Cord Frequently used in its proper sense, for fastening a tent (Exo 35:18; Exo 39:40), yoking animals to a cart (Isa 5:18), binding prisoners (Jdg 15:13; Psa 2:3; Psa 129:4), and measuring ground (2 Sam. 8; 2; Psa 78:55). Figuratively, death is spoken of as the giving way of the tent-cord (Job 4:21. "Is not their tent-cord plucked up?" R.V.). To gird one's self with a cord was a token of sorrow and humiliation. To stretch a line over a city meant to level it with the ground (Lam 2:8). The "cords of sin" are the consequences or fruits of sin (Pro 5:22) A "threefold cord" is a symbol of union (Ecc 4:12). The "cords of a man" (Hos 11:4) means that men employ, in inducing each other, methods such as are suitable to men, and not "cords" such as oxen are led by. Isaiah (Isa 5:18) says, "Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart rope." This verse is thus given in the Chaldee paraphrase: "Woe to those who begin to sin by little and little, drawing sin by cords of vanity: these sins grow and increase till they are strong and are like a cart rope." This may be the true meaning. The wicked at first draw sin with a slender cord; but by-and-by their sins increase, and they are drawn after them by a cart rope. Henderson in his commentary says: "The meaning is that the persons described were not satisfied with ordinary modes of provoking the Deity, and the consequent ordinary approach of his vengeance, but, as it were, yoked themselves in the harness of iniquity, and, putting forth all their strength, drew down upon themselves, with accelerated speed, the load of punishment which their sins deserved."
Coriander Heb. gad , (Exo 16:31; Num 11:7), seed to which the manna is likened in its form and colour. It is the Coriandrum sativum of botanists, an umbelliferous annual plant with a round stalk, about two feet high. It is widely cultivated in Eastern countries and in the south of Europe for the sake of its seeds, which are in the form of a little ball of the size of a peppercorn. They are used medicinally and as a spice. The Greek name of this plant is korion or koriannon , whence the name "coriander."
Corinth A Grecian city, on the isthmus which joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. It is about 48 miles west of Athens. The ancient city was destroyed by the Romans (146 B.C.), and that mentioned in the New Testament was quite a new city, having been rebuilt about a century afterwards and peopled by a colony of freedmen from Rome. It became under the Romans the seat of government for Southern Greece or Achaia (Act 18:12). It was noted for its wealth, and for the luxurious and immoral and vicious habits of the people. It had a large mixed population of Romans, Greeks, and Jews. When Paul first visited the city (A.D. 51 or 52), Gallio, the brother of Seneca, was proconsul. Here Paul resided for eighteen months (Acts 18:1-18). Here he first became aquainted with Aquila and Priscilla, and soon after his departure Apollos came to it from Ephesus. After an interval he visited it a second time, and remained for three months (Act 20:3). During this second visit his Epistle to the Romans was written (probably A.D. 55). Although there were many Jewish converts at Corinth, yet the Gentile element prevailed in the church there. Some have argued from Co2 12:14; Co2 13:1, that Paul visited Corinth a third time (i.e., that on some unrecorded occasion he visited the city between what are usually called the first and second visits). But the passages referred to only indicate Paul's intention to visit Corinth (compare Co1 16:5, where the Greek present tense denotes an intention), an intention which was in some way frustrated. We can hardly suppose that such a visit could have been made by the apostle without more distinct reference to it.
Corinthians, First Epistle to the Was written from Ephesus (Co1 16:8) about the time of the Passover in the third year of the apostle's sojourn there (Act 19:10; Act 20:31), and when he had formed the purpose to visit Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably A.D. 57). The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated his plan. He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had arisen among them, first from Apollos (Act 19:1), and then from a letter they had written him on the subject, and also from some of the "household of Chloe," and from Stephanas and his two friends who had visited him (Co1 1:11; Co1 16:17). Paul thereupon wrote this letter, for the purpose of checking the factious spirit and correcting the erroneous opinions that has sprung up among them, and remedying the many abuses and disorderly practices that prevailed. Titus and a brother whose name is not given were probably the bearers of the letter (Co2 2:13; Co2 8:6, Co2 8:16). The epistle may be divided into four parts: (1.) The apostle deals with the subject of the lamentable divisions and party strifes that had arisen among them (1 Cor. 1-4). (2.) He next treats of certain cases of immorality that had become notorious among them. They had apparently set at nought the very first principles of morality (Co1 5:1; 6). (3.) In the third part he discusses various questions of doctrine and of Christian ethics in reply to certain communications they had made to him. He especially rectifies certain flagrant abuses regarding the celebration of the Lord's supper (1 Cor. 7-14). (4.) The concluding part (1 Cor. 15; 16) contains an elaborate defense of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which had been called in question by some among them, followed by some general instructions, intimations, and greetings. This epistle "shows the powerful selfcontrol of the apostle in spite of his physical weakness, his distressed circumstances, his incessant troubles, and his emotional nature. It was written, he tells us, in bitter anguish, 'out of much affliction and pressure of heart... and with streaming eyes' (Co2 2:4); yet he restrained the expression of his feelings, and wrote with a dignity and holy calm which he thought most calculated to win back his erring children. It gives a vivid picture of the early church... It entirely dissipates the dream that the apostolic church was in an exceptional condition of holiness of life or purity of doctrine." The apostle in this epistle unfolds and applies great principles fitted to guide the church of all ages in dealing with the same and kindred evils in whatever form they may appear. This is one of the epistles the authenticity of which has never been called in question by critics of any school, so many and so conclusive are the evidences of its Pauline origin. The subscription to this epistle states erroneously in the Authorized Version that it was written at Philippi. This error arose from a mistranslation of Co1 16:5, "For I do pass through Macedonia," which was interpreted as meaning, "I am passing through Macedonia." In Co1 16:8 he declares his intention of remaining some time longer in Ephesus. After tha, his purpose is to "pass through Macedonia."
Corinthians, Second Epistle to the Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the church there by the first epistle; but was disappointed (Co1 16:9; Co2 1:8; Co2 2:12, Co2 2:13). He then left Troas and proceeded to Macedonia; and at Philippi, where he tarried, he was soon joined by Titus (Co2 7:6, Co2 7:7), who brought him good news from Corinth, and also by Timothy. Under the influence of the feelings awakened in his mind by the favourable report which Titus brought back from Corinth, this second epistle was written. It was probably written at Philippi, or, as some think, Thessalonica, early in the year A.D. 58, and was sent to Corinth by Titus. This letter he addresses not only to the church in Corinth, but also to the saints in all Achaia, i.e., in Athens, Cenchrea, and other cities in Greece. The contents of this epistle may be thus arranged: (1.) Paul speaks of his spiritual labours and course of life, and expresses his warm affection toward the Corinthians (2 Cor. 1-7). (2.) He gives specific directions regarding the collection that was to be made for their poor brethren in Judea (2 Cor. 8; Co2 9:1). (3.) He defends his own apostolic claim (2 Cor. 10-13), and justifies himself from the charges and insinuations of the false teacher and his adherents. This epistle, it has been well said, shows the individuallity of the apostle more than any other. "Human weakness, spiritual strength, the deepest tenderness of affection, wounded feeling, sternness, irony, rebuke, impassioned self-vindication, humility, a just self-respect, zeal for the welfare of the weak and suffering, as well as for the progress of the church of Christ and for the of the church of Christ and for the spiritual advancement of its members, are all displayed in turn in the course of his appeal." Lias, Second Corinthians. Of the effects produced on the Corinthian church by this epistle we have no definite information. We know that Paul visited Corinth after he had written it (Act 20:2, Act 20:3), and that on that occasion he tarried there for three months. In his letter to Rome, written at this time, he sent salutations from some of the principal members of the church to the Romans.
Cormorant (Lev 11:17; Deu 14:17), Heb. shalak , "plunging," or "darting down (the Phalacrocorax carbo), ranked among the "unclean" birds; of the same family group as the pelican. It is a "plunging" bird, and is common on the coasts and the island seas of Palestine. Some think the Hebrew word should be rendered "gannet" (Sula bassana, "the solan goose"); others that it is the "tern" or "sea swallow," which also frequents the coasts of Palestine as well as the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan valley during several months of the year. But there is no reason to depart from the ordinary rendering. In Isa 34:11; Zep 2:14 (but in R.V., "pelican") the Hebrew word rendered by this name is ka'ath . It is translated "pelican" (q.v.) in Psa 102:6. The word literally means the "vomiter," and the pelican is so called from its vomiting the shells and other things which it has voraciously swallowed. (See PELICAN.)
Corn The word so rendered (dagan) in Gen 27:28, Gen 27:37; Num 18:27; Deu 28:51; Lam 2:12 is a general term representing all the commodities we usually describe by the words corn, grain, seeds, peas, beans. With this corresponds the use of the word in Joh 12:24. In Gen 41:35, Gen 41:49; Pro 11:26; Joe 2:24 ("wheat"), the word thus translated (bar; i.e., "winnowed") means corn purified from chaff. With this corresponds the use of the word in the New Testament (Mat 3:12; Luk 3:17; Act 7:12). In Psa 65:13 it means "growing corn." In Gen 42:1, Gen 42:2, Gen 42:19; Jos 9:14; Neh 10:31 ("victuals"), the word (sheber; i.e., "broken," i.e., grist) denotes generally victuals, provisions, and corn as a principal article of food. From the time of Solomon, corn began to be exported from Palestine (Eze 27:17; Amo 8:5). "Plenty of corn" was a part of Issac's blessing conferred upon Jacob (Gen 27:28; compare Psa 65:13).
Cornelius A centurion whose history is narrated in Acts 10. He was a "devout man," and like the centurion of Capernaum, believed in the God of Israel. His residence at Caesrea probably brought him into contact with Jews who communicated to him their expectations regarding the Messiah; and thus he was prepared to welcome the message Peter brought him. He became the first fruit of the Gentile world to Christ. He and his family were baptized and admitted into the Christian church (Act 10:1, Act 10:44). (See CENTURION.)
Corner The angle of a house (Job 1:19) or a street (Pro 7:8). "Corners" in Neh 9:22 denotes the various districts of the promised land allotted to the Israelites. In Num 24:17, the "corners of Moab" denotes the whole land of Moab. The "corner of a field" (Lev 19:9; Lev 23:22) is its extreme part, which was not to be reaped. The Jews were prohibited from cutting the "corners," i.e., the extremities, of the hair and whiskers running round the ears (Lev 19:27; Lev 21:5). The "four corners of the earth" in Isa 11:12 and Eze 7:2 denotes the whole land. The "corners of the streets" mentioned in Mat 6:5 means the angles where streets meet so as to form a square or place of public resort. The corner gate of Jerusalem (Kg2 14:13; Ch2 26:9) was on the north-west side of the city. Corner-stone (Job 38:6; Isa 28:16), a block of great importance in binding together the sides of a building. The "head of the corner" (Psa 118:22, Psa 118:23) denotes the coping, the "coign of vantage", i.e., the topstone of a building. But the word "corner stone" is sometimes used to denote some person of rank and importance (Isa 28:16). It is applied to our Lord, who was set in highest honour (Mat 21:42). He is also styled "the chief corner stone" (Eph 2:20; Pe1 2:6). When Zechariah (Zac 10:4), speaking of Judah, says, "Out of him came forth the corner," he is probably to be understood as ultimately referring to the Messiah as the "corner stone." (See TEMPLE, SOLOMON's.)
Cornet Heb. shophar , "brightness," with reference to the clearness of its sound (Ch1 15:28; Ch2 15:14; Psa 98:6; Hos 5:8). It is usually rendered in the Authorized Version "trumpet." It denotes the long and straight horn, about eighteen inches long. The words of Joel, "Blow the trumpet," literally, "Sound the cornet," refer to the festival which was the preparation for the day of Atonement. In Dan 3:5, Dan 3:7, Dan 3:10, Dan 3:15, the word (keren) so rendered is a curved horn. The word "cornet" in Sa2 6:5 (Heb. mena'an'im , occurring only here] was some kind of instrument played by being shaken like the Egyptian sistrum, consisting of rings or bells hung loosely on iron rods.