the time of the colors of the five elements has passed, by meditating 
in that way, all external sickness, dons, evil deeds, and obscurations are purified.
	At the time of entering internally, similar to attainment of the buddha qualities and so on, in the light of the heart 
center, mental grasping is quickly uplifted  by establishing the wisdom of non-thought.
	As for attaining the ordinary and supreme siddhas, the Five Stages says:

	Always there within the heart,
	The single bindu has no arising.
	For the person who becomes familiar with that
	Wisdom will certainly arise.

	Bindu has already been explained.
	Second, in the vajra variety stage, the pranas are united.  In the center of the five chakras meditate on the five 
symbols of the five families.  In the head is a wheel, in the throat a jewel, in the heart a vajra, in the navel a lotus, and in 
the secret space a sword.  During the meditation, the buddhas of the ten directions and so forth dissolve into the respective 
symbols.  By meditating that the mind grasps them, shamatha arises.
	Third, in the jewel fulfilling stage, by the play of coemergence or great bliss, from within the four chakras the 
wisdom of the four joys is produced and wisdom is recognized.
	Fourth, in the jalandhara stage the symbols of the five families become the bodies of the deities.  By the descent 
of amrita from the place of union of the deities and their consorts, the body is filled.  By the bliss of the fire of tummo 
burning the HAM syllable, the mind is focused on bliss.  By the firelight of wisdom of tummo all the realm of the 
tathagata is burned and consumed.  The Dakini Ocean says:

	As tummo burns at the navel
	All the joints will be consumed.
	As the eyes and such are burned
	By that the bindu drips.

	As it goes to the ends of the nadis
	Of which there are 72,000
	Like threads woven into in a net
	By its passing the taste is experienced
	
 	By that there is realization of union and the focus of samadhi increases.
	As for the inconceivable stage, In the center of the globes of light in the heart, from visualizing HUM and the 
individual seed syllables of the deities, light is emanated.  It touches all of samsara and nirvana.  Buddhas and beings, all 
the realms of the animate and the inanimate, melt into light and dissolve in the light in the heart center.  The body 
dissolves into light.  The light dissolves into the HUM, and that into the shabkyu.  That dissolves into the body of the 
syllable, then into the head and the crescent, the crescent into the bindu, and the bindu into nada,   the non-conceptual 
space which is the source of bindu.
	In emanation, from emptiness, expand that these proliferate from one to another and are as before.  As for 
meditating that they dissolve again, the meaning is inconceivable dharmata, as the union of vipashyana and shamatha.  
Having attained that is enlightenment.
	Beginners meditate stage by stage.  Having done that training, they train as the stages arise in their being, not 
necessarily in the order they were taught.

c.  The process of meditation in the developing stage and completion stage.

	What is accomplished in these ways of meditating in the developing and completion stages?

	Development stops attachment to appearance as truly existing.
	Completion abandons the thought that it is just illusion.
	When there is no attachment to appearance or emptiness,
	Then there is the pure nature that is without duality,
	Between the stages of development and completion.

	The developing stage meditates on the external environment as the palace.  Grasping the ordinary appearance of 
objects as individuating characteristics of earth and rocks and so on is abandoned.  By meditating on the inhabitants, 
sentient beings, as gods and goddesses, attachment to the individuating characteristics of sentient beings and desire and 
hatred toward them is abandoned.  A clear view of one's own skandhas, dhatus, and ayatanas, clearly perceives that this is 
primordially so.  By that obscurations of rupakaya are abandoned.  The collection of merit is completed.  The arising of 
the samadhi of shamatha and so forth has many purposes.
	In the three tantras of external mantra, yoga tantra and so forth, the developing stage is sealed by the four 
mudras.  There is meditation on the four objects of mindfulness body, feeling, mind, and dharmas, as illusion-like, and the 
gathering together of meditation and post-meditation.  Though these occur, the profoundest great stages are absent in 
these vehicles.
	In anuttara tantra, prajqa and upaya beyond the scope of thought are taught.  By meditating on the completion 
stage, there is little attachment to the previous developing stage.  All dharmas, like illusion, are abandoned.  Free from all 
conceptual thoughts of "this and that," having purified the obscurations of dharmakaya, one is joined to the natural state.  
This is realization of mahamudra.
	Here the nature is the primordial existence of the ground, the nature of the vajra body.  Having come to know the 
nature of mind and the essence of reality, one becomes familiar with them.  Here one depends on one's own body as the 
upaya and the body of another as the prajqa or wisdom-consort.  One's own body is used in tummo, illusory body, dream, 
luminosity, bardo, transference and so forth.  These completion stage practices establish enlightenment through effort in 
one's own mind without dependence on another.
	When using the body of another, the yogin goes to the pith of prana, nadi, and bindu, and makes bliss into the 
path.  As for the purpose, by abandoning attachment to the developing stage, the divine nature is realized, and by the 
particular means employed, bliss, emptiness, and non-thought arise.  By everything being brought to the path, whatever 
appears arises as dharmata.  By realizing the wisdom of co-emergence, doubts are washed away, and so forth beyond 
measure.

As for the teaching of the nyams, the experiences, of buddhahood:

	Here the vajrayana reaches its ultimate end.
	Those persons who are sharp in the powers of their minds
	Will attain to perfect buddhahood within this very life.
	Then in every world where there are beings to be tamed,
	Their various buddha activities will be spontaneous.
	This secret path of directness is utterly profound.
	It is the path that is taken by countless vajradharas.
	It is the path that should be used by fortunate ones
	Who want to be liberated within this very life.

	This path liberates those of sharp powers of mind within this very life, so that before long the great deeds of a 
buddha spontaneously arise for whatever beings there are in the world to be tamed.  The Tantra of the Vajra Secret says:

	As for the siddhi of unsurpassable mantrayana,
	When someone practices totally using the highest effort,
	There is enlightenment within this very life.
	Then the teacher acts within the field of beings.
	This is the ultimate path directly to enlightenment,
	As it was formerly traveled by countless vajradharas.

	Those of good fortune who desire liberation should depend on this path, and strive appropriately with great 
effort.

d.  The power of ripening the ground,

	There are three sections teaching the stages

	1)  As for its being received in general and in terms of our own tradition

	Now as for the teaching of the stages of the power of ripening the ground, mantrayana:


	Using whichever of these tantras arouses devotion
	Let us establish the state of perfect enlightenment.
	First consider the precepts taught in each tradition
	Of initiation, permission blessings, and empowerment.
	By doing so our minds will be completely ripened.

	"Abhishiqca" occurs when defilements are washed away, and by powers being established "empowerment" 
arises.  Because defilements in the being of students are purified, powers are produced of later attaining the enlightenment 
of buddhahood and meditating on particular incidental paths.  After the details of the initiatory liturgies of permission 
blessings, empowerments, and so forth of the various individual tantras have been explained, one starts to practice.
	In the initiatory rites and permission blessings of kriya tantra, depending only on the mandala, disciples are 
empowered by the water of the vase and merely by the mantra permission blessings being bestowed, they become suitable 
vessels for meditating on the view.
	In upa tantra, by the empowerments of the five abhishekas of insight, six with the discipline abhisheka, disciples 
become  suitable vessels.
	In yoga tantra, preceded by the five abhishekas of insight, when the vajra master abhisheka has been completely 
bestowed, students become suitable vessels.  Here the empowerment uses a sand-painting mandala, one painted on cloth, 
one of flower clusters, or the body mandala.  By the lesser empowerment there is a mandala of images, in the middle one 
uses only heaps of flowers or symbols of the deities and so forth.  The highest, the body mandala, is bestowed depending 
on the body, speech, and mind of the guru.  The Ghanta says:

	Though from two created essences
	These students desire empowerment,
	These beings are non-dual
	With the self-existing mandala.

2)  How the four unsurpassable empowerments are completely received

In these ways:

	Within the excellent, secret path of the mahayoga,
	There are the four empowerments producing ripening,
	and development and completion, that bring us liberation.
	The vase empowerment is that which purifies the body.
	The secret one the speech, and prajqajqana the mind.
	The word empowerment is that which cleanses habitual patterns.
	Also by this empowerment the siddhis are conferred.
	The first three of these complete the accumulation of merits.
	The fourth empowerment completes the accumulation of wisdom.
	The obscurations of kleshas and knowables are removed.
	So through the ripening of gaining the four empowerments,
	Cultivate liberation through development and completion.


 	In the tradition of mahayoga there are the well-known four empowerments:
	1)  The vase empowerment purifies defilements of body.  One is empowered to meditate in the developing stage.
	2)  The secret empowerment purifies obscurations of speech.  One is empowered to meditate on tummo or 
chandali.
	3)  The prajqajqana empowerment purifies obscurations of mind.  One is empowered to meditate on bliss 
emptiness, the wisdom of complete non-thought.
	4)  The precious word empowerment purifies all defilement.  One is empowered to meditate on mahamudra, the 
natural state.

	By the first three the accumulation of merit is completed.  Obscurations of the kleshas are purified.  By the fourth 
the accumulation of wisdom is perfected.  Obscurations of knowables are purified.  If they are related to the paths and 
bhumis, the vase empowerment is the path of accumulation, the secret empowerment is the path of preparation.  
Prajqajqana is the path of seeing.  By the empowerment in mahamudra the path of meditation is completed.  By 
completing these four empowerments one is ripened.  By meditating in the developing and completion stages, one is freed.

3)  The peak of all the yanas

	Now from the teaching of the stages of secret mantra in general, in particular the peak of all tantras is entered 
according to the Non-dual Tantra of the Great Illusion:

	Whoever wants to enter the vision of ati yoga,
	Receiving full empowerment, possessing the samayas,...

	First, in the stages of empowerment, Lesser ones use a sand mandala, and supreme ones enter using the mandala 
of the body of the vajra master.  The great bliss mandala uses the mandala of the two bodies of the father and mother, and 
the details of the five families as depicted in the sand mandala.  The Secret Tree says:

	As for the mandala of mahasukha,
	There are two ways of dividing and also five.
	If those who have faith have also completely entered,
	Desire and pleasure become equanimity.

	Here the ten empowerments of benefit and the five empowerments of power are completed.  As for the first ten, 
according to the same text they are those of the:

1).  head ornament
2).  crown
3).  garland,
4).  armor
5).  victory banner
6).  mudra,
7).  parasol
8).  vase,
9)   eating the five meats
10)  drinking the five amritas.

The second five are:

1).  The empowerment of the listener, the student
2).  The empowerment of the explainer, the teacher
3).  The empowerment of buddha activity for the benefit of others
4).  The empowerment of the universal word of a vajra king
5).  The empowerment of the supreme secret

	These fifteen are divisions of the four empowerments.  The ten including the vase empowerment are preliminary 
to the action of the vase and are collectively called the vase empowerment.  From the secret empowerment the supreme 
secret and prajqajqana empowerments arise.
  	As for the word empowerment, after the empowerment of the universal word of a vajra king has been taught, the 
explainer and buddha activity empowerments are the action of this.
	As for the listener, since upaya is increased, it is included within these.  If the way of inclusion is done 
differently, the benefits will not arise, so do not proceed in that way.
	If these empowerments are completed or also if other unsurpassable empowerments like these are obtained, then 
one has the good fortune of practicing the path of these.

e.  The details of the associated practice and samaya are explained as additional points.

	Now from the two sections on the practice of mantra and samaya,

1)  the samayas connected with the empowerments will be explained.
	a)  The essence of samaya is the particular excellent thought of guarding without faults the good discipline of 
entering into mantra.
	b.  The divisions are the root and branch samayas.
	

	a)  The essence of samaya

	Within the first are the three samayas of body, speech, and mind.

1)  The body samaya

	In the body samaya one meditates on the bodies of the deities, and refrains from unwholesome actions of body 
such as cutting off life, taking what is not given, dirty deeds, and all their aspects.

2)  The samaya of speech

	In the samaya of speech one recites mantra and eliminates the four unwholesome kinds of speech and all their 
aspects.

3)  The mind samaya

	In the mind samaya, one meditates in profound samadhi and refrains from the three unwholesome actions of 
mind and all their aspects.

	In brief, in bodily practice of ordinary aspect of body, speech, and mind, does not contradict the samaya of true 
body, speech, and mind.  If one divides these rather briefly, the Wheel of Entering into the Discipline of the Array of 
Samaya says:

	From beings' thirty-three ripenings,
	There are three samayas of mantra.
	To fix the particulars,
	Of body, speech, and mind,
	Each of these has nine.
	They are known from the aspects
	Of entering and action.

	Samayas of body, speech, and mind exist because beings exist primordially as buddhas.  Since siddhi is attained 
from not transgressing these, they ought to be kept.  The threefold samayas of body that ought to be kept are outer, inner 
and secret.  Each of these is again divided into outer, inner, and secret

1).  In the outer of outer one abandons taking what is not given 2).  The inner of outer is abandoning dirty deeds
3).  The secret of outer is abandoning the cutting off of life.

The Mansions of the Vajra Essence Tantra says:

	The outer samaya of body
	Is divided into three.
	By taking what is not given
	The external is transgressed.
	The limbs of the sign of transgression
	Are outbreaks of disease.
	An unbearable variety
	Arises in the body.

	Dirty deeds are the inner
	As a sign of transgressing this
	There will be diseases
	Arising in the senses.

	Cutting off life is the secret.
	As a sign of transgressing this
	Disease of the vessel of meaning 
	Will be experienced by yogins.

	Regarding the means of keeping these, the Tantra of Unbroken Samaya says:

	By a yogin who has the signs,
	For outer of outer activities
	Seven clay sculptures and drawings,
	will liberate evil deeds.

	Samaya is guarded by making colored statues and paintings of the gods seven times.  Also the same text says:

	The way for the inner of outer
	Is sculpting seven statues
	By consecrated efforts
	And offering them to the guru.

	One should make seven statues of the deities of mantra and offer them to the guru.  Also the same text says:

	If the sign has arisen
	Of secret of outer transgression,
	Nine or eleven vajras
	Or bells should be offered the guru.

	As for the outer, inner, and secret of inner, the Golden Mansion Tantra says:

	As for outer of inner, relatives
	And their fathers and mothers,
	As well as one's own body
	Should never be degraded.

	The inner of inner, in general,
	For the greater and lesser vehicles,
	Is desiring to enter, and entering
	and as for entering,

	Degrading or trying to harm
	The grasped reflection of body,
	If the ornament is degraded,
	The body of buddhahood
	Redeems it a hundred times.

	For the secret of inner,
	Because one's personal body
	Is the mandala of deities,
	Eat medicine and food
	That have been mixed with poison.
	Even if stabbed by weapons,
	Be without the path of defilement,
	Or receiving a hundred bodies,
	Later they will experience
	the torments of the hot hells.

	In amending these violations, confess with remorse.  As for the three of the secret of body, the Glorious Edifice 
of the Sun and Moon Tantra says:

	If with vajra brothers and sisters
	One defiles the body ornament,
	Offending with striking hand
	If another enters into it
	This will increase the cause
	Of the unremitting Hell.

	Within it greatly mixes
	And widely proliferates.
	Even just as a joke
	Striking or trying to strike

	If even in a dream,
	One so endangers one's consort,
	Until one has confessed it,
	This equals the actual deed.

	The secret of secret, the guru
	Do not defile even his shadow
	In Guru's pure presence also
	One should never grasp a weapon.

	Do not extend hands and feet
	Or lie down in his presence.
	Sit properly cross legged
	And do not turn the back.

	Shoes, and seats, and mounts
	And elegant ornaments
	Such things as parasols
	Ought to be left behind.
	
	In the guru's pure house also
	One should never hold
	Or keep within the hand
	A weapon or a stone.

	100,000 times worse
 	Is disrupting the teacher's house,
	And doing any evil deed
	That makes a mock of his body.

	Such limitless evil deeds
	As carelessness with the guru
	If one does not scrutinize them,
	Will have limitless consequence.

	Even if one had attained
	The supreme kayas of fruition
	The ripening of this
	Would be indescribable.
	
	Evil deeds involving the guru involve karma a hundred thousand times heavier than others.  If they are done, 
confess them continuously for a whole day.  Even if they were not actually done, anything involving his body, should be 
confessed before him.
	The samayas of speech are three times three in a similar way.

1).  In the outer of outer, abandon speaking falsely.

	The Edifice of the Wheel Tantra says:

	By devoted practice of mantra,
	Beings are purified.
	By having spoken false words
	Because of selfish desire

	And having taken delight
	In the speaking of such words,
	We will lose the ability
	To recite mantra genuinely.

	With others our speech will be impotent.
	By harming our own speech
	The tongues of other beings
	Will descend on us like vultures.

	With a body covered with moles.
	We will live in the north.
	We will experience suffering
	In various lower realms.

2).  The inner of outer is not speaking slander.

	The same text says:

	Those beings who dwell in mantra
	But tear at others with slander,
	When they teach the dharma
	Will never gather a retinue.

	Whatever they do goes wrong
	If this is not analyzed,
	They will make many enemies.
	Who stab their bodies with weapons.

	Having died and been reborn,
	They will have bodies with claws.
	Then they will experience
	A succession of lower realms.

3)  The secret of outer is not speaking harshly of others.

The same text says:

	Speaking harshly builds up karma
	Both earlier and later
	Beings without kindness are angry
	Even with their friends.

	They overturn even the Dharma.
	When they die and transmigrate
	These very arrogant people.
	Will go to the lower realms.

	As for the inner:

4).  If one reviles those who speak the Dharma, that is the outer.  5).  If those who practice, that is the inner.
6).  If those who meditate, that is the secret.

The Array of Samaya Tantra says:

	Those who glorify and denigrate
	And speak reviling words
	Of those who are abiding
	In the discipline of mantra,

	And of those who teach the Dharma
	And of practitioners,
	And those who meditate,
	Diminishing others' discipline,

	Diminish their own possessions
	Certainly forgetting
	And totally overthrowing
	The Dharma for themselves.

	Against their expectations
	They will then experience
	Sufferings without limit
	Within the lower realms.

7.  The outer of secret is reviling and denigrating one's vajra brothers and sisters.
8.  The inner is to speak disparagingly of the guru's consort and close retinue.
9.  The secret is denigrating the guru.  The Chagya Nyijor Tantra says: 

	With Vajra brothers,
	the consort and retinue,
	If they violate in speech
	Within the three lower realms

	For a hundred million kalpas
	They will suffer especially
	Harshly and unendurably.

	Beings who experience this
	As a later sign
	Of what they formerly did,

	In their successively experience.
	By former deeds, during this life,
	Their station will be low,
	Even if formerly high.
	As soon as they are reborn
	They will experience this.

	As for the karmic destiny
	They have produced by that,
	In this life as servants
	The karma of speech they hear

	Will come from the tongues of the retinue
	and other lesser beings
	The stream of speech which is pure
	Of the incidental will cease.

	With the guru's wife and children,
	And whomever is close to him,
	If one violates the command
	and transgresses in one's speech
	The karma is twice the former.

	Of the guru in particular
	If root and branch violations
	Are spoken in one's speech,
	If one has speaks exaggerations
	Or denigrating words,
	It is a thousand times worse.

	The ripening is unbearable.
	By gradations one becomes separate,
	Torn away from the holy guru,
	This occurs at once.

	The samayas of mind are also three times three.

1).  As for the outer of outer, ill-will is abandoned.

The Tantra of Receiving the Essence says:

	Those who to vajra holders
	Either others or themselves
	Harbor malicious ill-will
	Their bodies will have lesions.
	For every time they have done this,
	Receiving 5000 bodies,
	They will certain be born in hell.

2).  The inner of outer is abandoning craving and malice.

The Meteoric Iron Blazing Like Fire says:

	If for an ordinary being,
	The mind of ill-will arises
	Their evil deed will be equal
	To an ordinary person
	Who has cut off 300 lives.

	If possessing signs of a teacher
	Embodied ones go wrong,
	with one who abides in mantra
	It is a hundred times that;

	With vajra brothers and sisters
	It is seven times more;
	With a guru of tantra
	Still a hundred times more;
	And with one's own root guru
	A hundred thousand times.

3).  The secret of outer is perverting the doctrine of oneself and others.

As for a person who does this, the Great Array says:

	Of either the doctrines of oneself or others
	If one makes a wrong path which degrades the Dharma,
	One violates this root samaya of mind.
	In the earthly realm the sufferings of fire
	Will be experienced for a very long time.
	By one's own wrong views of doctrine arising,
	There will be no way to be free from hell.

	From the three of inner mind,

4).  The external is wrong action,
5).  The internal is wrong meditation
6).  The secret is wrong view.

What is wrong is to be abandoned.  The Tantra of the Crystal Palace says:

	Wrong view, meditation, and action
	These are the great wrong path.
	All the sufferings of beings
	Will ripen within the mind.

	As for the three secret ones,

7).  The external is not paying attention to the meditation and action.
8).  The inner is not paying attention to the yidam deity.
9).  The secret is not paying attention to the guru and one's vajra brothers and sisters.

The Cast Lotus Expanse says:

	One whose action of mind is frivolous
	Transgressing in the dharmas of attention
	Who has not properly turned the mind to them,
	With destroyed and violated intention
	Will experience suffering in the Avici Hell.

	Remedy violations of every aspect of these and try to confess them.  That completes the teaching of the root 
samayas.

2)  The five times five branch samayas,

a)  The samayas of the five things to be known.

	Since all dharmas are primordially enlightened, it should be known that:

1).  the five skandhas are the five fathers,
2).  the five elements are the five consorts,
3).  the five consciousnesses are the five bodhisattvas,
4).  their five objects are the five female bodhisattvas,
5).  the five collections of thoughts are the five mandalas.

	The Array of the Three Samayas says:

	First as for the samayas of things that should be known:
	The five skandhas, elements, and consciousnesses
	The five organs, and their objects, and such things
	Are in nature the deities and the mandala.

	It is also explained like that in the Kunje.

b)  The five samayas that are to be performed

These are the great samaya.  By those who are capable, when they are performing benefits for others, there may be cutting 
off life, taking what is not given, impure conduct, and false speaking.  The same text says:

	As for the samayas to be performed
	Tana, gana,  taking what is not given
	Dirty deeds, and false speaking,
	As for its five aspects those wise in skillful means
	if they see that harm will come from not performing them
	They will do them.

Also the Bodhisattva pitaka says:

	For those who have great skillful means,
	The kleshas are the limbs of enlightenment.

	In accord with that explanation, without being bound up with one's own benefit, acting when there is an 
opportunity to benefit others is as taught previously.

c.  the samayas of the five things to be accepted,

Excrement, urine, rakta, white bodhicitta, and human flesh are the five essences.   The former text says:

	As for the five samayas,
	Of the five to be accepted
	They are excrement, and so on,
	the five samaya substances.

Regarding their qualities the Vajra Tent of the Dakinis says:

	Yogins who are relying
	On immovability
	Will abandon all diseases.
	And always have great brilliance.
	As for the vajra sun
	It never will grow old.
	Relying on vajra Dharma,
	One has all one needs. 
	Creatures' bodily vajras
	Are the king who possesses the meaning.
	All splendid goals are accomplished
	That yogin will go to peace.

	By drinking the immovable
	Sustained 5000 fold. 
	One's throne will then express
	Ten million vajra suns.
	Times beyond all measure
	In countless numbers of lives.
	As limitless as space,
	Being drawn by seven horses,
	With two limitless vajra suns,
	Are the roots of gathering a retinue.
	If yogins depend on these,
	They are equal to those of good fortune.

d.  The samayas of the five things that are not to be abandoned

	The five poisons or kleshas should not be viewed as enemies, as they are by the shravakas.  Being of the nature of 
wisdom, they should be brought to the path.  The former text says:

	As for the five samayas
	Of not abandoning,
	The five poisons of the kleshas,
	Passion, aggression, and so forth,
	As the great secret vajra samaya,
	The five kleshas are transformed,
	Becoming the five wisdoms.
	These five poisons are not abandoned
	But accepted as the five wisdoms.

	If the five poisons are exhausted by skillful means they are not abandoned because:

1).  They become associated with the path,
2).  They are of the nature of wisdom,
3).  They are primordially unborn space,
5).  All dharmas are of the nature of equality without accepting and rejecting.

	These are called the samayas of not abandoning.  The ordinary forms of the five poisons are not made into the 
path even in vajrayana.  In reality, when they are exhausted by skillful means, and bodhisattvas make them into the path, 
the purified kleshas are gathered into one.

e.  The five samayas to be established

	One makes an effort to establish the previous five topics within one's being.  The same text says:

	As for the five samayas
	Which are to be established,
	The five skandhas and five elements,
	The consciousnesses and objects,
	Are established as the mandala.

	Perfecting the three samadhis
	And the five aspects of ritual.
	The mandala of the five families
	Of victorious ones is established.

	Our minds should therefore strive
	In these samadhis and rites.

The three samadhis are:

1  the suchness samadhi
2  the all-illuminating samadhi
3  the cause samadhi

The five rites are:

1  visualizing the deities
2  reciting mantra
3  meditating in samadhi
4  abiding in samaya
5  offerings and torma

In general according to the Miracles of Secret Mantra the Secret Essence has five root samayas, ten branch samayas, and 
four great samayas, nineteen altogether.  The root five are

1  not abandoning the three jewels
2  reverence for the guru
3  not cutting short mantras and mudras
4  being kind to those who genuinely abide on the mahayana
5  not speaking the secret to others

The same text says:

	Not abandoning the matchless,
	Reverencing the guru,
	Not cutting off mantra and mudra,
	Being kind to those
	Who abide on the genuine path,
	Never telling the secret
	To those who are outsiders.
	These five are the root.

	Within the ten branches are the five samayas of not abandoning.  The same text says:

	Ignorance and passion,
	Aggression, pride, and envy
	These are the five samayas
	That are not to be abandoned.

	As for the samayas of the things to be accepted it says:

	The red and white essences,
	Human flesh, and excrement
	Are the pure vessel and essence
	And should not be rejected.

	The four great samayas are the fundamental four, regarding cutting off life and so forth.
	In new translation mantra, samayas to be guarded and samayas to be performed are distinguished.  As for the 
first, fourteen root downfalls and so forth are explained in their particular traditions.  As for the second, knowing the 
nature of the five meats and five amritas, one should enjoy them.
	The five meats are those of the cow, elephant, dog, human, and horse.  The five amritas are excrement, urine, 
semen, blood, and brains. and so on.  As for the benefits of eating these, the Shri Guhyasamaja says:

	As for the high samaya
	Of eating human flesh,
	The excellent three vajras
	Will be established by that.

	As for the high samaya
	Of eating human shit,
	One will be the leader
	Of all the vidyadharas.

	By the high samaya
	of eating the flesh of cows,
	One has the five attainments
	Of the higher perceptions.

	By the pure samaya
	Of eating the flesh of horses,
	One becomes a master
	Of invisibility.

	By the high samaya
	Of eating the flesh of dogs,
	All the host of siddhis
	Are perfected and established.

	By the high samaya
	of eating the flesh of elephants,
	One becomes supreme
	A solid vajra sender.

Also:

	The flesh of cows and horses
	Should be eaten as food
	If we eat no other food
	great minded bodhisattvas
	And buddhas will be pleased.

also:

	Excrement and semen,
	Blood and all the others,
	Should be offered to deities.
	When this is done the buddhas
	And bodhisattvas are pleased.

	If one does not have them, make food in their form or visualize eating them.  The same text says:

	As for pure human flesh
	If it is fully visualized,
	One will gain all the siddhis
	That are part of the secret body,
	The secret speech, and mind.

also:

	If none of the meats are there,
	One can visualize them.
	Performing this vajra union,
	One will be blessed by the buddhas.

	By practice of these actions like those of worldly degraded people, liberated from all attachment, one will have 
the virtues of being without good and evil, pleasing the dakinis and mahasiddhas, and so forth.
4)  How to guard these samayas

	They are guarded by means of mindfulness, attention and conscientiousness, by being upright, and having fear 
and reverence.
	As for mindfulness, not forgetting the details of samaya, and what is permitted and prohibited, one keeps them in 
mind.  Day and night one makes vows of bodhicitta and confessing and vowing to refrain.
	As for conscientious attention, having examined to see whether the three gates abide in samaya or not, if 
anything that one does goes against samaya, one abandons it.  What does not go against it, one practices.
	As for being careful, as one is careful about great enemies and friends, when samaya is harmed and there is 
danger of going to the lower realms, hold it very tightly.
	As for shame, if ones samayas proclaimed before the guru are transgressed, thinking that no one is lower than 
oneself, one should exhaust or avoid the slightest fault of the root and branch violations depending on oneself.
	As for decency the guru, yidam, dakinis, and great beings are decent individuals.  If one thinks they have been 
agents of degradation, depending on others, one should guard against that.
	As for guarding fear, having thought of one's faults of transgression against samaya, we should not let go of it 
even if we die.
	As for guarding devotion, inspired by the great benefit, devotedly guard samaya.

5)  The meaning of the word, "samaya," dam tshig in Tibetan, has two meanings.  If what is true and holy "dam" is 
guarded, non virtue is burned away, "tshig."  Also, if one transgresses what is holy in body, speech and mind, one will be 
damned and burned in the fires of hell.  The Tantra of the Array of Samaya says:

	SA, in producing that level
	If, MA, it is not transgressed,
	All the siddhis will be bestowed.
	YA, if this is weakened
	DAM, it must be restrained
	If this should be let go
	That is called transgression,
	TSHIG, if that is transcended,
	We experience fires of suffering.

	As for the benefits of guarding samaya, within this life all our wishes will be established, everyone will be 
pleasant to us, all the dakinis will bless us, all the accumulations will be gathered, and no obstacles will arise.  Even if our 
effort and powers don't go the distance, as long as samaya is not transgressed, in seven lives or sixteen we will certainly be 
liberated, attaining ultimate buddhahood.  The Secret Essence says:

	By abiding within the samaya of equality
	The equality of the great perfection will be gained.

	The two bad consequences of transgression within this life are that everyone will be unpleasant and there will be 
many diseases and obstacles.  What we want will not be established.  Even if it rains, little will grow and so forth--
everything we do will go wrong, and various kinds of unpleasantness will arise.  Not to mention that in the next life, we 
will go to hell.  The same text says:

	Those without root defilements
	Need not struggle to cure them.
	An instant of denying them
	And faults will not arise.
	But if there is transgression
	Of the major root samayas
	All practice will go wrong.
	Various unpleasant fruitions
	Are gathered in spite of ourselves.
	If there is transgression
	Of the branch samayas,
	Without attaining fruition,
	We fall to the lower realms.

The Two Examinations says:

	Snakes who tell the secret
	And thieves who steal the dharma,
	Set fires all over the earth.

Also:

	Plagues and calamities
	And various obstacles,
	Kings and fires and serpents
	Floods, dakinis, and bandits
	Vicious attacks of Dvns
	And agents of perversion.
	Destroyed by such assassins
	Beings will go to hell.

6)  Means of confession

	Now the means of confession are explained.

a)  Divisions

	Divided by time all transgressions are of four kinds:

1).  Going against samaya is not longer than a day.
2).  Less than a month is a fault.
3).  A breach is more than that up to a year.
4).  Up to two and three years is severance of samaya.

	Transgressions up to these, if they are confessed with great exertion, are purified.  It is taught that confessions of 
those which cannot not be purified will not be received by one who is like the guru.  The Tantra of the Array of Samaya 
says:

	Generally for the different samaya transgressions
	The division is distinguished by the time.
	Going against samaya is violation
	Which has lasted not longer than a day.
	If one makes confession of the object
	It is fully remedied by that.

	A fault of samaya lasts up to a month.
	It is remedied by strong remorse.
	If one breaches samaya for a year
	Uninterrupted confession will remedy that.
	A longer time of up to two or three years,
	Is said to be a severance of samaya.
	It is repaired with immensely strong confession.

	More than three years, is simply incurable.
	If it is received, both master and student burn.
	Certainly in the subterranean realm
	They will only suffer continuously.

	Transgressions are classified either depending on the essence or on time.  Those known by the essence are 
transgressions of the root and branch samayas described before.  For those depending on time, the degree of transgression 
depends on how soon it was confessed.  By teaching these, the divisions are fully explained.  As for how to amend, the 
same text says:

	Going against samaya is confessed
	With the performance of a ganachakra.
	Transgression is remedied by one's possessions.
	Breaches are repaired with spouse and children,
	With possessions and acts of body, speech, and mind.
	Severance is remedied with one's life.

	Faults up to a day are remedied by a ganachakra.  Having joined one's palms before the guru and so forth, say:

		Guru, great vajra holder please consider us.  For us by the power of confusion such and such 
errors have arisen.  These, which we purify by confessing, we supplicate you to purify.

	Say this three times, with lamentation and remorse.  Later commit yourself to keep trying not to do these things 
again.  By the gate from which the transgression arose, as an antidote do homage and so forth.
	For violations up to a month, offer your cherished possessions to the person who was the object.  Then remedy 
with a ganachakra as before.
	For those up to a year, in addition to that, impoverish yourself, and offer your cherished spouse and children.
	Up to three years, also with strong effort accomplish heavy deeds of sacrifice for the sake of others, gurus, and so 
forth.
	Moreover, transgressions done in dreams, and bad lapses of slandering others should be told.  Examining to see 
what was said of others in speech or mind, even in fun, all these should be confessed.  The Great Array says:

	To the guru and close retinue
	To vajra brothers and sisters,
	Not the smallest evil
	Of spoken words should be said,
	In nuance or reality.
	Or just in dream or mind,
	They all should be confessed.

	If actual and mental faults,
	Remain ungrasped by memory,
	Passed by and not confessed,
	Pulled down by that halter
	One goes to the lower realms.

	When one has done these, one will be liberated from the transgression by:  Performing feasts, fire offerings, and 
service to the guru in body and speech, requesting empowerment, in the four periods doing the hundred syllable mantra, 
offering mandalas, trying to establish the ten virtues such as furthering life, reciting sutras and dharanis and so forth, 
expressing the virtues of others, telling one's hypocritical transgressions to all tantrikas in the ten directions, wishing for 
virtue, and pleasing those who rejoice in it, and meditating in samadhi and on kindness and so forth, the four 
immeasurables, etc.
	To confess and remedy offenses worthy of hell, if this is done on the eighth day of the lunar month, all 
transgressions up to that time will be remedied:

b)  The Liturgy

	In the space in front visualizing the guru, yidam, and assembly of deities of the mandala, prostrate, make 
offerings, and confess the evil deeds.
	Then, from their body, speech, and mind, there arise red, white, and blue light rays.  By their dissolving into 
one's own body, speech, and mind, all transgressions and defilements are purified.  After the evil deeds and obscurations 
of all sentient beings are also purified, they become light and dissolve into the heart center of the guru.
	Here, while the mind rests in equality like the sky, as one does the dedication, it is excellently taught that all 
transgressions will be purified.
	As for the measure, if the obscurations have been purified, in dreams one will be dressed in white, one will reach 
the peaks of mountains, the sun and moon will rise together and so forth.  That completes the presentation of samaya.

7) the conduct accompanying that

a)  General

 the benefits of the view and meditation, and the special qualities are established.  As for the essence, after one meditates 
in samadhi, guarding the experience in post-meditation brings the benefit of mixing meditation and post meditation.  
Moreover in terms of the lesser conduct of shravakas and the supreme conduct of bodhisattvas, as the benefit for oneself, 
by pacification and taming one binds non-virtue of body and speech.  As the benefit for others there is the conduct of the 
six perfections.

the four teachings of the vast and extensive secret mantra for:

i).   Beginners
ii).  Those for whom a little experience has arisen
iii). Those with a little stability
iv).  Those who have attained great stability.

	i).  As for the first, chiefly activities between sessions are done.  There are the yogas of food, torma, making tsha 
tshas, water offering to the pretas, mandalas, prostrations, and reciting sutras; seven fold service, offerings of writing and 
such, the 10 dharma activities.
	As for the practice, the preliminary part is arousing bodhicitta.  The main part is the unborn.  Afterwards 
complete by dedicating the merit.  As for the ten dharma activities, The Tantra of Realizing all the Actions of the Oral 
Instructions says:

	Transcribing, doing pujas, giving, and listening;
	Reading and comprehending, explaining, and reciting,
	Contemplating and meditating on these things.
	These ten acts of dharma have limitless merit.

	ii).  When a little experience has arisen through these, it is called the practice of Samantabhadra.  As for the 
second topic, the practice of those for who this has arisen somewhat, the experience arising in meditation becomes of 
equal taste with post-meditation, joined with all the self-appearances of the senses.  As within the meditation of the 
developing stage, when one is meditating on the mandala of the yidam deity; in post-meditation too all appearances are 
viewed as the illusion-like divine mandala.  Become familiar with that.  Within the meditation of the completion stage, 
whatever experiences of the nyam arise are joined in equal taste to all the self-appearances  of post-meditation.  In brief, 
when the practitioner rises from meditation, and when various objects are experienced, at the time of enjoying form, 
sound, smell, taste, and touchables, all these are known to have the nature of the deities.  These are also known as one's 
own mind.  The mind is known as emptiness by the deities' divine realization and activity.  By that there is the divine 
offering of the play of wisdom.  Practice this as dharmata dissolving into dharmata.  All the sense appearances of post-
meditation become associated with the path.  One's own five skandhas are OM, the five fathers.  Form and so forth, their 
five objects are SUM, the five consorts.  Obscurations and so forth are HUM, the offering deities.  One practices by 
visualizing these.   The Secret Essence says:

	The senses, and the limbs and consciousness,
	Become the completely ripened syllable OM.
	Meditate on the perfect mandala
	And on the mandala of the wrathful ones.

	Form and sound, smell and taste and touch
	Become the completely ripened syllable SUM.
	Meditate on the mandala of the consorts.
	And on the mandala of the wrathful consorts.

	Clothes and ornaments, eating, drinking, and songs,
	Verses and dances, heaped-up clouds of feasting
	Are known as HUM, when they are fully practiced.
	The wondrously risen mandala is attained.

	These are known as secret or insight activities.  Whoever does them between sessions will have these beneficial 
experiences, and by relying on non-harming, harm will be abandoned.

	iii).  In the practice when experience is slightly stabilized, since these same experiences are beneficial, the 
discipline of insight should be practiced.  This is with, without, and completely without complexity.

	1)))  The practice with complexity is undertaken by those who are young in age with much vigor and little 
prajqa.  In a retreat house, doing sadhana, they do a ganachakra and confession.  Have collected yogins and yoginis, 
complete in their ornaments, equal to the number of deities, and having meditated on the developing and completion 
stages, at the end while doing songs and dances, manifest desire without clinging.  In six months, or whatever it takes, 
siddhi will be attained.
	2)))  The practice without complexity, is to be done by those of middle age, prajqa, and vigor.  Like the other 
before, practice alone with an authentic consort or perhaps two or three together.
	3)))  The practice supremely without complexity is done by those who are old with little vigor but much prajqa.  
In solitary places like charnel grounds, abandoning physical consorts, they unite directly with the vidya of co-emergent 
wisdom herself, and do kusulu practice.
	Except for eating, sleeping and voiding waste, they abandon all other activities, and practice in emptiness.
	Moreover since these are practices of taming the kleshas by wisdom, these words are said.  In these cases if there 
are many emanations and gatherings of insight, finally the various activities of "cutting the continuity of the city" of 
samsara will be completed, and the primordial activity of doing nothing at all will be established.  That is the benefit off 
these practices.  The Song of the Oral Instructions of the Inexhaustible Treasury says:

	Sometimes abiding in charnel grounds the "lamps" are practiced.
	With fearless mind one sleeps in places haunted by pretas.
	Associating with outcasts, the wheel of taste is straightforward.
	There is no "who does what" and no grasping the proper rules.

	There is an assembly of sacred celebration
	Yogins come together with many songs and dances,
	With flutes and other instruments, they make delightful music.
	The assembly sing and dance with the six dances of heruka
	Their minds are so uplifted that there is no sadness at all.

	Wearing robes on their backs and ornamented with copper,
	With wheels in the topknots clinging to their heads.
	All their limbs adorned with ornaments of bone,
	With elephant and tiger skins tied above and below,
	Carrying khatvangas and sounding the bells in their hands.

	They excellently perform the actions of the great secret,
	The delightful celebration of intoxicated insanity.
	Forbidden activities that are shameful to perform,
	Like drunken elephants plunging hugely into a lake,
	Performing degraded acts, they are freed like a flying arrow.

	This is the called the "activity of all the protectors."  The Guhyasamaja says:

	All the acts of desire,
	If one manages to do them,
	Just as one would like,
	By such a wealth of union,
	One quickly gets enlightened.

Also:

	Unbearable self-denial
	Is not to be relied on.
	Rely on desirable qualities
	To quickly be accomplished.

	What's more, by this path without accepting and rejecting, the buddhas are very pleased.  The same text says:

	Buddhas and bodhisattvas
	And those who know the practice
	Of the highest action of mantra,

	Attain immovability,
	Supreme in the highest Dharma,
	By relying on all enjoyables.

	That these practices are connected with the proper kinds of beings and times is important.  If beginners do this 
feast practice or try to perform the "activity of all the protectors," they will just go to the lower realms.

8) Fruition: the two siddhis

a)  relative

	Having attained the benefits of the path by these activities, one will quickly attain the two siddhis.  There will be 
the eight karmas, eight ordinary siddhis, and so forth.  As for the eight karmas, the Two Examinations says:

	The powers, higher perceptions, destroying hosts of enemies, driving away, killing, magnetizing, pacifying, and 
enriching will really be performed.

	As for the eight ordinary siddhis, the Vajra Tent says:

	With these there is no problem.
	The eye potion and swift running,
	The wondrous enchanted sword,
	Finding treasures under the earth,
	Magic pills and flying,
	Becoming invisible,
	The elixir for making gold.
	By pleasing the vajra-holders.
	One quickly becomes accomplished.

The Secret Essence says:

	The mudra of songs and dances
	Goes in a rush to the sky.
	
	The mudra of songs and verses,
	Attains the siddhis of Dharma.

	The mudra of dress and ornament,
	Gains the blazing, invincible king.

	The mudra of eating and drinking,
	Grants wish-fulfilling amrita. 

	The mudra of vowels and consonants,
	Makes anything into anything.

b)  absolute

	Supreme siddhi is the establishment of buddhahood.  The Two Examinations says:

	As for trikaya being within the body,
	That should be expressed by the form of samsara.
	As for trikaya being completely known,
	That is expressed by the wheel of great bliss.

	By that the explanation together with the subsidiary points is completed.

3.  The path that produces liberation, the extensive explanation of the developing and completion stages.

	a.  The developing stage

	There are five sections.

1)  Meditation on the protection circles:

	Now we will enter into the details of meditation on the mandalas of samadhi.  In a solitary and compatible place

	Sitting in cross-legged posture upon a comfortable seat,
	Having taken refuge and aroused the bodhicitta,
	Then from within the nature of simplicity,
	Where dharmas all are empty and ego does not exist,
	The syllable HUM arises, then in turn from that,
	Extending above and below, as well as in all the directions,
	The deployment of the protective circle is huge and vast.
	Its ten spokes have the marks  of the ten wrathful deities.
	The circle is splendid with blazing fire within and without.

	First, as for the preliminaries, sit cross-legged on a comfortable seat.  Visualizing the guru and the assembly of 
deities of the yidam mandala in space, take the three refuges and as it is explained in the Sparking Precious Net:

	Myself as well as limitless sentient beings,
	Are in reality primordial buddhas,
	By I who know that this is really so,
	May supreme bodhicitta be aroused.

	Having said that three times, with the SVABHAVA mantra all dharmas are established as the great emptiness.  
This is the suchness samadhi.  The Great Development and Completion says:

	HUM
	The nature of bodhicitta, which is completely pure
	Is primordially unborn, and eternally all-encompassing,
	Limitless, topless and bottomless, boundless in every direction,
	A non-existing, unperceivable state of simplicity,
	Inexpressible beyond thought, a perfect space of equality.

	The Principal Heruka says:

	This inconceivable space of dharmadhatu
	Is free from all concepts and discursive thoughts.
	This inconceivable space of dharmadhatu
	Is not perceived, as space is not perceived.

	Meditate like that.  From the state of dharmakaya is manifested the auspicious coincidence of the arising of 
rupakaya.  As all lesser productions are exhausted in the empty nature of the great perfection, one necessarily unties the 
knot of attachment to things and characteristics.  The Stages of the Path says:

	By emptiness all paths are marklessness.
	Attachment to ego-grasping is liberated.

	Then, in order to untie the knot of one-sided attachment to emptiness, there is meditation in the all-illuminating 
samadhi.  The appearance of all dharmas is natureless.  With illusion-like compassion, meditate for a little while the 
natural luminous wisdom of self-awareness without a grasper.  The same text says:

	Get accustomed to the king of self-awareness,
	And so supreme enlightenment will be gained.
	Therefore after the suchness of seeing this
	Rest in the ground of arising of compassion.
	Their rising in sequence like this is a certainty.

	Then from the two sections on the cause samadhi, play is the circle of what is to be guarded.  Here from HUM, 
in the limitless universal brilliance of the space of the sky, comes a ten spoked wheel.  Between rim and center, in the 
empty space inside, which is equal to dharmadhatu, the ten spokes are transformed into ten lotus, sun, and moon seats 
marked with HUM.
	Above is Humkara.  To the east is Vijaya.  To the southwest Blue Danda.  To the south Yamantaka.  To the 
southwest Achala.  To the west Hayagriva.  To the northwest, Not Attained by Others To the north Amritakundalin.  To 
the northeast All-Victorious in the Three Realms, below Mahabala.
	Each of them has one face and two arms ornamented with all the supreme  and nirmanakaya ornaments   The 
right leg is bent and the left extended.  They hold scepters symbolizing their respective families or a bell and vajra.  the 
two wrathful ones above and below are of the tathagata family.  They hold wheels.  Those to the east and southeast, of the 
vajra family,  hold black and white vajras.  Those to the south and southwest, of the ratna family, hold dark yellow gems.  
Those to the west and northwest, of the padma family, hold dark red eight petalled lotuses.  Those to the north and 
northeast, of the karma family,  hold dark green crossed vajras and swords.
  	In the extensive version, in their three centers and six hands are the lady tramens.  Their six feet are on the seats 
of the protectors of the ten directions  Each has the five symbols signifying increase and so forth of the five families.  
These should be learned elsewhere.
	As for the main topic, the cause samadhi:  Having meditated on oneself briefly as the chief deity, see the palace, 
whether visualized or not, as empty.  It is joined with the meditation of the seed syllable of visualizing the deity.

2)  Meditating on the mandala

	Above and below the center of this protective circle, in the great space between the spokes on each of which is 
one of the ten wrathful ones, in the center is a four-spoked wheel from the transformation of BHRUM:

	In the center is the great mandala of Samantabhadra.
	There are four sides, and four gateways, topped by aches.
	The five-colored walls have ledges where there are the five sense-pleasures.
	The cornices have garlands with jeweled pendent strings.
	The eaves are decorated with balustrades and railings.
	Ornamenting the dome is a precious-jewel vajra.
	There are eight charnel grounds that surround the mandala.
	In the center there is a seat of a lotus, sun and moon,
	Supported by lions, elephants, horses, peacocks, and shang shang

	This is the visualization of the support, the palace.  The display of the field and palace is within the luminous 
nature of mind is.  This is the dwelling place of Samantabhadra.  Moreover within each of the visualizations is the 
mandala of Samantabhadra.  Meditate on this as being as limitless as the sky.
	To the right and left of each of the four gates, are the two pillars of the gateways. The three gates of liberation are 
in every direction.
	The body of the palace is cubic.  The five layered wall is blue, green, red, yellow, and last white.  These five are 
transparent like a rainbow.  The four raised areas are the four wisdoms, the mirror-like wisdom and so forth.  As a symbol 
of the dharmadhatu wisdom, in the middle is a circular vase pervading the whole of space.  At the top of these walls are 
the precious cornices.  On top of those are the precious eaves  in the form of little dome-like shapes,  outside of which 
are variegated chains of garlands and pendants of jewels and pearls.  Moving with the sun and moon pranas, supporting 
the chains, is a precious railing,  built in the shape of chvrtens.
	In the middle is the vase like a circular raincoat.  the shrine hall's stratified roof above the eaves, covering the 
internal space, has a roof in two stages, above, in the center, center and on the four sides spreading like a five pointed 
vajra fence. It is marked at the top with a vajra and precious jewel finial.
	At each side of the gates in the four directions two pillars support the archways.  Each archway has four layers, 
adorned with various ornaments.  On top of them is a wheel turned by two deer, at whose center is a life tree of precious 
substances.
	At the four corners are victory banners and on long poles are hanging pennants.  From the edges of the stories 
tipped with precious bells, are lifted garlands stretched from the center of the vajra finial to the sides of the archways, from 
their jingling giving a pleasant sound.
	There are Jeweled yak tails and silk tassels , with precious staffs and sun and moon finials.  There are many 
kinds of deities and divine ornaments, and heaps of offering clouds from all the ten directions.
	Outside the outer walls are ledges of desirable qualities, red where many transparent-appearing offering 
goddesses on sun and moon seats pour offerings of the five desirable qualities with a flourish.
	Then there is a courtyard or field, green appearing around which, in the eight charnel grounds, are the eight self-
arising stupas, Deje Tsegpa  and so forth, and Garab Dorje (Prahevajra), Manjushrimitra, Padmasambhava, 
Vimalamitra, and so forth, the eight teachers.  The charnel grounds are adorned with eight fires, eight lakes, eight clouds, 
eight trees, eight lokapalas, eight deities, eight nagas, and so forth.
	In the center of the palace is a throne whose center is adorned with a lion, the east with an elephant, the south 
with a horse, the west with a peacock, the north with a shang shang.  On that is a sun, moon and jewel seat.  In the other 
places of the deities, meditate that there are self-arising lotus, sun, and moon seats equal to the number of the deities.  The 
Secret Essence says:

	Wisdom is visualized in the four directions and center.
	With the spontaneous presence of the limitless mandalas,
	By yogins with realization of the great perfection,
	The mandala of the source of arising is realized.
	A wheel with four spokes and a rim, a courtyard adorned by a cube.
	Having square gateways, with music like heaps of various clouds.
	This is adorned by forty-two different mandalas.
	Great lion, elephant, horse, and garuda thrones float in space
	With sun and moon and lotus or jewel seats.

	Here as the garuda and peacock both are alike in overcoming poison, there is no distinction between union and 
purification in overcoming the poison of desire.
	The four great layers of the archways are divided into halves by sub-layers
making eight.  The Fierce Lightning of Illusion says:

	In the space which is the space of the human mind
	The edifice of the four elements is spontaneously present.
	On top of that arising from the four kinds of jewels
	Spontaneously present and completely immeasurable,
	As for the beautiful ground which is supported by that,
	It is carpeted with various kinds of jewels.

	Giving way when pressed down, raising back on lifting,
	On that there is the edifice of the palace itself.
	With its cubic shape it is very beautiful.
	It is made of four different kinds of precious jewels.

	In the center of the structure is a four spoked wheel,
	Also made of four different kinds of precious jewels.
	At the peak of the vase  is the crest ornament of dharma,
	Variegated like the feather of a peacock.

	Each of the four gates is adorned with an arch.
	At the sides are eight pillars holding up the archways.
	At the center of each is a vertical four spoked wheel.
	The navel supports a tree made of precious substances.
	The squares of the courtyards are beautifully brilliant.
	The precious light rays collect together like a staff.

	The deities have seats of a lotus, sun, and moon.
	They sit on blazingly brilliant excellent jewel seats.
	The foot supports of the precious thrones are beautiful.
	The excellent ornaments that adorn this wondrous palace
	Blaze with suns, and moons, and various precious jewels.

	Canopies, victory banners, food, and parasols,
	Flowing silken streamers and long garlands strung with pearls,
	Covered with ringing bells and the finest yak tail whisks,
	Adorned with various kinds of musical instruments.

	The assembly of worldly deities is beautiful.
	These and other ornaments are inconceivably excellent.
	The four gates of the palace are adorned with elephants.
	The silk tassels  hanging from the archways
	Are brilliant with a cascade of golden bells,
	And chains with the symbols of the three excellent jewels.

	The front of each gate is adorned with matching potted palms.
	They have fine form and fragrance, and shine with radiance.
	In these potted palms are cuckoos and so forth
	Auspicious birds whose melodious voices resound with song.

	In front of each gate is a washing pond of excellent shape,
	Whose water fully possesses the eight limbs of excellent taste 
	In each are inconceivable countless gods and goddesses.

	Outside the surrounding walls of this palace of deities
	Are peaks and places for walking of indescribable beauty.
	These and so forth are inconceivably excellent.
	Primordially self-established without needing to be sought.

	If this mandala is associated with the three purities of ground, path, and fruition, the ground is that all sentient 
beings exist like that primordially.  Therefore the four gates are the four immeasurables.  The four archways are the four 
foundations of mindfulness.  The five-fold wall is the five wisdoms.  The eight pillars are the limbs of the eight-fold noble 
path.  The bells, collections of za ra or bakuli, garlands of suns and moons, yak tails and jewels are the five senses and 
powers.  The parasols are dharmadhatu.  The wheels are the four truths.  The cornices are the changeless nature of mind.  
The garlands and pendants are the seven limbs of enlightenment. The eaves are the great compassion.  The stupas of the 
railing are inconceivable dharmata.  The circular vase is the wisdom of dharmadhatu.  The four rises are the four excellent 
wisdoms.  The five seats are the essential purity of the five poisons.  The vajra and jewel finial is the primordial luminous 
nature of mind.  The eight charnel grounds are the eight consciousnesses.  The eight teachers are the eight self-arising 
wisdoms.  The eight fires are the completely torment of false conceptions.  The eight trees are the eight natures of the 
kleshas.  The eight ponds are the eight-fold purifying path.  The eight deities are the eight gates of siddhi.  The eight 
nagas are the assembly of eight qualities.  The eight lokapalas  are the eight collections of merit and wisdom.  That faults 
at the time of impurity and enlightened virtues correspond two by two is kindness.  For example, as the five kleshas are 
counted as an aspect of the five wisdoms.
	If they are connected to the path, they are associated with the thirty-seven factors of enlightenment.  The four 
archways are the four foundations of mindfulness.  The four tassels or ribbons are the four genuine abandonments.  The 
four ornaments of wheels and so forth are the four legs of miracle.  The five-fold wall is the five faculties  The cornices, 
garlands