Reed (1.) "Paper reeds" (Isa 19:7; R.V., "reeds"). Heb. 'aroth , properly green herbage growing in marshy places. (2.) Heb. kaneh (Kg1 14:15; Job 40:21; Isa 19:6), whence the Gr. kanna , a "cane," a generic name for a reed of any kind. The reed of Egypt and Palestine is the Arundo donax, which grows to the height of 12 feet, its stalk jointed like the bamboo, "with a magnificent panicle of blossom at the top, and so slender and yielding that it will lie perfectly flat under a gust of wind, and immediately resume its upright position." It is used to illustrate weakness (Kg2 18:21; Eze 29:6), also fickleness or instability (Mat 11:7; compare Eph 4:14). A "bruised reed" (Isa 42:3; Mat 12:20) is an emblem of a believer weak in grace. A reed was put into our Lord's hands in derision (Mat 27:29); and "they took the reed and smote him on the head" (Mat 27:30). The "reed" on which they put the sponge filled with vinegar (Mat 27:48) was, according to John (Joh 19:29), a hyssop stalk, which must have been of some length, or perhaps a bunch of hyssop twigs fastened to a rod with the sponge. (See CANE.)
Refiner The process of refining metals is referred to by way of illustrations in Isa 1:25; Jer 6:29; Zac 13:9; Mal 3:2, Mal 3:3.
Refuge, Cities of Were six in number (Num. 35). On the west of Jordan were 1) Kadesh, in Naphtali; 2) Shechem, in Mount Ephraim; 3) Hebron, in Judah. On the east of Jordan were, 4) Golan, in Bashan; 5) Ramoth-Gilead, in Gad; and 6) Bezer, in Reuben.
Regem-melech Friend of the king, one of the two messengers sent by the exiled Jews to Jerusalem in the time of Darius (Zac 7:2) to make inquiries at the temple.
Regeneration Only found in Mat 19:28 and Tit 3:5. This word literally means a "new birth." The Greek word so rendered ( palingenesia ) is used by classical writers with reference to the changes produced by the return of spring. In Mat 19:28 the word is equivalent to the "restitution of all things" (Act 3:21). In Tit 3:5 it denotes that change of heart elsewhere spoken of as a passing from death to life (Jo1 3:14); becoming a new creature in Christ Jesus (Co2 5:17); being born again (Joh 3:5); a renewal of the mind (Rom 12:2); a resurrection from the dead (Eph 2:6); a being quickened (Eph 2:1, Eph 2:5). This change is ascribed to the Holy Spirit. It originates not with man but with God (Joh 1:12, Joh 1:13; Jo1 2:29; Jo1 5:1, Jo1 5:4). As to the nature of the change, it consists in the implanting of a new principle or disposition in the soul; the impartation of spiritual life to those who are by nature "dead in trespasses and sins." The necessity of such a change is emphatically affirmed in Scripture (Joh 3:3; Rom 7:18; Rom 8:7; Co1 2:14; Eph 2:1; Eph 4:21).
Rehabiah Enlargement of the Lord, the son of Eliezer, and grandson of Moses (Ch1 23:17; Ch1 24:21).
Rehob Street; broad place. (1.) The father of Hadadezer, king of Tobah (Sa2 8:3, Sa2 8:12). (2.) Neh 10:11. (3.) The same, probably, as Beth-rehob (Sa2 10:6, Sa2 10:8; Jdg 18:28), a place in the north of Palestine (Num 13:21). It is now supposed to be represented by the castle of Hunin, south-west of Dan, on the road from Hamath into Coele-Syria. (4.) A town of Asher (Jos 19:28), to the east of Zidon. (5.) Another town of Asher (Jos 19:30), kept possession of by the Canaanites (Jdg 1:31).
Rehoboam He enlarges the people, the successor of Solomon on the throne, and apparently his only son. He was the son of Naamah "the Ammonitess," some well-known Ammonitish princess (Kg1 14:21; Ch2 12:13). He was forty-one years old when he ascended the throne, and he reigned seventeen years (975-958 B.C.). Although he was acknowledged at once as the rightful heir to the throne, yet there was a strongly-felt desire to modify the character of the government. The burden of taxation to which they had been subjected during Solomon's reign was very oppressive, and therefore the people assembled at Shechem and demanded from the king an alleviation of their burdens. He went to meet them at Shechem, and heard their demands for relief (Kg1 12:4). After three days, having consulted with a younger generation of courtiers that had grown up around him, instead of following the advice of elders, he answered the people haughtily (Kg1 12:6). "The king hearkened not unto the people; for the cause was from the Lord" (Compare Kg1 11:31). This brought matters speedily to a crisis. The terrible cry was heard (Compare Sa2 20:1): "What portion have we in David? Neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: To your tents, O Israel: Now see to thine own house, David" (Kg1 12:16). And now at once the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam was appalled, and tried concessions, but it was too late (Kg1 12:18). The tribe of Judah, Rehoboam's own tribe, alone remained faithful to him. Benjamin was reckoned along with Judah, and these two tribes formed the southern kingdom, with Jerusalem as its capital; while the northern ten tribes formed themselves into a separate kingdom, choosing Jeroboam as their king. Rehoboam tried to win back the revolted ten tribes by making war against them, but he was prevented by the prophet Shemaiah (Kg1 12:21; Ch2 11:1) from fulfilling his purpose. (See JEROBOAM.) In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Shishak (q.v.), one of the kings of Egypt of the Assyrian dynasty, stirred up, no doubt, by Jeroboam his son-in-law, made war against him. Jerusalem submitted to the invader, who plundered the temple and virtually reduced the kingdom to the position of a vassal of Egypt (Kg1 14:25, Kg1 14:26; Ch2 12:5). A remarkable memorial of this invasion has been discovered at Karnac, in Upper Egypt, in certain sculptures on the walls of a small temple there. These sculptures represent the king, Shishak, holding in his hand a train of prisoners and other figures, with the names of the captured towns of Judah, the towns which Rehoboam had fortified (Ch2 11:5). The kingdom of Judah, under Rehoboam, sank more and more in moral and spiritual decay. "There was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam all their days." At length, in the fifty-eighth year of his age, Rehoboam "slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David" (Kg1 14:31). He was succeeded by his son Abijah. (See EGYPT.)
Rehoboth Broad places. (1.) A well in Gerar dug by Isaac (Gen 26:22), supposed to be in Wady er-Ruheibeh , about 20 miles south of Beersheba. (2.) An ancient city on the Euphrates (Gen 36:37; Ch1 1:48), " Rehoboth by the river." (3.) Named among the cities of Asshur (Gen 10:11). Probably, however, the words " rehoboth'ir " are to be translated as in the Vulgate and the margin of A.V., "the streets of the city," or rather "the public square of the city", i.e., of Nineveh.
Rehum Merciful. (1.) One of "the children of the province" who returned from the Captivity (Ezr 2:2); the same as "Nehum" (Neh 7:7). (2.) The "chancellor" of Artaxerxes, who sought to stir him up against the Jews (Ezra 4:8-24) and prevent the rebuilding of the walls and the temple of Jerusalem. (3.) A Levite (Neh 3:17). (4.) Neh 10:25. (5.) A priest (Neh 12:3).