Golan Exile, a city of Bashan (Deu 4:43), one of the three cities of refuge east of Jordan, about 12 miles north-east of the Sea of Galilee (Jos 20:8). There are no further notices of it in Scripture. It became the head of the province of Gaulanitis, one of the four provinces into which Bashan was divided after the Babylonish captivity, and almost identical with the modern Jaulan, in Western Hauran, about 39 miles in length and 18 in breath.
Gold (1.) Heb. zahab , so called from its yellow colour(Exo 25:11; Ch1 28:18; Ch2 3:5). (2.) Heb. segor , from its compactness, or as being enclosed or treasured up; thus precious or "fine gold" (Kg1 6:20; Kg1 7:49). (3.) Heb. paz , native or pure gold (Job 28:17; Psa 19:10; Psa 21:3, etc.). (4.) Heb. betzer , "ore of gold or silver" as dug out of the mine (Job 36:19, where it means simply riches). (5.) Heb. kethem , i.e., something concealed or separated (Job 28:16, Job 28:19; Psa 45:9; Pro 25:12). Rendered "golden wedge" in Isa 13:12. (6.) Heb. haruts , i.e., dug out; poetic for gold (Pro 8:10; Pro 16:16; Zac 9:3). Gold was known from the earliest times (Gen 2:11). It was principally used for ornaments (Gen 24:22). It was very abundant (Ch1 22:14; Nah 2:9; Dan 3:1). Many tons of it were used in connection with the temple (Ch2 1:15). It was found in Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir (Kg1 9:28; Kg1 10:1; Job 28:16), but not in Palestine. In Dan 2:38, the Babylonian Empire is spoken of as a "head of gold" because of its great riches; and Babylon was called by Isaiah (Isa 14:4) the "golden city" (R.V. marg., "exactress," adopting the reading marhebah, instead of the usual word madhebah).
Golden Calf (Exo 32:4, Exo 32:8; Deu 9:16; Neh 9:18). This was a molten image of a calf which the idolatrous Israelites formed at Sinai. This symbol was borrowed from the custom of the Egyptians. It was destroyed at the command of Moses (Exo 32:20). (See AARON; MOSES.)
Goldsmith (Neh 3:8, Neh 3:32; Isa 40:19; Isa 41:7; Isa 46:6). The word so rendered means properly a founder or finer.
Golgotha The common name of the spot where Jesus was crucified. It is interpreted by the evangelists as meaning "the place of a skull" (Mat 27:33; Mar 15:22; Joh 19:17). This name represents in Greek letters the Aramaic word Gulgaltha , which is the Hebrew Gulgoleth (Num 1:2; Ch1 23:3, Ch1 23:24; Kg2 9:35), meaning "a skull." See map, Plan of Skull Hill It is identical with the word Calvary (q.v.). It was a little knoll rounded like a bare skull. It is obvious from the evangelists that it was some well-known spot outside the gate (compare Heb 13:12), and near the city (Luk 23:26), containing a "garden" (Joh 19:41), and on a thoroughfare leading into the country. Hence it is an untenable idea that it is embraced within the present "Church of the Holy Sepulchre." The hillock above Jeremiah's Grotto, to the north of the city, is in all probability the true site of Calvary. The skull-like appearance of the rock in the southern precipice of the hillock is very remarkable.
Goliath Great. (1.) A famous giant of Gath, who for forty days openly defied the armies of Israel, but was at length slain by David with a stone from a sling (Sa1 17:4). He was probably descended from the Rephaim who found refuge among the Philistines after they were dispersed by the Ammonites (Deu 2:20, Deu 2:21). His height was "six cubits and a span," which, taking the cubit at 21 inches, is equal to 10 1/2 feet. David cut off his head (Sa1 17:51) and brought it to Jerusalem, while he hung the armour which he took from him in his tent. His sword was preserved at Nobas a religious trophy (Sa1 21:9). David's victory over Goliath was the turning point in his life. He came into public notice now as the deliverer of Israel and the chief among Saul's men of war (Sa1 18:5), and the devoted friend of Jonathan. (2.) In Sa2 21:19 there is another giant of the same name mentioned as slain by Elhanan. The staff of his spear "was like a weaver's beam." The Authorized Version interpolates the words "the brother of" from Ch1 20:5, where this giant is called Lahmi.
Gomer Complete; vanishing. (1.) The daughter of Diblaim, who (probably in vision only) became the wife of Hosea (Hos 1:3). (2.) The eldest son of Japheth, and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah (Gen 10:2, Gen 10:3), whose descendants formed the principal branch of the population of South-eastern Europe. He is generally regarded as the ancestor of the Celtae and the Cimmerii, who in early times settled to the north of the Black Sea, and gave their name to the Crimea, the ancient Chersonesus Taurica. Traces of their presence are found in the names Cimmerian Bosphorus, Cimmerian Isthmus, etc. In the seventh century B.C. they were driven out of their original seat by the Scythians, and overran western Asia Minor, whence they were afterwards expelled. They subsequently reappear in the times of the Romans as the Cimbri of the north and west of Europe, whence they crossed to the British Isles, where their descendants are still found in the Gaels and Cymry. Thus the whole Celtic race may be regarded as descended from Gomer.
Gomorrah Submersion, one of the five cities of the plain of Siddim (q.v.) which were destroyed by fire (Gen 10:19; Gen 13:10; Gen 19:24, Gen 19:28). These cities probably stood close together, and were near the northern extremity of what is now the Dead Sea. This city is always mentioned next after Sodom, both of which were types of impiety and wickedness (Gen 18:20; Rom 9:29). Their destruction is mentioned as an "example unto those that after should live ungodly" (Pe2 2:6; Jde 1:4). Their wickedness became proverbial (Deu 32:32; Isa 1:9, Isa 1:10; Jer 23:14). But that wickedness may be exceeded (Mat 10:15; Mar 6:11). (See DEAD SEA).
Goodly Trees Boughs of, were to be carried in festive procession on the first day of the feast of Tabernacles (Lev 23:40). This was probably the olive tree (Neh 8:15), although no special tree is mentioned.
Goodness of God A perfection of his character which he exercises towards his creatures according to their various circumstances and relations (Psa 145:8, Psa 145:9; Psa 103:8; Jo1 4:8). Viewed generally, it is benevolence; as exercised with respect to the miseries of his creatures it is mercy, pity, compassion, and in the case of impenitent sinners, long-suffering patience; as exercised in communicating favour on the unworthy it is grace. "Goodness and justice are the several aspects of one unchangeable, infinitely wise, and sovereign moral perfection. God is not sometimes merciful and sometimes just, but he is eternally infinitely just and merciful." God is infinitely and unchangeably good (Zep 3:17), and his goodness is incomprehensible by the finite mind (Rom 11:35, Rom 11:36). "God's goodness appears in two things, giving and forgiving."