Dragon (1.) Heb. tannim , plural of tan. The name of some unknown creature inhabiting desert places and ruins (Job 30:29; Psa 44:19; Isa 13:22; Isa 34:13; Isa 43:20; Jer 10:22; Mic 1:8; Mal 1:3); probably, as translated in the Revised Version, the jackal (q.v.). (2.) Heb. tannin . Some great sea monster (Jer 51:34). In Isa 51:9 it may denote the crocodile. In Gen 1:21 (Heb. plural tanninim ) the Authorized Version renders "whales," and the Revised Version "sea monsters." It is rendered "serpent" in Exo 7:9. It is used figuratively in Psa 74:13; Eze 29:3. In the New Testament the word "dragon" is found only in Rev 12:3, Rev 12:4, Rev 12:7, Rev 12:9, Rev 12:16, Rev 12:17, etc., and is there used metaphorically of "Satan." (See WHALE.)
Dragon Well (Neh 2:13), supposed by some to be identical with the Pool of Gihon.
Dram The Authorized Version understood the word 'adarkonim (Ch1 29:7; Ezr 8:27), and the similar word darkomnim (Ezr 2:69; Neh 7:70), as equivalent to the Greek silver coin the drachma . But the Revised Version rightly regards it as the Greek dareikos , a Persian gold coin (the daric ) of the value of about 1 pound, 2 shekel, which was first struck by Darius, the son of Hystaspes, and was current in Western Asia long after the fall of the Persian empire. (See DARIC.)
Draught-house (Kg2 10:27). Jehu ordered the temple of Baal to be destroyed, and the place to be converted to the vile use of receiving offal or ordure. (Compare Mat 15:17.)
Drawer of Water (Deu 29:11; Jos 9:21, Jos 9:23), a servile employment to which the Gibeonites were condemned.
Dream God has frequently made use of dreams in communicating his will to men. The most remarkable instances of this are recorded in the history of Jacob (Gen 28:12; Gen 31:10), Laban (Gen 31:24), Joseph (Gen 37:9), Gideon (Judg. 7), and Solomon (Kg1 3:5). Other significant dreams are also recorded, such as those of Abimelech (Gen 20:3), Pharaoh's chief butler and baker (Gen 40:5), Pharaoh (Gen 41:1), the Midianites (Jdg 7:13), Nebuchadnezzar (Dan 2:1; Dan 4:10, Dan 4:18), the wise men from the east (Mat 2:12), and Pilate's wife (Mat 27:19). To Joseph "the Lord appeared in a dream," and gave him instructions regarding the infant Jesus (Mat 1:20; Mat 2:12, Mat 2:13, Mat 2:19). In a vision of the night a "man of Macedonia" stood before Paul and said, "Come over into Macedonia and help us" (Act 16:9; see also Act 18:9; Act 27:23).
Dredge (Job 24:6). See CORN.
Dregs (Psa 75:8; Isa 51:17, Isa 51:22), the lees of wine which settle at the bottom of the vessel.
Dress (1.) Materials used. The earliest and simplest an apron of fig-leaves sewed together (Gen 3:7); then skins of animals (Gen 3:21). Elijah's dress was probably the skin of a sheep (Kg2 1:8). The Hebrews were early acquainted with the art of weaving hair into cloth (Exo 26:7; Exo 35:6), which formed the sackcloth of mourners. This was the material of John the Baptist's robe (Mat 3:4). Wool was also woven into garments (Lev 13:47; Deu 22:11; Eze 34:3; Job 31:20; Pro 27:26). The Israelites probably learned the art of weaving linen when they were in Egypt (Ch1 4:21). Fine linen was used in the vestments of the high priest (Exo 28:5), as well as by the rich (Gen 41:42; Pro 31:22; Luk 16:19). The use of mixed material, as wool and flax, was forbidden (Lev 19:19; Deu 22:11). (2.) Colour. The prevailing colour was the natural white of the material used, which was sometimes rendered purer by the fuller's art (Psa 104:1, Psa 104:2; Isa 63:3; Mar 9:3). The Hebrews were acquainted with the art of dyeing (Gen 37:3, Gen 37:23). Various modes of ornamentation were adopted in the process of weaving (Exo 28:6; Exo 26:1, Exo 26:31; Exo 35:25), and by needle-work (Jdg 5:30; Psa 45:13). Dyed robes were imported from foreign countries, particularly from Phoenicia (Zep 1:8). Purple and scarlet robes were the marks of the wealthy (Luk 16:19; Sa2 1:24). (3.) Form. The robes of men and women were not very much different in form from each other. (a) The "coat" (kethoneth), of wool, cotton, or linen, was worn by both sexes. It was a closely-fitting garment, resembling in use and form our shirt (Joh 19:23). It was kept close to the body by a girdle (Joh 21:7). A person wearing this "coat" alone was described as naked (Sa1 19:24; Isa 20:2; Kg2 6:30; Joh 21:7); deprived of it he would be absolutely naked. (b) A linen cloth or wrapper (sadin) of fine linen, used somewhat as a night-shirt (Mar 14:51). It is mentioned in Jdg 14:12, Jdg 14:13, and rendered there "sheets." (c) An upper tunic (meil), longer than the "coat" (Sa1 2:19; Sa1 24:4; Sa1 28:14). In Sa1 28:14 it is the mantle in which Samuel was enveloped; in Sa1 24:4 it is the "robe" under which Saul slept. The disciples were forbidden to wear two "coats" (Mat 10:10; Luk 9:3). (d) The usual outer garment consisted of a piece of woolen cloth like a Scotch plaid, either wrapped round the body or thrown over the shoulders like a shawl, with the ends hanging down in front, or it might be thrown over the head so as to conceal the face (Sa2 15:30; Est 6:12). It was confined to the waist by a girdle, and the fold formed by the overlapping of the robe served as a pocket (Kg2 4:39; Psa 79:12; Hag 2:12; Pro 17:23; Pro 21:14). Female dress. The "coat" was common to both sexes (Sol 5:3). But peculiar to females were (1.) the "veil" or "wimple," a kind of shawl (Rut 3:15; rendered "mantle," R.V., Isa 3:22); (2.) the "mantle," also a species of shawl (Isa 3:22); (3.) a "veil," probably a light summer dress (Gen 24:65); (4.) a "stomacher," a holiday dress (Isa 3:24). The outer garment terminated in an ample fringe or border, which concealed the feet (Isa 47:2; Jer 13:22). The dress of the Persians is described in Dan 3:21. The reference to the art of sewing are few, inasmuch as the garments generally came forth from the loom ready for being worn, and all that was required in the making of clothes devolved on the women of a family (Pro 31:22; Act 9:39). Extravagance in dress is referred to in Jer 4:30; Eze 16:10; Zep 1:8 (R.V., "foreign apparel"); Ti1 2:9; Pe1 3:3. Rending the robes was expressive of grief (Gen 37:29, Gen 37:34), fear (Kg1 21:27), indignation (Kg2 5:7), or despair (Jdg 11:35; Est 4:1). Shaking the garments, or shaking the dust from off them, was a sign of renunciation (Act 18:6); wrapping them round the head, of awe (Kg1 19:13) or grief (Sa2 15:30; casting them off, of excitement (Act 22:23); laying hold of them, of supplication (Sa1 15:27). In the case of traveling, the outer garments were girded up (Kg1 18:46). They were thrown aside also when they would impede action (Mar 10:50; Joh 13:4; Act 7:58).
Drink The drinks of the Hebrews were water, wine, "strong drink," and vinegar. Their drinking vessels were the cup, goblet or "basin," the "cruse" or pitcher, and the saucer. To drink water by measure (Eze 4:11), and to buy water to drink (Lam 5:4), denote great scarcity. To drink blood means to be satiated with slaughter. The Jews carefully strained their drinks through a sieve, through fear of violating the law of Lev 11:20, Lev 11:23, Lev 11:41, Lev 11:42. (See Mat 23:24. "Strain at" should be "strain out.")