Graving (1.) Heb. hatsabh . Job 19:24, rendered "graven," but generally means hewn stone or wood, in quarry or forest. (2.) Heb. harush . Jer 17:1, rendered "graven," and indicates generally artistic work in metal, wood, and stone, effected by fine instruments. (3.) Heb. haqaq . Eze 4:1, engraving a plan or map, rendered "pourtray;" Job 19:23, "written." (4.) Heb. pasal points rather to the sculptor's or the carver's art (Isa 30:22; Isa 40:19; Isa 41:7; Isa 44:12). (5.) Pathah refers to intaglio work, the cutting and engraving of precious stones (Exo 28:9, Exo 28:21; Zac 3:9; Sol 1:10, Sol 1:11). (6.) Heret . In Exo 32:4 rendered "graving tool;" and in Isa 8:1, "a pen."
Greaves Only in Sa1 17:6, a piece of defensive armour (q.v.) reaching from the foot to the knee; from French greve, "the shin." They were the Roman cothurni.
Grecians Hellenists, Greek-Jews; Jews born in a foreign country, and thus did not speak Hebrew (Act 6:1; Act 9:29), nor join in the Hebrew services of the Jews in Palestine, but had synagogues of their own in Jerusalem. Joe 3:6 = Greeks.
Greece Originally consisted of the four provinces of Macedonia, Epirus, Achaia, and Peleponnesus. In Act 20:2 it designates only the Roman province of Macedonia. Greece was conquered by the Romans 146 B.C.. After passing through various changes it was erected into an independent monarchy in 1831. Moses makes mention of Greece under the name of Javan (Gen 10:2); and this name does not again occur in the Old Testament till the time of Joel (Joe 3:6). Then the Greeks and Hebrews first came into contact in the Tyrian slave-market. Prophetic notice is taken of Greece in Dan 8:21. The cities of Greece were the special scenes of the labours of the apostle Paul.
Greek Found only in the New Testament, where a distinction is observed between "Greek" and "Grecian" (q.v.). The former is (1.) a Greek by race (Act 16:1; Act 18:17; Rom 1:14), or (2.) a Gentile as opposed to a Jew (Rom 2:9, Rom 2:10). The latter, meaning properly "one who speaks Greek," is a foreign Jew opposed to a home Jew who dwelt in Palestine. The word "Grecians" in Act 11:20 should be "Greeks," denoting the heathen Greeks of that city, as rendered in the Revised Version according to the reading of the best manuscripts ("Hellenes").
Greyhound (Pro 30:31), the rendering of the Hebrew zarzir mothnayim, meaning literally "girded as to the lions." Some (Gesen.; R.V. marg.) render it "war-horse." The LXX. and Vulgate versions render it "cock." It has been by some interpreters rendered also "stag" and "warrior," as being girded about or panoplied, and "wrestler." The greyhound, however, was evidently known in ancient times, as appears from Egyptian monuments.
Grind (Exo 32:20; Deu 9:21; Jdg 16:21), to crush small (Heb. tahan ); to oppress the poor (Isa 3:5). The handmill was early used by the Hebrews (Num 11:8). It consisted of two stones, the upper (Deu 24:6; Sa2 11:21) being movable and slightly concave, the lower being stationary. The grinders mentioned Ecc 12:3 are the teeth. (See MILL.)
Grizzled Party-coloured, as goats (Gen 31:10, Gen 31:12), horses (Zac 6:3, Zac 6:6).
Grove (1.) Heb. 'asherah , properly a wooden image, or a pillar representing Ashtoreth, a sensual Canaanitish goddess, probably usually set up in a grove (Kg2 21:7; Kg2 23:4). In the Revised Version the word "Asherah" (q.v.) is introduced as a proper noun, the name of the wooden symbol of a goddess, with the plurals Asherim (Exo 34:13) and Asheroth (Jdg 3:13). The LXX. have rendered asherah in Ch2 15:16 by "Astarte." The Vulgate has done this also in Jdg 3:7. (2.) Heb. 'eshel (Gen 21:33). In Sa1 22:6 and Sa1 31:13 the Authorized Version renders this word by "tree." In all these passages the Revised Version renders by "tamarisk tree." It has been identified with the Tamariscus orientalis, five species of which are found in Palestine. (3.) The Heb. word 'elon , uniformly rendered in the Authorized Version by "plain," properly signifies a grove or plantation. In the Revised Version it is rendered, pl., "oaks" (Gen 13:18; Gen 14:13; Gen 18:1; Gen 12:6; Deu 11:30; Jos 19:33). In the earliest times groves are mentioned in connection with religious worship. The heathen consecrated groves to particular gods, and for this reason they were forbidden to the Jews (Jer 17:3; Eze 20:28).
Guard (1.) Heb. tabbah (properly a "cook," and in a secondary sense "executioner," because this office fell to the lot of the cook in Eastern countries), the bodyguard of the kings of Egypt (Gen 37:36) and Babylon (Kg2 25:8; Jer 40:1; Dan 2:14). (2.) Heb. rats , properly a "courier," one whose office was to run before the king's chariot (Sa2 15:1; Kg1 1:5). The couriers were also military guards (Sa1 22:17; Kg2 10:25). They were probably the same who under David were called Pelethites (Kg1 14:27; Sa2 15:1). (3.) Heb. mishmereth , one who watches (Neh 4:22), or a watch-station (Neh 7:3; Neh 12:9; Job 7:12). In the New Testament (Mar 6:27) the Authorized Version renders the Greek spekulator by "executioner," earlier English versions by "hangman," the Revised Version by "soldier of his guard." The word properly means a "pikeman" or "halberdier," of whom the bodyguard of kings and princes was composed. In Mat 27:65, Mat 27:66; Mat 28:11, the Authorized Version renders the Greek kustodia by "watch," and the Revised Version by "guard," the Roman guard, which consisted of four soldiers, who were relieved every three hours (Act 12:4). The "captain of the guard" mentioned Act 28:16 was the commander of the Praetorian troops, whose duty it was to receive and take charge of all prisoners from the provinces.