Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 10: The Dhammapada and Sutta Nipata, by Max Müller and Max Fausböll, , at sacred-texts.com
To the Brâhmana Bâvarî, living on the banks of the Godhâvarî, in Assaka's territory, comes another Brâhmana and asks for five hundred pieces of money, but not getting them he curses Bâvarî, saying, 'May thy head on the seventh day hence cleave into seven.' A deity comforts Bâvarî by referring him to Buddha. Then Bâvarî sends his sixteen disciples to Buddha, and each of thern asks Buddha a question.
1. From the beautiful city of the Kosalas (Sâvatthî) a Brâhmana, well versed in the hymns, went to the South (Dakkhinâpatha) wishing for nothingness. (976)
2. In Assaka's territory, in the neighbourhood of Alaka, he dwelt on the banks of the Godhâvarî, (living) on gleanings and fruit. (977)
3. And close by the bank there was a large village, with the income of which he prepared a great sacrifice. (978)
4. Having offered the great sacrifice, he again entered the hermitage. Upon his re-entering, another Brâhmana arrived, (979)
5. With swollen feet, trembling, covered with mud, with dust on his head. And he going up
2. Ugghattapâdo ti maggakkamanena ghattapâdatalo panhikâya vâ panhikam gopphakena vâ gopphakam gannukena gannukam âgantvâpi ghattapâdo. Commentator.]
to him (i.e. the first Brâhmana) demanded five hundred (pieces of money). (980)
6. Bâvarî, seeing him, bade him be seated, asked him whether he was happy and well, and spoke as follows: (981)
7. 'What gifts I had are all given away by me; pardon me, O Brâhmana, I have no five hundred.' (982)
8. 'If thou wilt not give to me who asks, may thy head on the seventh clay cleave into seven.' (983)
9. So after the usual ceremonies this impostor made known his fearful (curse). On hearing these his words Bâvarî became sorrowful. (984)
10. He wasted away taking no food, transfixed by the arrow of grief, but yet his mind delighted in meditation. (985)
11. Seeing Bâvarî struck with horror and sorrowful, the benevolent deity (of that place) approached him and said as follows: (986)
12. 'He does not know (anything about) the head; he is a hypocrite coveting riches; knowledge of the head and head-splitting is not found in him.' (987)
13. 'If the venerable (deity) knows it, then tell me, when asked, all about the head and head-splitting; let us hear thy words.' (988)
14. 'I do not know this; knowledge of it is not found in me; as to the head and head-splitting, this is to be seen by Buddhas (only).' (989)
15. 'Who then, say, in the circumference of the
[1. Na so muddham pagânâti,
Kuhako so dhanatthiko,
Muddhani muddhapâte ka
Ñânam tassa na viggati.]
earth knows the head and head-splitting, tell me that, O deity?' (990)
16. 'Formerly went out from Kapilavatthu a ruler of the world, an offspring of the Okkâka king, the Sakya son, the light-giving; (991)
17. 'He is, O Brâhmana, the perfectly Enlightened (Sambuddha); perfect in all things, he has attained the power of all knowledge, sees clearly in everything; he has arrived at the destruction of all things, and is liberated in the destruction of the upadhis. (992)
18. 'He is Buddha, he is Bhagavat in the world, he, the clearly-seeing, teaches the Dhamma; go thou to him and ask, he will explain it to thee.' (993)
19. Having heard the word 'Sambuddha,' Bâvarî rejoiced, his grief became little, and he was filled with great delight. (994)
20. Bâvarî glad, rejoicing, and eager asked the deity: 'In what village or in what town or in what province dwells the chief of the world, that going there we may adore the perfectly Enlightened, the first of men?' (995)
21. 'In Sâvatthî, the town of the Kosalas, dwells Gina (the Victorious), of great understanding and excellent wide knowledge, he the Sakya son, unyoked, free from passion, skilled in head-splitting, the bull of men.' (996)
22. Then (Bâvarî) addressed his disciples, Brâhmanas, perfect in the hymns: 'Come, youths, I will tell (you something), listen to my words: (997)
23. 'He whose appearance in the world is difficult to be met with often, he is at the present time[1. Sabbadhammakkhayam patto (i.e. nibbâna)
born in the world and widely renowned as Sambuddha (the perfectly Enlightened); go quickly to Sâvatthî and behold the best of men.' (998)
24. 'How then can we know, on seeing him, that he is Buddha, O Brâhmana? Tell us who do not know him, by what may we recognise him? (999)
25. 'For in the hymns are to be found the marks of a great man, and thirty-two are disclosed altogether, one by one.' (1000)
26. 'For him on whose limbs these marks of a great man are to be found, there are two ways left, a third does not exist. (1001)
27. 'If he abides in a dwelling, he will subdue this earth without rod (or) sword, he will rule with justice. (1002)
28. 'And if he departs from his dwelling for the wilderness, he becomes the saint, incomparable Sambuddha, who has removed the veil (from the world). (1003)
29. 'Ask in your mind about my birth and family, my marks, hymns, and my other disciples, the head and head-splitting. (1004)
30. 'If he is Buddha, the clear-sighted, then he will answer by word of mouth the questions you have asked in your mind.' (1005)
31, 32, 33. Having heard Bâvarî's words his disciples, sixteen Brâhmanas, Agita, Tissametteyya, Punnaka, further Mettagû, Dhotaka and Upasîva, and Nanda, further Hemaka, the two Todeyya and Kappa, and the wise Gatukannî, Bhadrâvudha and Udaya, and also the Brâhmana Posâla, and the wise Mogharâgan, and the great Isi Pingiya, (1006-1008)
34. All of them, having each their host (of pupils),
[1. Comp. Lalita-vistara (ed. Calc.), pp. 116, 118.]
and being themselves widely renowned throughout the world, thinkers delighting in meditation, wise, scented with the perfume of former (good deeds), (1009)
35. Having saluted Bâvarî and gone round him towards the right, all with matted hair and bearing hides, departed with their faces turned to the north. (1010)
36. To Patitthâna of Alaka first, then to Mâhissatî, and also to Uggenî, Gonaddha, Vedisâ, Vanasavhaya, (1011)
37. And also to Kosambî, Sâketa, and Sâvatthî, the most excellent of cities, to Setavya, Kapilavatthu, and the city of Kusinâra, (1012)
38. And to Pâva, the city of wealth, to Vesâlî, the city of Magadha, to Pâsânaka Ketiya (the Rock Temple), the lovely, the charming. (1013)
39. As he who is athirst (longs for) the cold water, as the merchant (longs for) gain, as he who is plagued by heat (longs for) shade, so in haste they ascended the mountain. (1014)
40. And Bhagavat at that time attended by the assembly of the Bhikkhus taught the Dhamma to the Bhikkhus, and roared like a lion in the forest. (1015)
41. Agita beheld Sambuddha as the shining (sun) without (burning) rays, as the moon on the fifteenth, having reached her plenitude. (1016)
42. Then observing his limbs and all the marks in their fulness, standing apart, rejoiced, he asked the questions of his mind:-- (1017)
43. 'Tell me about (my master's) birth, tell me about his family together with the marks, tell me about his perfection in the hymns, how many (hymns) does the Brâhmana recite?' (1018)
44. Bhagavat said: 'One hundred and twenty years (is his) age, and by family he is a Bâvarî; three are his marks on the limbs, and in the three Vedas he is perfect. (1019)
45. 'In the marks and in the Itihâsa together with Nighandu and Ketubha--he recites five hundred--and in his own Dhamma he has reached perfection.' (1020)
46. Agita thought: 'Explain fully the marks of Bâvarî, O thou best of men, who cuts off desire; let there be no doubt left for us.' (1021)
47. Bhagavat said: 'He covers his face with his tongue, he has a circle of hair between the eye-brows, (his) privy member (is) hidden in a sheath, know this, O young man.' (1022)
48. Not hearing him ask anything, but hearing the questions answered, the multitude reflected overjoyed and with joined hands:-- (1023)
49. 'Who, be he a god, or Brahman, or Inda, the husband of Sugâ, asked in his mind those questions, and to whom did that (speech) reply?' (1024)
50. Agita said: 'The head and head-splitting Bâvarî asked about; explain that, O Bhagavat, remove our doubt, O Isi.' (1025)
51. Bhagavat said: 'Ignorance is the head, know this; knowledge cleaves the head, together with belief, thoughtfulness, meditation, determination, and strength.' (1026)
52. Then with great joy having composed himself the young man put his hide on one shoulder,
[1. Mukham givhâya khâdeti,
Unn' assa bhamukantare,
Evam gânâhi mânava.]
fell at (Bhagavat's) feet (and saluted him) with his head, (saying): (1027)
53. 'Bâvarî, the Brâhmana, together with his disciples, O thou venerable man, delighted and glad, does homage to thy feet, O thou clearly-seeing.' (1028)
54. Bhagavat said: 'Let Bâvarî, the Brâhmana, be glad together with his disciples! Be thou also glad, live long, O young man! (1029)
55. 'For Bâvarî and for thee, for all there are all (kinds of) doubt; having got an opportunity, ask ye whatever you wish.' (1030)
56. After getting permission from Sambuddha, Agita sitting there with folded hands asked Tathâgata the first question. (1031)
The Vatthugâthâs are ended.
1. 'By what is the world shrouded,'--so said the venerable Agita,--'by what does it not shine? What callest thou its pollution, what is its great danger?' (1032)
2. 'With ignorance is the world shrouded, O Agita,'--so said Bhagavat,--'by reason of avarice it does not shine; desire I call its pollution, pain is its great danger.' (1033)
3. 'The streams of desire flow in every direction,'--so said the venerable Agita;--'what dams the streams, say what restrains the streams, by what may the streams be shut off?' (1034)
[1. Comp. Dhp. v. 340.]
4. 'Whatever streams there are in the world, O Agita,'--so said Bhagavat,--'thoughtfulness is their dam, thoughtfulness I call the restraint of the streams, by understanding they are shut off.' (1035)
5. 'Both understanding and thoughtfulness,'--so said the venerable Agita,--'and name and shape, O venerable man,--asked about this by me, declare by what is this stopped? ' (1036)
6. Buddha: 'This question which thou hast asked, O Agita, that I will explain to thee; (I will explain to thee) by what name and shape are totally stopped; by the cessation of consciousness this is stopped here.' (1037)
7. Agita: 'Those who have examined (all) Dhammas (i.e. the saints), and those who are disciples, (and those who are) common men here,--when thou art asked about their mode of life, declare it unto me, thou who art wise, O venerable man.' (1038)
8. Buddha: 'Let the Bhikkhu not crave for sensual pleasures, let him be calm in mind, let him wander about skilful in all Dhammas, and thoughtful.' (1039)
Agitamânavapukkhâ is ended.
1. 'Who is contented in the world,'--so said the venerable Tissametteyya,--'who is without commotions? Who after knowing both ends does not stick in the middle, as far as his understanding is
[1. Nâmarûpañ ka.
2. Nâmañ ka rûpañ ka.]
concerned? Whom dost thou call a great man? Who has overcome desire in this world?' (1040)
2. 'The Bhikkhu who abstains from sensual pleasures, O Metteyya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'who is free from desire, always thoughtful, happy by reflection, he is without commotions, he after knowing both ends does not stick in the middle, as far as his understanding is concerned; him I call a great man; he has overcame desire in this world.' (1041)
Tissametteyyamânavapukkhâ is ended.
1. 'To him who is without desire, who has seen the root (of sin),'--so said the venerable Punnaka,--'I have come supplicatingly with a question: on account of what did the Isis and men, Khattiyas and Brâhmanas, offer sacrifices to the gods abundantly in this world? (about this) I ask thee, O Bhagavat, tell me this.' (1042)
2. 'All these Isis and men, Khattiyas and Brâhmanas, O Punnaka,'--so said Bhagavat,--'who offered sacrifices to the gods abundantly in this world, offered sacrifices, O Punnaka, after reaching old age, wishing for their present condition.' (1043)
3. 'All these Isis and men, Khattiyas and Brâhmanas,'--so said the venerable Punnaka,--'who offered sacrifices to the gods abundantly in this world, did they, O Bhagavat, indefatigable in the way of offering, cross over both birth and old age, O venerable man? I ask thee, O Bhagavat, tell me this.' (1044)
4. 'They wished for, praised, desired, abandoned (sensual pleasures), O Punnaka,'--so said Bhagavat,--'they desired sensual pleasures on account of what they reached by them; they, devoted to offering, dyed with the passions of existence, did not cross over birth and old age, so I say.' (1045)
5. 'If they, devoted to offering,'--so said the venerable Punnaka,--'did not by offering cross over birth and old age, O venerable man, who then in the world of gods and men crossed over birth and old age, O venerable man, I ask thee, O Bhagavat, tell me this?' (1046)
6. 'Having considered everything in the world, O Punnaka,'--so said Bhagavat,--'he who is not defeated anywhere in the world, who is calm without the smoke of passions, free from woe, free from desire, he crossed over birth and old age, so I say.' (1041)
Punnakamânavapukkhâ is ended.
1. 'I ask thee, O Bhagavat, tell me this,'--so said the venerable Mettagû,--'I consider thee accomplished and of a cultivated mind, why are these (creatures), whatsoever they are of many kinds in the world, always subject to pain? (1048)
2. 'Thou mayest well ask me concerning the origin of pain, O Mettagû,'--so said Bhagavat,--
[1. Parovarânîti parâni ka orâni ka parattabhâvasakattabhâvâdîni parâni ka orâni kâ ti vuttam hoti. Commentator.]
'I will explain that to thee in the way I myself know it: originating in the upadhis pains arise, whatsoever they are, of many kinds in the world. (1049)
3. 'He who being ignorant creates upadhi, that fool again undergoes pain; therefore let not the wise man create upadhi, considering (that this is) the birth and origin of pain.' (1050)
4. Mettagû: 'What we have asked thee thou hast explained to us; another (question) I ask thee, answer that, pray: How do the wise cross the stream, birth and old age, and sorrow and lamentation? Explain that thoroughly to me, O Muni, for this thing (dhamma) is well known to thee.' (1051)
5. 'I will explain the Dhamma to thee, O Mettagû,'--so said Bhagavat,--'if a man in the visible world, without any traditional instruction, has understood it, and wanders about thoughtful, he may overcome desire in the world.' (1052)
6. Mettagû: 'And I take a delight in that, in the most excellent Dhamma, O great Isi, which if a man has understood, and he wanders about thoughtful, he may overcome desire in the world.' (1053)
7. 'Whatsoever thou knowest, O Mettagû,'--so said Bhagavat,--'(of what is) above, below, across, and in the middle, taking no delight and no rest in these things, let thy mind not dwell on existence. (1054)
8. 'Living so, thoughtful, strenuous, let the Bhikkhu wandering about, after abandoning selfishness, birth,
[1. Kittayissâmi te dhammam--Mettagû ti Bhagavâ--
Ditthe dhamme anîtiham
Yam viditvâ sato karam
Tare loke visattikam.]
and old age, and sorrow, and lamentation, being a wise man, leave pain in this world.' (1055)
9. Mettagû: 'I delight in these words of the great Isi; well expounded, O Gotama, is (by thee) freedom from upadhi (i.e. Nibbâna). Bhagavat in truth has left pain, for this Dhamma is well known to thee. (1056)
10. 'And those also will certainly leave pain whom thou, O Muni, constantly mayest admonish; therefore I bow down to thee, having come hither, O chief (nâga), may Bhagavat also admonish me constantly.' (1057)
11. Buddha: 'The Brâhmana whom I may acknowledge as accomplished, possessing nothing, not cleaving to the world of lust, he surely has crossed this stream, and he has crossed over to the other shore, free from harshness (akhila), (and) free from doubt. (1058)
12. 'And he is a wise and accomplished man in this world; having abandoned this cleaving to reiterated existence he is without desire, free from woe, free from longing, he has crossed over birth and old age, so I say.' (1059)
Mettagûmânavapukkhâ is ended.
[1. Et' âbhinandâmi vako mahesino
Sukittitam Gotama nûpadhîkam,
Addhâ hi Bhagavâ pahâsi dukkham,
Tathâ hi te vidito esa dhammo.
Sukittitam Gotama nûpadhîkan ti ettha anupadhikan ti nibbânam, tam sandhâya vâ Bhagavantam âlapanto âha sukittitam, &c. Commentator.]
1. 'I ask thee, O Bhagavat, tell me this,'--so said the venerable Dhotaka,--'I long for thy word, O great Isi; let one, having listened to thy utterance, learn his own extinction.' (1060)
2. 'Exert thyself then, O Dhotaka,'--so said Bhagavat,--'being wise and thoughtful in this world, let one, having listened to my utterance, learn his own extinction.' (1061)
3. Dhotaka: 'I see in the world of gods and men a Brâhmana wandering about, possessing nothing; therefore I bow down to thee, O thou all-seeing one, free me, O Sakka, from doubts.' (1062)
4. Buddha: 'I shall not go to free any one in the world who is doubtful, O Dhotaka; when thou hast learned the best Dhamma, then thou shalt cross this stream.' (1063)
5. Dhotaka: 'Teach (me), O Brâhmana, having compassion (on me), the Dhamma of seclusion (i.e. Nibbâna), that I may understand (it and) that I, without falling into many shapes like the air, may wander calm and independent in this world.' (?) (1064)
[1. Nâham gamissâmi pamokanâya
Kathamkathim Dhotaka kañki loke,
Dhammañ ka settham âgânamâno
Evam tuvam ogham imam taresi.
2. Anusâsa brahme karunâyamâno
Vivekadhammam yam aham vigaññam
Yathâham âkâso va avyâpaggamâno[*]
Idh' eva santo asito kareyyam.
*. Nânappakâratam anâpaggamâno. Commentator.]
6. 'I will explain to thee peace, O Dhotaka,'--so said Bhagavat;--'if a man in the visible world, without any traditional instruction, has understood it, and wanders about thoughtful, he may overcome desire in the world.' (1065)
7. Dhotaka: 'And I take delight in that, the highest peace, O great Isi, which if a man has understood, and he wanders about thoughtful, he may overcome desire in the world.' (1066)
8. 'Whatsoever thou knowest, O Dhotaka,'--so said Bhagavat,--'(of what is) above, below, across, and in the middle, knowing this to be a tie in the world, thou must not thirst for reiterated existence.' (1067)
Dhotakamânavapukkhâ is ended.
1. 'Alone, O Sakka; and without assistance I shall not be able to cross the great stream,'--so said the venerable Upasîva;--'tell me an object, O thou all-seeing one, by means of which one may cross this stream.' (1068)
2. 'Having in view nothingness, being thoughtful, O Upasiva,'--so said Bhagavat,--'by the reflection of nothing existing shalt thou cross the stream; having abandoned sensual pleasures, being loath of doubts, thou shalt regard the extinction of desire (i.e. Nibbâna), both day and night.' (1069)
2. Santim uttamam.
3. Âkiñkaññam pekkhamâno satîmâ--Upasîvâ ti Bhagavâ--
N' atthîti nissâya tarassu ogham,
Kâme pahâya. virato kathâhi
Tanhakkhayam rattamahâbhi passa.]
3. Upasîva: 'He whose passion for all sensual pleasures has departed, having resorted to nothingness, after leaving everything else, and being delivered in the highest deliverance by knowledge, will he remain there without proceeding further?' (1070)
4. 'He whose passion for all sensual pleasures has departed, O Upasîva,'--so said Bhagavat,--'having resorted to nothingness after leaving everything else, and being delivered in the highest deliverance by knowledge, he will remain there without proceeding further.' (1071)
5. Upasîva: 'If he remains there without proceeding further for a multitude of years, O thou all-seeing one, (and if) he becomes there tranquil and delivered, will there be consciousness for such a one?' (1072)
6. 'As a flame blown about by the violence of the wind, O Upasîva,'--so said Bhagavat,--'goes out, cannot be reckoned (as existing), even so a Muni, delivered from name and body, disappears, and cannot be reckoned (as existing).' (1073)
7. Upasîva: 'Has he (only) disappeared, or does he not exist (any longer), or is he for ever free
[1. Sabbesu kâmesu yo vîtarâgo
Âkiñkaññam nissito hitva-m-aññam
Saññâvimokhe parame vimutto
Titthe nu so tattha anânuyâyî.
2. Titthe ke so tattha anânuyâyî
Pûgam pi vassânam samantakakkhu
Tatth' eva so sîti siyâ vimutto
Bhavetha viññânam tathâvidhassa?
3. Akkî yathâ vâtavegena khitto
Attham paleti na upeti samkham
Evam munî nâmakâyâ vimutto
Attham paleti na upeti samkham.]
from sickness? Explain that thoroughly to me, O Muni, for this Dhamma is well known to thee.' (1074)
8. 'For him who has disappeared there is no form, O Upasîva,'--so said Bhagavat,--'that by which they say he is, exists for him no longer, when all things (dhamma) have been cut off, all (kinds of) dispute are also cut off.' (1075)
Upasîvamânavapukkhâ is ended.
1. 'There are Munis in the world,'--so said the venerable Nanda,--'so people say. How is this (understood) by thee? Do they call him a Muni who is possessed of knowledge or him who is possessed of life?' (1076)
2. Buddha: 'Not because of (any philosophical) view, nor of tradition, nor of knowledge, O Nanda, do the expert call (any one) a Muni; (but) such as wander free from woe, free from desire, after having secluded themselves, those I call Munis.' (1077)
[1. Atthangato so uda va so n' atthi
Udâhu ve sassatiyâ arogo,
Tam me munî sâdhu viyâkarohi,
Tathâ hi te vidito esa dhammo.
2. Atthangatassa na pamânam atthi,
Yena nam vaggu tam tassa n' atthi,
Sabbesu dhammesu samûhatesu
Samûhatâ vâdapathâpi sabbe.
3. Ñâñûpapannam no munim vadanti
Udâhu ve gîviten' ûpapannam?
4. Na ditthiyâ na sutiyâ na ñânena
Muniñ ka Nanda kusalâ vadanti,
Visenikatvâ anighâ nirâsâ
Karanti ye te munayo ti brûmi.]
3. 'All these Samanas and Brâhmanas,'--so said the venerable Nanda,--'say that purity comes from (philosophical) views, and from tradition, and from virtue and (holy) works, and in many (other) ways. Did they, in the way in which they lived in the world, cross over birth and old age, O venerable man? I ask thee, O Bhagavat, tell me this.' (1078)
4. 'All these Samanas and Brâhmanas, O Nanda,'--so said Bhagavat,--'say that purity comes from (philosophical) views, and from tradition, and from virtue and (holy) works, and in many (other) ways; still they did not, in the way in which they lived in the world, cross over birth and old age, so I say.' (1079)
5. 'All these Samanas and Brâhmanas,'--so said the venerable Nanda,--'say that purity comes from (philosophical) views, and from tradition, and from virtue and (holy) works, and in many (other) ways; if thou, O Muni, sayest that such have not crossed the stream, who then in the world of gods and men crossed over birth and old age, O venerable man? I ask thee, O Bhagavat, tell me this.' (1080)
6. 'I do not say that all Samanas and Brâhmanas, O Nanda,'--so said Bhagavat,--'are shrouded by birth and old age; those who, after leaving in this world what has been seen or heard or thought, and all virtue and (holy) works, after leaving everything of various kinds, after penetrating desire, are free from passion, such indeed I call men that have crossed the stream.' (1081)
[1. Nâham 'sabbe samanabrâhmanâse
Gâtigarâya nivutâ' ti brûmi,
Ye s' îdha dittham va sutam mutam vâ
Sîlabbatam vâpi pahâya sabbam
Anekarûpam pi pahâya sabbam
Tanham pariññâya anâsavâse
Te ve narâ oghatinnâ ti brûmi.]
7. Nanda: 'I delight in these words of the great Isi; well expounded (by thee), O Gotama, is freedom from upadhi (i.e. Nibbâna); those who, after leaving in this world what has been seen or heard or thought, and all virtue and (holy) works, after leaving everything of various kinds, after penetrating desire, are free from passion, such I call men that have crossed the stream.' (1082)
Nandamânavapukkhâ is ended.
1. 'Those who before in another world,'--so said the venerable Hemaka,--'explained to me the doctrine of Gotama, saying, "So it was, so it will be," all that (was only) oral tradition, all that (was only) something that increased (my) doubts. (1083)
2. 'I took no pleasure in that, but tell thou me the Dhamma that destroys desire, O Muni, which if a man has understood, and he wanders about thoughtful, he may cross desire in the world.' (1084)
3. Buddha: 'In this world (much) has been seen,
[1. Ye me pubbe viyâkamsu
Ikk-âsi iti bhavissati
Sabban tam itihîtiham
Sabban tam takkavaddhanam.]
heard, and thought; the destruction of passion and of wish for the dear objects that have been perceived, O Hemaka, is the imperishable state of Nibbâna. (1085)
4. 'Those who, having understood this, are thoughtful, calm, because they have seen the Dhamma, tranquil and divine, such have crossed desire in this world.' (1086)
Hemakamânavapukkhâ is ended.
1. 'He in whom there live no lusts,'--so said the venerable Todeyya,--'to whom there is no desire, and who has overcome doubt, what sort of deliverance is there for him?' (1087)
2. 'He in whom there live no lusts, O Todeyya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'to whom there is no desire, and who has overcome doubt, for him there is no other deliverance.' (1088)
3. Todeyya: 'Is he without breathing or is he breathing, is he possessed of understanding or is he forming himself an understanding? Explain this to me, O thou all-seeing one, that I may know a Muni, O Sakka.' (1089)
[1. Etad aññâya ye satâ
Upasantâ ka tedasâ (?)[*]
Tiññâ loke visattikam.
2. Nirâsaso so uda âsasâno
Paññânavâ so uda paññakappî.
*. B reads ye satâ instead of tedasâ.]
4. Buddha: 'He is without breathing, he is not breathing, he is possessed of understanding, and he is not forming himself an understanding; know, O Todeyya, that such is the Muni, not possessing anything, not cleaving to lust and existence.' (1090)
Todeyyamânavapukkhâ is ended.
1. 'For those who stand in the middle of the water,'--so said the venerable Kappa,--'in the formidable stream that has set in, for those who are overcome by decay and death, tell me of an island, O venerable man, and tell thou me of an island that this (pain) may not again come on.' (1091)
2. 'For those who stand in the middle of the water, O Kappa,'--so said Bhagavat,--'in the formidable stream that has set in, for those overcome by decay and death, I will tell thee of an island, O Kappa.' (1092)
3. 'This matchless island, possessing nothing (and) grasping after nothing, I call Nibbâna, the destruction of decay and death. (1093)
[1. Tvañ ka me dipam[*] akkhâb
Yathâ yidam nâparam siyâ.
2. Akiñkanam anâdânam
Etam dîpam anâpâram
Nibbânam iti nam brûmi
Akiñkanan ti kiñkanapatipakkham, anâdânan ti âdânapatipakkham, kiñkanâdânavûpasaman ti vuttam hoti. Commentator.
*. B reads disam.]
4. 'Those who, having understood this, are thoughtful (and) calm, because they have seen the Dhamma, do not fall into the power of Mâra, and are not the companions of Mâra.' (1094)
Kappamânavapukkhâ is ended.
1. 'Having heard of a hero free from lust,'--so said the venerable Gatukannin,--'who has crossed the stream, I have come to ask him who is free from lust; tell me the seat of peace, O thou with the born eye (of wisdom), tell me this truly, O Bhagavat. (1095)
2. 'For Bhagavat wanders about after having conquered lust as the hot sun (conquers) the earth by its heat; tell the Dhamma to me who has (only) little understanding, O thou of great understanding, that I may ascertain how to leave in this world birth and decay.' (1096)
3. 'Subdue thy greediness for sensual pleasures, O Gatukannin,'--so said Bhagavat,--'having considered the forsaking of the world as happiness, let there not be anything either grasped after or rejected by thee. (1097)
4. 'What is before thee, lay that aside; let there be nothing behind thee; if thou wilt not grasp after what is in the middle, thou wilt wander calm. (1098)
[1. Kâmesu vinaya gedham,
Nekkhammam datthu khemato
Uggahîtam nirattam vâ
Mâ te viggittha kiñkanam.
2. Comp. supra, Attadandasutta, v. 15.]
5. 'For him whose greediness for name and form is wholly gone, O Brâhmana, for him there are no passions by which he might fall into the power of death.' (1099)
Gatukannimânavapukkhâ is ended.
1. 'I entreat the wise (Buddha), the houseless, who cuts off desire,'--so (said) the venerable Bhadrâvudha,--'who is free from commotion, forsakes joy, has crossed the stream, is liberated, and who leaves time behind; having heard the chief's (word), they will go away from here. (1100)
2. 'Different people have come together from the provinces, longing (to hear) thy speech, O hero; do thou expound it thoroughly to them, for this Dhamma is well known to thee.' (1101)
3. 'Let one wholly subdue the desire of grasping (after everything), O Bhadrâvudha,'--so said Bhagavat,--'above, below, across, and in the middle; for whatever they grasp after in the world, just by that Mâra follows the man. (1102)
4. 'Therefore, knowing this, let not the thoughtful Bhikkhu grasp after anything in all the world, considering as creatures of desire this generation, sticking fast in the realm of death.' (1103)
Bhadrâvudhamânavapukkhâ is ended.
[1. Okamgaham tanhakkhidam anegam
Nandimgaham oghatinnam vimuttam
Kappamgaham abhiyâke sumedham,
Sutvâna nâgassa apanamissanti ito.]
1. 'To Buddha who is sitting meditating, free from pollution,'--so said the venerable Udaya,--'having performed his duty, who is without passion, accomplished in all things (dhamma), I have come with a question; tell me the deliverance by knowledge, the splitting up of ignorance.' (1104)
2. '(It consists in) leaving lust and desire, O Udaya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'and both (kinds of) grief, and driving away sloth, and warding off misbehaviour. (1105)
3. 'The deliverance by knowledge which is purified by equanimity and thoughtfulness and preceded by reasoning on Dhamma I will tell thee, the splitting up of ignorance.' (1106)
4. Udaya: 'What is the bond of the world, what is its practice? By the leaving of what is Nibbâna said to be?' (1107)
5. Buddha: 'The world is bound by pleasure, reasoning is its practice; by the leaving of desire Nibbâna is said to be.' (1108)
6. Udaya: 'How does consciousness cease in him that wanders thoughtful? Having come to ask thee, let us hear thy words.' (1109)
2. Kim su samyogano loko,
Kim su tassa vikâranâ
Kiss' assa vippahânena
Nibbânam iti vukkati?]
7. Buddha: 'For him who both inwardly and outwardly does not delight in sensation, for him who thus wanders thoughtful, consciousness ceases.' (1110)
Udayamânavapukkhâ is ended.
1. 'He who shows the past (births, &c.),'--so said the venerable Posâla,--'who is without desire and has cut off doubt, to him who is accomplished in all things (dhamma), I have come supplicatingly with a question. (1111)
2. 'O Sakka, I ask about his knowledge who is aware of past shapes, who casts off every corporeal form, and who sees that there exists nothing either internally or externally; how can such a one be led (by anybody)? (1112)
3. 'Tathâgata, knowing all the faces of consciousness, O Posâla,'--so said Bhagavat,--'knows (also) him who stands delivered, devoted to that (object). (1113)
4. 'Having understood that the bonds of pleasure do not originate in nothingness (?), he sees clearly in
Agghattañ ka bahiddhâ ka
Natthi kiñkîti passato
Katham neyyo tathâvidho.
2. Viññânatthitiyo sabbâ--Posâlâ ti Bhagavâ--
Titthantam enam gânâti
this (matter), this (is) the knowledge of a perfect, accomplished Brâhmana.' (1114)
Posâlamânavapukkhâ is ended.
1. 'Twice have I asked Sakka,'--so said the venerable Mogharâgan,--'but the clearly-seeing has not explained it to me; if the divine Isi is asked for the third time, he will explain it, so I have heard. (1115)
2. 'There is this world, the other world, Brahman's world together with the world of the gods; I do not know thy view, the famous Gotama's (view). (1116)
3. 'To this man who sees what is good I have come supplicatingly with a question: How is any one to look upon the world that the king of death may not see him?' (1117)
4. 'Look upon the world as void, O Mogharâgan, being always thoughtful; having destroyed the view of oneself (as really existing), so one may overcome death; the king of death will not see him who thus regards the world.' (1118)
Mogharâgamânavapukkhâ is ended.
Evam evam abhiññâya
Tato tattha vipassati,
Etam ñânam tathamtassa
2. Comp. Dhp. v. 170.]
1. 'I am old, feeble, colourless,'--so said the venerable Pingiya,--'my eyes are not clear, my hearing is not good; lest I should perish a fool on the way, tell me the Dhamma, that I may know how to leave birth and decay in this world.' (1119)
2. 'Seeing others afflicted by the body, O Pingiya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'(seeing) heedless people suffer in their bodies;--therefore, O Pingiya, shalt thou be heedful, and leave the body behind, that thou mayest never come to exist again.' (1120)
3. Pingiya: 'Four regions, four intermediate regions, above and below, these are the ten regions; there is nothing which has not been seen, heard, or thought by thee, and (is there) anything in the world not understood (by thee)? Tell (me) the Dhamma, that I may know how to leave birth and decay in this world' (1121)
4. 'Seeing men seized with desire, O Pingiya,'--so said Bhagavat,--'tormented and overcome by decay,--therefore thou, O Pingiya, shalt be heedful, and leave desire behind, that thou mayest never come to exist again.' (1122)
Pingiyamânavapukkhâ is ended.
This said Bhagavat, living in Magadha at Pâsânaka Ketiya (the Rock Temple). Sought by sixteen Brâhmanas, the followers (of Bâvarî, and) questioned by each of them in turn, he responded to the questions. If a man, having understood the meaning and tenor of each question, lives according to the Dhamma, then he will go to the further shore of decay and death, for these Dhammas lead to the
further shore, and therefore this order of Dhamma was called 'the way to the other shore.'
1, 2. Agita, Tissametteyya, Punnaka and Mettagû, Dhotaka and Upasîva, Nanda and Hemaka, the two Todeyya and Kappa, and the wise Gatukannin, Bhadrâvudha and Udaya, and also the Brâhmana Posâla, and the wise Mogharâgan, and Pingiya the great Isi, (1123, 1124)
3. These went up to Buddha, the Isi of exemplary conduct; asking subtle questions they went up to the supreme Buddha. (1125)
4. Buddha, being asked, responded to their questions truly, and in responding to the questions the Muni delighted the Brâhmanas.(1126)
5. They, having been delighted by the clearly-seeing Buddha, the kinsman of the Âdikkas, devoted themselves to a religious life near the man of excellent understanding. (1127)
6. He who lived according to what had been taught by Buddha (in answer) to each single question, went from this shore to the other shore. (1128)
7. From this shore he went to the other shore entering upon the most excellent way; this way is to lead to the other shore, therefore it is called 'the way to the other shore.' (1129)
8. 'I will proclaim accordingly the way to the further shore,'--so said the venerable Pingiya;--'as he saw it, so he told it; the spotless, the very wise, the passionless, the desireless lord, for what reason should he speak falsely? (1130)
9. 'Well! I will praise the beautiful voice of (Buddha), who is without stain and folly, and who has left behind arrogance and hypocrisy. (1131)
10. 'The darkness-dispelling Buddha, the all-seeing,
who thoroughly understands the world, has overcome all existences, is free from passion, has left behind all pain, is rightly called (Buddha), he, O Brâhmana, has come to me. (1132)
11. 'As the bird, having left the bush, takes up his abode in the fruitful forest, even so I, having left men of narrow views, have reached the great sea, like the hamsa. (1133)
12. 'Those who before in another world explained the doctrine of Gotama, saying, "So it was, so it will be," all that was only oral tradition, all that was only something that increased my doubts. (1134)
13. 'There is only one abiding dispelling darkness, that is the high-born, the luminous, Gotama of great understanding, Gotama of great wisdom, (1135)
14. 'Who taught me the Dhamma, the instantaneous, the immediate, the destruction of desire, freedom from distress, whose likeness is nowhere.' (1136)
15. Bâvarî: 'Canst thou stay away from him even for a moment, O Pingiya, from Gotama of great understanding, from Gotama of great wisdom, (1137)
2. Digo yathâ kubbanakam pahâya
Bahupphalam kânanam âvaseyya
Evam p' aham appadasse pahâya
Mahodadhim hamso-r-iv' agghapatto.
3. Ye 'me pubbe viyâkamsu
ikk-âsi iti bhavissati
sabban tam itihîtiham
sabban tam takkavaddhanam.
4. Yo me dhammam adesesi
Yassa n'atthi upamâ kvaki.]
16. 'Who taught thee the Dhamma, the instantaneous, the immediate, the destruction of desire, freedom from distress, whose likeness is nowhere?' (1138)
17. Pingiya: 'I do not stay away from him even for a moment, O Brâhmana, from Gotama of great understanding, from Gotama of great wisdom, (1139)
18. 'Who taught me the Dhamma, the instantaneous, the immediate, the destruction of desire, freedom from distress, whose likeness is nowhere. (1140)
19. 'I see him in my mind and with my eye, vigilant, O Brâhmana, night and day; worshipping I spend the night, therefore I think I do not stay away from him. (1141)
20. 'Belief and joy, mind and thought incline me towards the doctrine of Gotama; whichever way the very wise man goes, the very same I am inclined to. (?) (1142)
21. 'Therefore, as I am worn out and feeble, my body does not go there, but in my thoughts I always go there, for my mind, O Brâhmana, is joined to him. (1143)
22. 'Lying in the mud (of lusts) wriggling, I jumped from island to island; then I saw the perfectly Enlightened, who has crossed the stream, and is free from passion.' (1144)
23. Bhagavat: 'As Vakkali was delivered by
[1. Saddhâ ka pîti ka mano sati ka
Nâmenti me Gotamasâsanamhâ (?),
Yam yam disam vagati bhûripañño
Sa tena ten' eva nato 'ham asmi.
2. At the conclusion of this (i.e. the preceding) gâthâ, Bhagavat, who stayed at Sâvatthî, when seeing the maturity of the minds of Pingiya and Bâvarî, shed a golden light. Pingiya, who sat picturing Buddha's virtues to Bâvarî, having seen the light, looked round, saying, 'What is this?' And when he saw Bhagavat standing, as it were, before him, he said to the Brâhmana Bâvarî: 'Buddha has come.' The Brâhmana rose from his seat and stood with folded hands. Bhagavat, shedding a light, showed himself to the Brâhmana, and knowing what was beneficial for both, he said this stanza while addressing Pingiya. Commentator.]
faith, (as well as) Bhadrâvudha and Âlavi-Gotama, so thou shalt let faith deliver thee, and thou shalt go, O Pingiya, to the further shore of the realm of death.' (1145)
24. Pingiya: 'I am highly pleased at hearing the Muni's words; Sambuddha has removed the veil, he is free from harshness, and wise. (1146)
25. 'Having penetrated (all things) concerning the gods, he knows everything of every description; the Master will put an end to all questions of the doubtful that (will) admit (him). (1147)
26. 'To the insuperable, the unchangeable (Nibbâna), whose likeness is nowhere, I shall certainly go; in this (Nibbâna) there will be no doubt (left) for me, so know (me to be) of a dispossessed mind.' (1148)
Pârâyanavagga is ended.
Suttanipâta is ended.
[1. Yathâ ahû Vakkali muttasaddho
Bhadrâvudho Âlavi-Gotamo ka
Evam eva tvam pi pamuñkayassu saddham,
Gamissasi tvam Pingiya makkudheyyapâram.
2. Asamhîram asamkuppam
Yassa n' atthi upamâ kvaki
Addhâ gamissâmi, na me 'ttha kamkhâ,
Evam padhârehi avittakittam.]