Rephaim Lofty menl; giants, (Gen 14:5; Sa2 21:16, Sa2 21:18, marg. A.V., Rapha, marg. R.V., Raphah; Deu 3:13, R.V.; A.V., "giants"). The aborigines of Palestine, afterwards conquered and dispossessed by the Canaanite tribes, are classed under this general title. They were known to the Moabites as Emim, i.e., "fearful", (Deu 2:11), and to the Ammonites as Zamzummim. Some of them found refuge among the Philistines, and were still existing in the days of David. We know nothing of their origin. They were not necessarily connected with the "giants" (R.V., "Nephilim") of Gen 6:4. (See GIANTS.)
Rephaim, Valley of (Jos 15:8; Jos 18:16, R.V.). When David became king over all Israel, the Philistines, judging that he would now become their uncompromising enemy, made a sudden attack upon Hebron, compelling David to retire from it. He sought refuge in "the hold" at Adullam (Sa2 5:17), and the Philistines took up their position in the valley of Rephaim, on the west and south-west of Jerusalem. Thus all communication between Bethlehem and Jerusalem was intercepted. While David and his army were encamped here, there occurred that incident narrated in Sa2 23:15. Having obtained divine direction, David led his army against the Philistines, and gained a complete victory over them. The scene of this victory was afterwards called Baalperazim (q.v.). A second time, however, the Philistines rallied their forces in this valley (Sa2 5:22). Again warned by a divine oracle, David led his army to Gibeon, and attacked the Philistines from the south, inflicting on them another severe defeat, and chasing them with great slaughter to Gezer (q.v.). There David kept in check these enemies of Israel. This valley is now called el-Bukei'a .
Rephidim Supports, one of the stations of the Israelites, situated in the Wady Feiran, near its junction with the Wady esh-Sheikh. Here no water could be found for the people to drink, and in their impatience they were ready to stone Moses, as if he were the cause of their distress. At the command of God Moses smote "the rock in Horeb," and a copious stream flowed forth, enough for all the people. After this the Amalekites attacked the Israelites while they were here encamped, but they were utterly defeated (Exo 17:1, Exo 17:8). They were the "first of the nations" to make war against Israel (Num 24:20). Leaving Rephidim, the Israelites advanced into the wilderness of Sinai (Exo 19:1, Exo 19:2; Num 33:14, Num 33:15), marching probably through the two passes of the Wady Solaf and the Wady esh-Sheikh, which converge at the entrance to the plain er-Rahah, the "desert of Sinai," which is two miles long and about half a mile broad. (See SINAI; MERIBAH.)
Reprobate That which is rejected on account of its own worthlessness (Jer 6:30; Heb 6:8; Gr. adokimos , "rejected"). This word is also used with reference to persons cast away or rejected because they have failed to make use of opportunities offered them (Co1 9:27; Co2 13:5).
Rereward (Jos 6:9), the troops in the rear of an army on the march, the rear-guard. This word is a corruption of the French arriere-garde. During the wilderness march the tribe of Dan formed the rear-guard (Num 10:25; compare Sa1 29:2; Isa 52:12; Isa 58:8).
Resen Head of the stream; bridle, one of Nimrod's cities (Gen 10:12), "between Nineveh and Calah." It has been supposed that the four cities named in this verse were afterwards combined into one under the name of Nineveh (q.v.). Resen was on the east side of the Tigris. It is probably identified with the mound of ruins called Karamless.
Rest (1.) Gr. katapausis , equivalent to the Hebrew word noah (Heb 4:1). (2.) Gr. anapausis , "rest from weariness" (Mat 11:28). (3.) Gr. anesis , "relaxation" (Th2 1:7). (4.) Gr. sabbatismos , a Sabbath rest, a rest from all work (Heb 4:9; R.V., "sabbath"), a rest like that of God when he had finished the work of creation.
Resurrection of Christ One of the cardinal facts and doctrines of the gospel. If Christ be not risen, our faith is vain (Co1 15:14). The whole of the New Testament revelation rests on this as an historical fact. On the day of Pentecost Peter argued the necessity of Christ's resurrection from the prediction in Psa 16:1 (Act 2:24). In his own discourses, also, our Lord clearly intimates his resurrection (Mat 20:19; Mar 9:9; Mar 14:28; Luk 18:33; Joh 2:19). The evangelists give circumstantial accounts of the facts connected with that event, and the apostles, also, in their public teaching largely insist upon it. Ten different appearances of our risen Lord are recorded in the New Testament. They may be arranged as follows: (1.) To Mary Magdalene at the sepulchre alone. This is recorded at length only by John (Joh 20:11), and alluded to by Mark (Mar 16:9). (2.) To certain women, "the other Mary," Salome, Joanna, and others, as they returned from the sepulchre. Matthew (Mat 28:1) alone gives an account of this. (Compare Mar 16:1, and Luk 24:1.) (3.) To Simon Peter alone on the day of the resurrection. (See Luk 24:34; Co1 15:5.) (4.) To the two disciples on the way to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection, recorded fully only by Luke (Luke 24:13-35. Compare Mar 16:12, Mar 16:13). (5.) To the ten disciples (Thomas being absent) and others "with them," at Jerusalem on the evening of the resurrection day. One of the evangelists gives an account of this appearance, John (Joh 20:19). (6.) To the disciples again (Thomas being present) at Jerusalem (Mar 16:14; Luk 24:33; Joh 20:26. See also Co1 15:5). (7.) To the disciples when fishing at the Sea of Galilee. Of this appearance also John (John 21:1-23) alone gives an account. (8.) To the eleven, and above 500 brethren at once, at an appointed place in Galilee (Co1 15:6; compare Mat 28:16). (9.) To James, but under what circumstances we are not informed (Co1 15:7). (10.) To the apostles immediately before the ascension. They accompanied him from Jerusalem to Mount Olivet, and there they saw him ascend "till a cloud received him out of their sight" (Mar 16:19; Luk 24:50; Act 1:4). It is worthy of note that it is distinctly related that on most of these occasions our Lord afforded his disciples the amplest opportunity of testing the fact of his resurrection. He conversed with them face to face. They touched him (Mat 28:9; Luk 24:39; Joh 20:27), and he ate bread with them (Luk 24:42, Luk 24:43; Joh 21:12, Joh 21:13). (11.) In addition to the above, mention might be made of Christ's manifestation of himself to Paul at Damascus, who speaks of it as an appearance of the risen Saviour (Act 9:3, Act 9:17; Co1 15:8; Co1 9:1). It is implied in the words of Luke (Act 1:3) that there may have been other appearances of which we have no record. The resurrection is spoken of as the act (1.) of God the Father (Psa 16:10; Act 2:24; Act 3:15; Rom 8:11; Eph 1:20; Col 2:12; Heb 13:20); (2.) of Christ himself (Joh 2:19; Joh 10:18); and (3.) of the Holy Spirit (Pe1 3:18). The resurrection is a public testimony of Christ's release from his undertaking as surety, and an evidence of the Father's acceptance of his work of redemption. It is a victory over death and the grave for all his followers. The importance of Christ's resurrection will be seen when we consider that if he rose the gospel is true, and if he rose not it is false. His resurrection from the dead makes it manifest that his sacrifice was accepted. Our justification was secured by his obedience to the death, and therefore he was raised from the dead (Rom 4:25). His resurrection is a proof that he made a full atonement for our sins, that his sacrifice was accepted as a satisfaction to divine justice, and his blood a ransom for sinners. It is also a pledge and an earnest of the resurrection of all believers (Rom 8:11; Co1 6:14; Co1 15:47; Phi 3:21; Jo1 3:2). As he lives, they shall live also. It proved him to be the Son of God, inasmuch as it authenticated all his claims (Joh 2:19; Joh 10:17). "If Christ did not rise, the whole scheme of redemption is a failure, and all the predictions and anticipations of its glorious results for time and for eternity, for men and for angels of every rank and order, are proved to be chimeras. 'But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first-fruits of them that slept.' Therefore the Bible is true from Genesis to Revelation. The kingdom of darkness has been overthrown, Satan has fallen as lightning from heaven, and the triumph of truth over error, of good over evil, of happiness over misery is for ever secured." Hodge. With reference to the report which the Roman soldiers were bribed (Mat 28:12) to circulate concerning Christ's resurrection, "his disciples came by night and stole him away while we slept," Matthew Henry in his "Commentary," under Joh 20:1, fittingly remarks, "The grave-clothes in which Christ had been buried were found in very good order, which serves for an evidence that his body was not 'stolen away while men slept.' Robbers of tombs have been known to take away 'the clothes' and leave the body; but none ever took away 'the body' and left the clothes, especially when they were 'fine linen' and new (Mar 15:46). Any one would rather choose to carry a dead body in its clothes than naked. Or if they that were supposed to have stolen it would have left the grave-clothes behind, yet it cannot be supposed they would find leisure to 'fold up the linen.'"
Resurrection of the Dead Will be simultaneous both of the just and the unjust (Dan 12:2; Joh 5:28, Joh 5:29; Rom 2:6; Th2 1:6). The qualities of the resurrection body will be different from those of the body laid in the grave (Co1 15:53, Co1 15:54; Phi 3:21); but its identity will nevertheless be preserved. It will still be the same body (Co1 15:42) which rises again. As to the nature of the resurrection body, (1.) it will be spiritual (Co1 15:44), i.e., a body adapted to the use of the soul in its glorified state, and to all the conditions of the heavenly state; (2.) glorious, incorruptible, and powerful (Co1 15:54); (3.) like unto the glorified body of Christ (Phi 3:21); and (4.) immortal (Rev 21:4). Christ's resurrection secures and illustrates that of his people. (1.) Because his resurrection seals and consummates his redemptive power; and the redemption of our persons involves the redemption of our bodies (Rom 8:23). (2.) Because of our federal and vital union with Christ (Co1 15:21, Co1 15:22; Th1 4:14). (3.) Because of his Spirit which dwells in us making our bodies his members (Co1 6:15; Rom 8:11). (4.) Because Christ by covenant is Lord both of the living and the dead (Rom 14:9). This same federal and vital union of the Christian with Christ likewise causes the resurrection of the believer to be similar to as well as consequent upon that of Christ (Co1 15:49; Phi 3:21; Jo1 3:2). Hodge's Outlines of Theology.
Reuben Behold a son!, the eldest son of Jacob and Leah (Gen 29:32). His sinful conduct, referred to in Gen 35:22, brought down upon him his dying father's malediction (Gen 48:4). He showed kindness to Joseph, and was the means of saving his life when his other brothers would have put him to death (Gen 37:21, Gen 37:22). It was he also who pledged his life and the life of his sons when Jacob was unwilling to let Benjamin go down into Egypt. After Jacob and his family went down into Egypt (Gen 46:8) no further mention is made of Reuben beyond what is recorded in Gen 49:3, Gen 49:4.