Physician Asa, afflicted with some bodily malady, "sought not to the Lord but to the physicians" (Ch2 16:12). The "physicians" were those who "practiced heathen arts of magic, disavowing recognized methods of cure, and dissociating the healing art from dependence on the God of Israel. The sin of Asa was not, therefore, in seeking medical advice, as we understand the phrase, but in forgetting Jehovah."
Pi-beseth (Eze 30:17), supposed to mean. "a cat," or a deity in the form of a cat, worshipped by the Egyptians. It was called by the Greeks Bubastis. The hieroglyphic name is "Pe-bast", i.e., the house of Bast, the Artemis of the Egyptians. The town of Bubasts was situated on the Pelusian branch, i.e., the easternmost branch, of the Delta. It was the seat of one of the chief annual festivals of the Egyptians. Its ruins bear the modern name of Tel-Basta.
Pieces (1.) of silver. In Psa 68:30 denotes "fragments," and not properly money. In Sa1 2:36 (Heb. agorah ), properly a "small sum" as wages, weighed rather than coined. Jos 24:32 (Heb. kesitah , q.v.), supposed by some to have been a piece of money bearing the figure of a lamb, but rather simply a certain amount. (Compare Gen 33:19). (2.) The word pieces is omitted in many passages, as Gen 20:16; Gen 37:28; Gen 45:22, etc. The passage in Zac 11:12, Zac 11:13 is quoted in the Gospel (Mat 26:15), and from this we know that the word to be supplied is "shekels." In all these omissions we may thus warrantably supply this word. (3.) The "piece of money" mentioned in Mat 17:27 is a stater = a Hebrew shekel, or four Greek drachmae ; and that in Luk 15:8, Luk 15:9, Act Luk 19:19, a Greek drachma = a denarius . (See PENNY.)
Piety Lat. pietas , properly honour and respect toward parents (Ti1 5:4). In Act 17:23 the Greek verb is rendered "ye worship," as applicable to God.
Pigeon Pigeons are mentioned as among the offerings which, by divine appointment, Abram presented unto the Lord (Gen 15:9). They were afterwards enumerated among the sin-offerings (Lev 1:14; Lev 12:6), and the law provided that those who could not offer a lamb might offer two young pigeons (Lev 5:7; compare Luk 2:24). (See DOVE.)
Pi-hahiroth Place where the reeds grow (LXX. and Copt. read "farmstead"), the name of a place in Egypt where the children of Israel encamped (Exo 14:2, Exo 14:9), how long is uncertain. Some have identified it with Ajrud, a fortress between Etham and Suez. The condition of the Isthmus of Suez at the time of the Exodus is not exactly known, and hence this, with the other places mentioned as encampments of Israel in Egypt, cannot be definitely ascertained. The isthmus has been formed by the Nile deposits. This increase of deposit still goes on, and so rapidly that within the last fifty years the mouth of the Nile has advanced northward about four geographical miles. In the maps of Ptolemy (of the second and third centuries A.D.) the mouths of the Nile are forty miles further south than at present. (See EXODUS.)
Pilate, Pontius Probably connected with the Roman family of the Pontii, and called "Pilate" from the Latin pileatus , i.e., "wearing the pileus", which was the "cap or badge of a manumitted slave," as indicating that he was a "freedman," or the descendant of one. He was the sixth in the order of the Roman procurators of Judea (A.D. 26-36). His headquarters were at Caesarea, but he frequently went up to Jerusalem. His reign extended over the period of the ministry of John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ, in connection with whose trial his name comes into prominent notice. Pilate was a "typical Roman, not of the antique, simple stamp, but of the imperial period, a man not without some remains of the ancient Roman justice in his soul, yet pleasure-loving, imperious, and corrupt. He hated the Jews whom he ruled, and in times of irritation freely shed their blood. They returned his hatred with cordiality, and accused him of every crime, mal-administration, cruelty, and robbery. He visited Jerusalem as seldom as possible; for, indeed, to one accustomed to the pleasures of Rome, with its theatres, baths, games, and gay society, Jerusalem, with its religiousness and ever-smouldering revolt, was a dreary residence. When he did visit it he stayed in the palace of Herod the Great, it being common for the officers sent by Rome into conquered countries to occupy the palaces of the displaced sovereigns." After his trial before the Sanhedrin, Jesus was brought to the Roman procurator, Pilate, who had come up to Jerusalem as usual to preserve order during the Passover, and was now residing, perhaps, in the castle of Antonia, or it may be in Herod's palace. Pilate came forth from his palace and met the deputation from the Sanhedrin, who, in answer to his inquiry as to the nature of the accusation they had to prefer against Jesus, accused him of being a "malefactor." Pilate was not satisfied with this, and they further accused him (1.) of sedition, (2.) preventing the payment of the tribute to Caesar, and (3.) of assuming the title of king (Luk 23:2). Pilate now withdrew with Jesus into the palace (Joh 18:33) and examined him in private (Joh 18:37, Joh 18:38); and then going out to the deputation still standing before the gate, he declared that he could find no fault in Jesus (Luk 23:4). This only aroused them to more furious clamour, and they cried that he excited the populace "throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee." When Pilate heard of Galilee, he sent the accused to Herod Antipas, who had jurisdiction over that province, thus hoping to escape the difficulty in which he found himself. But Herod, with his men of war, set Jesus at naught, and sent him back again to Pilate, clad in a purple robe of mockery (Luk 23:11, Luk 23:12). Pilate now proposed that as he and Herod had found no fault in him, they should release Jesus; and anticipating that they would consent to this proposal, he ascended the judgment-seat as if ready to ratify the decision (Mat 27:19). But at this moment his wife (Claudia Procula) sent a message to him imploring him to have nothing to do with the "just person." Pilate's feelings of perplexity and awe were deepened by this incident, while the crowd vehemently cried out, "Not this man, but Barabbas." Pilate answered, "What then shall I do with Jesus?" The fierce cry immediately followed. "Let him be crucified." Pilate, apparently vexed, and not knowing what to do, said, "Why, what evil hath he done?" but with yet fiercer fanaticism the crowd yelled out, "Away with him! crucify him, crucify him!" Pilate yielded, and sent Jesus away to be scourged. This scourging was usually inflicted by lictors; but as Pilate was only a procurator he had no lictor, and hence his soldiers inflicted this terrible punishment. This done, the soldiers began to deride the sufferer, and they threw around him a purple robe, probably some old cast-off robe of state (Mat 27:28; Joh 19:2), and putting a reed in his right hand, and a crowd of thorns on his head, bowed the knee before him in mockery, and saluted him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" They took also the reed and smote him with it on the head and face, and spat in his face, heaping upon him every indignity. Pilate then led forth Jesus from within the Praetorium (Mat 27:27) before the people, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe, saying, "Behold the man!" But the sight of Jesus, now scourged and crowned and bleeding, only stirred their hatred the more, and again they cried out, "Crucify him, crucify him!" and brought forth this additional charge against him, that he professed to be "the Son of God." Pilate heard this accusation with a superstitious awe, and taking him once more within the Praetorium, asked him, "Whence art thou?" Jesus gave him no answer. Pilate was irritated by his continued silence, and said, "Knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee?" Jesus, with calm dignity, answered the Roman, "Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above." After this Pilate seemed more resolved than ever to let Jesus go. The crowd perceiving this cried out, "If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend." This settled the matter. He was afraid of being accused to the emperor. Calling for water, he washed his hands in the sight of the people, saying, "I am innocent of the blood of this just person." The mob, again scorning his scruples, cried, "His blood be on us, and on our children." Pilate was stung to the heart by their insults, and putting forth Jesus before them, said, "Shall I crucify your King?" The fatal moment had now come. They madly exclaimed, "We have no king but Caesar;" and now Jesus is given up to them, and led away to be crucified. By the direction of Pilate an inscription was placed, according to the Roman custom, over the cross, stating the crime for which he was crucified. Having ascertained from the centurion that he was dead, he gave up the body to Joseph of Arimathea to be buried. Pilate's name now disappears from the Gospel history. References to him, however, are found in the Acts of the Apostles (Act 3:13; Act 4:27; Act 13:28), and in Ti1 6:13. In A.D. 36 the governor of Syria brought serious accusations against Pilate, and he was banished to Vienne in Gaul, where, according to tradition, he committed suicide.
Pillar Used to support a building (Jdg 16:26, Jdg 16:29); as a trophy or memorial (Gen 28:18; Gen 35:20; Exo 24:4; Sa1 15:12, A.V., "place," more correctly "monument," or "trophy of victory," as in Sa2 18:18); of fire, by which the Divine Presence was manifested (Exo 13:2). The "plain of the pillar" in Jdg 9:6 ought to be, as in the Revised Version, the "oak of the pillar", i.e., of the monument or stone set up by Joshua (Jos 24:26).
Pine Tree Heb. tidhar , mentioned along with the fir-tree in Isa 41:19; Isa 60:13. This is probably the cypress; or it may be the stone-pine, which is common on the northern slopes of Lebanon. Some suppose that the elm, others that the oak, or holm, or ilex, is meant by the Hebrew word. In Neh 8:15 the Revised Version has "wild olive" instead of "pine." (See FIR.)
Pinnacle A little wing, (Mat 4:5; Luk 4:9). On the southern side of the temple court was a range of porches or cloisters forming three arcades. At the south-eastern corner the roof of this cloister was some 300 feet above the Kidron valley. The pinnacle, some parapet or wing-like projection, was above this roof, and hence at a great height, probably 350 feet or more above the valley.