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And now in the household of Suddhodana râga, because of the birth of the royal prince, his clansmen and younger brethren (namesakes), with his ministers, were all generously disposed, . 127

Whilst elephants, horses and chariots and the wealth of the country and precious 2 vessels, daily increased and abounded, being produced wherever requisite 3; . 128

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So too countless hidden treasures came of themselves from the earth. From the midst of the pure snowy mountains, a wild herd of white elephants, . 129

Without noise, of themselves, came; not curbed by any, self-subdued, every kind of colour’d 1 horse, in shape and quality surpassingly excellent, . 130

With sparkling jewelled manes and flowing tails, came prancing round, as if with wings; these too, born in the desert, came at the right time, of themselves. . 131

A (herd of) pure-colour’d, well-proportioned cows, fat and fleshy, and remarkable for beauty, giving fragrant and pure milk with equal flow, came together in great number 2 at this propitious time: . 132

Enmity and envy gave way to peace; content and rest prevailed on every side, whilst there was closer union amongst the true of heart, discord and variance were entirely appeased; . 133

The gentle air distilled a seasonable rain, no crash of storm or tempest was heard, the springing seeds, not waiting for their time, grew up apace and yielded abundant increase; . 134

The five cereals grew ripe with scented grain, soft and glutinous, easy of digestion; all creatures big with young, possessed their bodies in ease and their frames well-gathered; . 135

All men, even those who had not received the seeds of instruction derived from the four holy

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ones 1; all these, throughout the world, born under the control of selfish appetite, without any thought for others' goods, . 136

Had no proud, envious longings; no angry, hateful thoughts. All men and women 2 were grave (profound) as the first man of the age (kalpa). . 137

All the temples of the gods and sacred shrines, the gardens, wells, and fountains, all these like things in heaven, produced of themselves, at the proper time, (their several adornments). . 138

There was no famishing hunger, the soldiers' weapons were at rest, all diseases disappeared; throughout the kingdom all the people were bound close in family love and friendship; . 139

Piously affectioned they indulged in mutual pleasures, there were no impure or polluting desires, they sought their daily gain righteously, no covetous money-loving spirit prevailed, . 140

But with religious purpose they gave liberally; there was no thought of any reward (return), but all practised the four rules of purity; and every hateful thought was suppressed and destroyed. . 141

Even as in days gone by, Manu râga begat a child (called) 'Brilliancy of the Sun,' on which there prevailed through the country great prosperity, and all Wickedness came to an end; . 142

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So now the king having begotten a royal prince, these marks of prosperity were seen; and because of such a concourse of propitious signs, the child was named Siddhârtha 1. . 143

And now his royal mother, the queen Mâyâ, beholding her son born under such circumstances, beautiful as a child of heaven, adorned with every excellent distinction, . 144

From excessive joy which could not be controlled died, and was born in heaven 2. Then Pragâpatî Gautamî, beholding the prince, like an angel, . 145

With beauty seldom seen on earth, seeing him thus born and now his mother dead, loved and nourished him as her own child; and the child regarded her as his mother. . 146

So as the light of the sun or the moon, little by little increases, the royal child also increased each day in every mental excellency and beauty of person; . 147

(His body exhaled) the perfume of priceless sandal wood, (decorated with) the famed Gambunada gold (gems); divine medicines (there were) to preserve him in health, glittering necklaces upon his person; . 148

The members of tributary states, hearing that

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the king had an heir born to him, sent their presents and gifts of various kinds, oxen, sheep, deer, horses, and chariots, . 149

Precious vessels and elegant ornaments, fit to delight the heart of the prince; but though presented with such pleasing trifles, the necklaces and other pretty ornaments, . 150

The mind (nature) of the prince was unmoved, his bodily frame small indeed, but his heart established; his mind at rest within its own high purposes 1, was not to be disturbed by glittering baubles. . 151

And now he was brought to learn the useful arts, when lo! once instructed (at one hearing) he surpassed his teachers. His father, the king, seeing his exceeding talent, and his deep purpose to have done with the world and its allurements, . 152

Began to enquire as to the names of those in his tribe who were renowned for elegance and refinement. Elegant and graceful, and a lovely maiden, was she whom they called Yasodharâ; . 153

In every way fitting to become a consort for the prince; and to allure by pleasant wiles his heart. The prince with a mind so far removed (from the world), with qualities so distinguished, and with so charming an appearance, . 154

Like the elder son of Brahmadeva, Sanatkumâra (She-na Kiu-ma-lo); the virtuous damsel, lovely and refined, gentle and subdued in manner; . 155

Majestic like the queen of heaven, constant ever,

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cheerful night and day, establishing the palace in purity and quiet, full of dignity and exceeding grace, . 156

Like a lofty hill rising up in space 1; or as a white autumn cloud; warm or cool according to the season; choosing a proper dwelling according to the year, . 157

Surrounded by a return of singing women, who join (their voices) in harmonious heavenly concord, without any jarring or unpleasant sound, exciting (in the hearers) forgetfulness of worldly cares. . 158

As the heavenly Gandharvas 2 of themselves in their beauteous palaces (cause) the singing women to raise heavenly strains, the sounds of which and their beauty ravish both eyes and heart; . 159

(So) Bodhisattva dwelt in his lofty palace, with music such as this. The king his father, for the prince's sake, dwelt purely in his palace, practising every virtue; . 160

Delighting 3 in the teaching of the true law, he 4 put away from him every evil companion, (that) his heart might not be polluted by lust; regarding inordinate desire as poison, . 161

Keeping his passion and his body in due control, destroying and repressing all trivial thoughts, desiring to enjoy virtuous conversation, loving 5 instruction (fit) to subdue the hearts of men, . 162

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Aiming to accomplish the conversion of unbelievers; removing all schemes of opposition 1 (from whatever source they came), by the enlightening power of his doctrine, aiming to save the entire world; (thus he desired) that the body of people should obtain rest; . 163

Even as we desire to give peace to our children, so did he long to give rest to the world 2. He also attended to his religious duties (sacrificing by fire to all the spirits), with clasped hands adoring the moon (drinking the moon's brightness); . 164

Bathing his body in the waters of the Ganges; cleansing his heart in the waters of religion, performing his duties with no private aim, but regarding his child and the people at large, . 165

Loving righteous conversation 3, righteous words with loving (aim), loving words with no mixture of falsehood, true words imbued by love, . 166

And yet withal so modest and self-distrustful, unable on that account to speak as confident of truth; loving to all, and yet not loving the world, with no thought of selfishness or covetous desire, . 167

Aiming to restrain the tongue and in quietness to find rest from wordy contentions, not seeking in the

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multitude of religious duties to condone for a worldly principle in action 1; . 168

But aiming to benefit the world, by a liberal and unostentatious charity; the heart without any contentious thought, but resolved by goodness to subdue the contentious, . 169

Composing the one 2, whilst protecting the seven, removing the seven, guarding and adjusting the five, reaching to the three, by having learned the three, knowing the two, and removing the two; . 170

Desiring to mortify the passions, and to destroy every enemy of virtue, not multiplying coarse or unseemly words, but exhorting to virtue in the use of courteous language, . 171

Full of sympathy and ready charity, pointing out and practising the way of mutual dependence, receiving and understanding the wisdom of spirits and Rishis, crushing and destroying every cruel and hateful thought; . 172

Thus his fame and virtue were widely renowned, (and yet himself) finally (or, for ever) separate from the ties of the world, showing the ability of a master builder, laying a good foundation of virtue, an example for all the earth; . 173

So a man's heart composed and at rest, his limbs and all his members will also be at ease. And now

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the son of Suddhodana, and his virtuous wife Yasodharâ, . 174

As time went on, growing to full estate, their child Râhula was born; and then Suddhodana râga considered thus, 'My son, the prince, having a son born to him, . 175

'The affairs of the empire will be handed down in succession, and there will be no end to its righteous government; the prince having begotten a son, will love his son as I love him 1, . 176

'And no longer think about leaving his home as an ascetic, but devote himself to the practice of virtue; I now have found complete rest of heart, like one just born to heavenly joys.' . 177

Like as in the first days of the kalpa, Rishi-kings by the way in which (they walked), practising pure and spotless deeds, offered up religious offerings, without harm to living thing, . 178

And illustriously prepared an excellent karma, so the king excelling in the excellence of purity 2, in family and excellency of wealth, excelling in strength and every exhibition of prowess, . 179

Reflected the glory of his name through the world, as the sun sheds abroad his thousand rays. But now, being the king of men (or, a king among men), he deemed it right to exhibit his son's (prowess), . 180

For the sake of his family and kin, to exhibit him; to increase his family's renown, his glory spread so high as even to obtain the name of 'God begotten;' and having partaken of these heavenly joys, . 181

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Enjoying the happiness of increased wisdom; understanding the truth, by his own righteousness derived from previous hearing of the truth; the reward of previous acts, widely known 1. . 182

Would that this might lead my son (he prayed) to love his child and not forsake his home; the kings of all countries, whose sons have not yet grown up, . 183

Have prevented them exercising authority in the empire, in order to give their minds relaxation, and for this purpose have provided them with worldly indulgences, so that they may perpetuate the royal seed; . 184

So now the king, having begotten a royal son, indulged him in every sort of pleasure; desiring that he might enjoy these worldly delights, and not wish to wander from his home in search of wisdom; . 185

In former times the Bodhisattva kings, although their way (life) has been restrained (severe), have yet enjoyed the pleasures of the world, and when they have begotten a son, then separating themselves from family ties, . 186

Have afterwards entered the solitude of the mountains, to prepare themselves in the way of a silent recluse. . 187


20:2 Vessels of the seven precious (substances).

20:3 According to occasion in abundance produced. The expression 'tsah' may either refer to variety or number. Thus the p. 21 convocation of the Arhats at Vaisâlî is called 'tsah;' a miscellaneous collection of anecdotes or tales is called by the same name.

21:1 Or, every kind of party-colour’d horse.

21:2 Like the clouds.

22:1 This seems to mean that those who had not received benefit from the teaching of the four previous Buddhas, that even these were placable and well-disposed.

22:2 This is a difficult verse, it may be translated literally thus, 'All learned women (or, all the wives of sages) were profoundly grave as the fist man of the kalpa.' Whether it refers to the docility of the otherwise quarrelsome women, or to their gravity and learning, it is not easy to say.

23:1 The description here given of the peace and content prevailing in the world on the birth of Bodhisattva (and his name given to him in consequence) resembles the account of the golden age in classic authors.

23:2 Mâyâ is generally stated to have died after seven days from the birth of her child. But here the context seems to require a longer interval, as he was ten days old when taken to the temple. Mâyâ was born in the Trayastrimsas Heaven, or the Heaven of the Thirty-three Gods. The legend states that Buddha after his enlightenment proceeded there to convert her.

24:1 His mind resting on its high and excellent purpose; so at least the expression K’ai, domain or precinct, may sometimes be rendered. It means, 'within the limits of its own high excellent (purpose).'

25:1 That is, rising from the earth above other hills.

25:2 Gandharvas, heavenly musicians; muses.

25:3 With nobleness of purpose (gin) loving the transforming power of the true law. That is, leading a religious life.

25:4 That is, as I understand it, the king himself, for his son's sake, devoted himself to piety.

25:5 Or, by means of loving instruction subduing men's hearts; or, by love, teaching to subdue men's hearts.

26:1 Or, every kind of doctrine (magical art) that opposed religion.

26:2 Or, (he said) like as I desire rest for my child, so &c.

26:3 This and the whole of the context is obscure; the account evidently refers to Suddhodana; the line which I have translated 'loving righteous conversation' may be rendered 'loving conversation (or, converse), opposing a want of truth or righteousness (i),' or, 'loving an absence of all unrighteousness in conversation.' The next line, which is evidently in contrast with the previous one, may be translated, 'Righteous words, opposed to an absence of love.' The next line is, 'Loving words, opposed to that which is not true.' And then follows, 'Truthful words, opposed to that which is not love.'

27:1 I would rather translate these two lines thus, 'Not regarding so much the assemblies convoked for sacrificing to the gods, as excelling in the merit (happiness) of separation from worldly things;' or the word 'sse' may mean 'sacrifice' itself (as ποιέω in Greek), and then it would be 'excelling in merit without sacrifice.'

27:2 These four lines are enigmatical. They perhaps have some reference to the teaching of the seven Rishis, or the number seven may refer to the 'seven passions.'

28:1 Or, loving his son, and loving me also.

28:2 We have here a succession of lines in which there is a play on the word 'excellency' (shing), or 'victorious' (gina).

29:1 These verses are very obscure, and can only be understood by comparison with the Sanskrit.

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