Cabins Only in Jer 37:16 (R.V., "cells"), arched vaults or recesses off a passage or room; cells for the closer confinement of prisoners.
Cabul How little! as nothing. (1.) A town on the eastern border of Asher (Jos 19:27), probably one of the towns given by Solomon to Hiram; the modern Kabul, some 8 miles east of Accho, on the very borders of Galilee. (2.) A district in the north-west of Galilee, near to Tyre, containing twenty cities given to Hiram by Solomon as a reward for various services rendered to him in building the temple (Kg1 9:13), and as payment of the six score talents of gold he had borrowed from him. Hiram gave the cities this name because he was not pleased with the gift, the name signifying "good for nothing." Hiram seems afterwards to have restored these cities to Solomon (Ch2 8:2).
Caesar The title assumed by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. In the New Testament this title is given to various emperors as sovereigns of Judaea without their accompanying distinctive proper names (Joh 19:15; Act 17:7). The Jews paid tribute to Caesar (Mat 22:17), and all Roman citizens had the right of appeal to him (Act 25:11). The Caesars referred to in the New Testament are Augustus (Luk 2:1), Tiberius (Luk 3:1; Luk 20:22), Claudius (Act 11:28), and Nero (Act 25:8; Phi 4:22).
Caesarea (Palestinae), a city on the shore of the Mediterranean, on the great road from Tyre to Egypt, about 70 miles northwest of Jerusalem, at the northern extremity of the plain of Sharon. It was built by Herod the Great (10 B.C.), who named it after Caesar Augustus, hence called Caesarea Sebaste (Gr. Sebastos = "Augustus"), on the site of an old town called "Strato's Tower." It was the capital of the Roman province of Judaea, the seat of the governors or procurators, and the headquarters of the Roman troops. It was the great Gentile city of Palestine, with a spacious artificial harbour. It was adorned with many buildings of great splendour, after the manner of the Roman cities of the West. Here Cornelius the centurion was converted through the instrumentality of Peter (Act 10:1, Act 10:24), and thus for the first time the door of faith was opened to the Gentiles. Philip the evangelist resided here with his four daughters (Act 21:8). From this place Saul sailed for his native Tarsus when forced to flee from Jerusalem (Act 9:30), and here he landed when returning from his second missionary journey (Act 18:22). He remained as a prisoner here for two years before his voyage to Rome (Act 24:27; Act 25:1, Act 25:4, Act 25:6, Act 25:13). Here on a "set day," when games were celebrated in the theatre in honour of the emperor Claudius, Herod Agrippa I. appeared among the people in great pomp, and in the midst of the idolatrous homage paid to him was suddenly smitten by an angel, and carried out a dying man. He was "eaten of worms" (Act 12:19), thus perishing by the same loathsome disease as his granfather, Herod the Great. It still retains its ancient name Kaiseriyeh, but is now desolate. "The present inhabitants of the ruins are snakes, scorpions, lizards, wild boars, and jackals." It is described as the most desolate city of all Palestine.
Caesara Philippi A city on the northeast of the marshy plain of el-Huleh, 120 miles north of Jerusalem, and 20 miles north of the Sea of Galilee, at the "upper source" of the Jordan, and near the base of Mount Hermon. It is mentioned in Mat 16:13 and Mar 8:27 as the northern limit of our Lord's public ministry. According to some its original name was Baal-Gad (Jos 11:17), or Baal-Hermon (Jdg 3:3; Ch1 5:23), when it was a Canaanite sanctuary of Baal. It was afterwards called Panium or Paneas, from a deep cavern full of water near the town. This name was given to the cavern by the Greeks of the Macedonian kingdom of Antioch because of its likeness to the grottos of Greece, which were always associated with the worship of their god Pan. Its modern name is Banias. Here Herod built a temple, which he dedicated to Augustus Caesar. This town was afterwards enlarged and embellished by Herod Philip, the tetrarch of Trachonitis, of whose territory it formed a part, and was called by him Caesarea Philippi, partly after his own name, and partly after that of the emperor Tiberius Caesar. It is thus distinguished from the Caesarea of Palestine. (See JORDAN.)
Cage (Heb. kelub' , Jer 5:27, marg. "coop;" rendered "basket" in Amo 8:1), a basket of wicker-work in which birds were placed after being caught. In Rev 18:2 it is the rendering of the Greek phulake , properly a prison or place of confinement.
Caiaphas The Jewish high priest (A.D. 27-36) at the beginning of our Lord's public ministry, in the reign of Tiberius (Luk 3:2), and also at the time of his condemnation and crucifixion (Mat 26:3, Mat 26:57; Joh 11:49; Joh 18:13, Joh 18:14). He held this office during the whole of Pilate's administration. His wife was the daughter of Annas, who had formerly been high priest, and was probably the vicar or deputy (Heb. sagan ) of Caiaphas. He was of the sect of the Sadducees (Act 5:17), and was a member of the council when he gave his opinion that Jesus should be put to death "for the people, and that the whole nation perish not" (Joh 11:50). In these words he unconsciously uttered a prophecy. "Like Saul, he was a prophet in spite of himself." Caiaphas had no power to inflict the punishment of death, and therefore Jesus was sent to Pilate, the Roman governor, that he might duly pronounce the sentence against him (Mat 27:2; Joh 18:28). At a later period his hostility to the gospel is still manifest (Act 4:6). (See ANNAS.)
Cain A possession; a spear. (1.) The first-born son of Adam and Eve (Gen. 4). He became a tiller of the ground, as his brother Abel followed the pursuits of pastoral life. He was "a sullen, selfwilled, haughty, vindictive man; wanting the religious element in his character, and defiant even in his attitude towards God." It came to pass "in process of time" (marg. "at the end of days"), i.e., probably on the Sabbath, that the two brothers presented their offerings to the Lord. Abel's offering was of the "firstlings of his flock and of the fat," while Cain's was "of the fruit of the ground." Abel's sacrifice was "more excellent" (Heb 11:4) than Cain's, and was accepted by God. On this account Cain was "very wroth," and cherished feelings of murderous hatred against his brother, and was at length guilty of the desperate outrage of putting him to death (Jo1 3:12). For this crime he was expelled from Eden, and henceforth led the life of an exile, bearing upon him some mark which God had set upon him in answer to his own cry for mercy, so that thereby he might be protected from the wrath of his fellow-men; or it may be that God only gave him some sign to assure him that he would not be slain (Gen 4:15). Doomed to be a wanderer and a fugitive in the earth, he went forth into the "land of Nod", i.e., the land of "exile", which is said to have been in the "east of Eden," and there he builded a city, the first we read of, and called it after his son's name, Enoch. His descendants are enumerated to the sixth generation. They gradually degenerated in their moral and spiritual condition till they became wholly corrupt before God. This corruption prevailed, and at length the Deluge was sent by God to prevent the final triumph of evil. (See ABEL.) (2.) A town of the Kenites, a branch of the Midianites (Jos 15:57), on the east edge of the mountain above Engedi; probably the "nest in a rock" mentioned by Balaam (Num 24:21). It is identified with the modern Yekin, 3 miles south-east of Hebron.
Cainan Possession; smith. (1.) The fourth antediluvian patriarch, the eldest son of Enos. He was 70 years old at the birth of his eldest son Mahalaleel, after which he lived 840 years (Gen 5:9), and was 910 years old when he died. He is also called Kenan (Ch1 1:2). (2.) The son of Arphaxad (Luk 3:36). He is nowhere named in the Old Testament. He is usually called the "second Cainan."
Cake Cakes made of wheat or barley were offered in the temple. They were salted, but unleavened (Exo 29:2; Lev 2:4). In idolatrous worship thin cakes or wafers were offered "to the queen of heaven" (Jer 7:18; Jer 44:19). Pancakes are described in Sa2 13:8, Sa2 13:9. Cakes mingled with oil and baked in the oven are mentioned in Lev 2:4, and "wafers unleavened anointed with oil," in Exo 29:2; Lev 8:26; Ch1 23:29. "Cracknels," a kind of crisp cakes, were among the things Jeroboam directed his wife to take with her when she went to consult Ahijah the prophet at Shiloh (Kg1 14:3). Such hard cakes were carried by the Gibeonites when they came to Joshua (Jos 9:5, Jos 9:12). They described their bread as "mouldy;" but the Hebrew word nikuddim, here used, ought rather to be rendered "hard as biscuit." It is rendered "cracknels" in Kg1 14:3. The ordinary bread, when kept for a few days, became dry and excessively hard. The Gibeonites pointed to this hardness of their bread as an evidence that they had come a long journey. We read also of honey-cakes (Exo 16:31), "cakes of figs" (Sa1 25:18), "cake" as denoting a whole piece of bread (Kg1 17:12), and "a [round] cake of barley bread" (Jdg 7:13). In Lev. 2 is a list of the different kinds of bread and cakes which were fit for offerings.