Field (Heb. sadeh ), a cultivated field, but unenclosed. It is applied to any cultivated ground or pasture (Gen 29:2; Gen 31:4; Gen 34:7), or tillage (Gen 37:7; Gen 47:24). It is also applied to woodland (Psa 132:6) or mountain top (Jdg 9:32, Jdg 9:36; Sa2 1:21). It denotes sometimes a cultivated region as opposed to the wilderness (Gen 33:19; Gen 36:35). Unwalled villages or scattered houses are spoken of as "in the fields" (Deu 28:3, Deu 28:16; Lev 25:31; Mar 6:36, Mar 6:56). The "open field" is a place remote from a house (Gen 4:8; Lev 14:7, Lev 14:53; Lev 17:5). Cultivated land of any extent was called a field (Gen 23:13, Gen 23:17; Gen 41:8; Lev 27:16; Rut 4:5; Neh 12:29).
Fig First mentioned in Gen 3:7. The fig-tree is mentioned (Deu 8:8) as one of the valuable products of Palestine. It was a sign of peace and prosperity (Kg1 4:25; Mic 4:4; Zac 3:10). Figs were used medicinally (Kg2 20:7), and pressed together and formed into "cakes" as articles of diet (Sa1 30:12; Jer 24:2). Our Lord's cursing the fig-tree near Bethany (Mar 11:13) has occasioned much perplexity from the circumstance, as mentioned by the evangelist, that "the time of figs was not yet." The explanation of the words, however, lies in the simple fact that the fruit of the fig-tree appears before the leaves, and hence that if the tree produced leaves it ought also to have had fruit. It ought to have had fruit if it had been true to its "pretensions," in showing its leaves at this particular season. "This tree, so to speak, vaunted itself to be in advance of all the other trees, challenged the passer-by that he should come and refresh himself with its fruit. Yet when the Lord accepted its challenge and drew near, it proved to be but as the others, without fruit as they; for indeed, as the evangelist observes, the time of figs had not yet arrived. Its fault, if one may use the word, lay in its pretensions, in its making a show to run before the rest when it did not so indeed" (Trench, Miracles). The fig-tree of Palestine (Ficus carica) produces two and sometimes three crops of figs in a year, (1.) the bikkurah, or "early-ripe fig" (Mic 7:1; Isa 28:4; Hos 9:10, R.V.), which is ripe about the end of June, dropping off as soon as it is ripe (Nah 3:12); (2.) the kermus, or "summer fig," then begins to be formed, and is ripe about August; and (3.) the pag (plural "green figs," Sol 2:13; Gr. olynthos , Rev 6:13, "the untimely fig"), or "winter fig," which ripens in sheltered spots in spring.
Fillets Heb. hashukum , plur., joinings (Exo 27:17; Exo 38:17, Exo 38:28), the rods by which the tops of the columns around the tabernacle court were joined together, and from which the curtains were suspended (Exo 27:10, Exo 27:11; Exo 36:38). In Jer 52:21 the rendering of a different word, hut, meaning a "thread," and designating a measuring-line of 12 cubits in length for the circumference of the copper pillars of Solomon's temple.
Finer A worker in silver and gold (Pro 25:4). In Jdg 17:4 the word (tsoreph) is rendered "founder," and in Isa 41:7 "goldsmith."
Fining Pot A crucible, melting-pot (Pro 17:3; Pro 27:21).
Fir The uniform rendering in the Authorized Version (marg. R.V., "cypress") of berosh (Sa2 6:5; Kg1 5:8, Kg1 5:10; Kg1 6:15, Kg1 6:34; Kg1 9:11, etc.), a lofty tree (Isa 55:13) growing on Lebanon (Isa 37:24). Its wood was used in making musical instruments and doors of houses, and for ceilings (Ch2 3:5), the decks of ships (Eze 27:5), floorings and spear-shafts (Nah 2:3, R.V.). The true fir (abies) is not found in Palestine, but the pine tree, of which there are four species, is common. The precise kind of tree meant by the "green fir tree" (Hos 14:8) is uncertain. Some regard it as the sherbin tree, a cypress resembling the cedar; others, the Aleppo or maritime pine (Pinus halepensis), which resembles the Scotch fir; while others think that the "stone-pine" (Pinus pinea) is probably meant. (See PINE.)
Fire (1.) For sacred purposes. The sacrifices were consumed by fire (Gen 8:20). The ever-burning fire on the altar was first kindled from heaven (Lev 6:9, Lev 6:13; Lev 9:24), and afterwards rekindled at the dedication of Solomon's temple (Ch2 7:1, Ch2 7:3). The expressions "fire from heaven" and "fire of the Lord" generally denote lightning, but sometimes also the fire of the altar was so called (Exo 29:18; Lev 1:9; Lev 2:3; Lev 3:5, Lev 3:9). Fire for a sacred purpose obtained otherwise than from the altar was called "strange fire" (Lev 10:1, Lev 10:2; Num 3:4). The victims slain for sin offerings were afterwards consumed by fire outside the camp (Lev 4:12, Lev 4:21; Lev 6:30; Lev 16:27; Heb 13:11). (2.) For domestic purposes, such as baking, cooking, warmth, etc. (Jer 36:22; Mar 14:54; Joh 18:18). But on Sabbath no fire for any domestic purpose was to be kindled (Exo 35:3; Num 15:32). (3.) Punishment of death by fire was inflicted on such as were guilty of certain forms of unchastity and incest (Lev 20:14; Lev 21:9). The burning of captives in war was not unknown among the Jews (Sa2 12:31; Jer 29:22). The bodies of infamous persons who were executed were also sometimes burned (Jos 7:25; Kg2 23:16). (4.) In war, fire was used in the destruction of cities, as Jericho (Jos 6:24), Ai (Jos 8:19), Hazor (Jos 11:11), Laish (Jdg 18:27), etc. The war-chariots of the Canaanites were burnt (Jos 11:6, Jos 11:9, Jos 11:13). The Israelites burned the images (Kg2 10:26; R.V., "pillars") of the house of Baal. These objects of worship seem to have been of the nature of obelisks, and were sometimes evidently made of wood. Torches were sometimes carried by the soldiers in battle (Jdg 7:16). (5.) Figuratively, fire is a symbol of Jehovah's presence and the instrument of his power (Exo 14:19; Num 11:1, Num 11:3; Jdg 13:20; Kg1 18:38; Kg2 1:10, Kg2 1:12; Kg2 2:11; Isa 6:4; Eze 1:4; Rev 1:14, etc.). God's word is also likened unto fire (Jer 23:29). It is referred to as an emblem of severe trials or misfortunes (Zac 12:6; Luk 12:49; Co1 3:13, Co1 3:15; Pe1 1:7), and of eternal punishment (Mat 5:22; Mar 9:44; Rev 14:10; Rev 21:8). The influence of the Holy Ghost is likened unto fire (Mat 3:11). His descent was denoted by the appearance of tongues as of fire (Act 2:3).
Firebrand Isa 7:4, Amo 4:11, Zac 3:2, denotes the burnt end of a stick (Heb. 'ud ); in Jdg 15:4, a lamp or torch, a flambeau (Heb. lappid); in Pro 26:18 (compare Eph 6:16), burning darts or arrows (Heb. zikkim).
Firepan Exo 27:3; Exo 38:3), one of the vessels of the temple service (rendered "snuff-dish" Exo 25:38; Exo 37:23; and "censer" Lev 10:1; Lev 16:12). It was probably a metallic cinder-basin used for the purpose of carrying live coal for burning incense, and of carrying away the snuff in trimming the lamps.
Firkin Used only in Joh 2:6; the Attic amphora, equivalent to the Hebrew bath (q.v.), a measure for liquids containing about 8 7/8 gallons.