Ark Noah's ark, a building of gopher-wood, and covered with pitch, 300 cubits long, 50 cubits broad, and 30 cubits high (Gen 6:14); an oblong floating house of three stories, with a door in the side and a window in the roof. It was 100 years in building (Gen 5:32; Gen 7:6). It was intended to preserve certain persons and animals from the deluge which God was about to bring over the earth. It contained eight persons (Gen 7:13; Pe2 2:5), and of all "clean" animals seven pairs, and of "unclean" one pair, and of birds seven pairs of each sort (Gen 7:2, Gen 7:3). It was in the form of an oblong square, with flat bottom and sloping roof. Traditions of the Deluge, by which the race of man was swept from the earth, and of the ark of Noah have been found existing among all nations. The ark of bulrushes in which the infant Moses was laid (Exo 2:3) is called in the Hebrew teebah, a word derived from the Egyptian teb, meaning "a chest." It was daubed with slime and with pitch. The bulrushes of which it was made were the papyrus reed. The sacred ark is designated by a different Hebrew word, 'aron', which is the common name for a chest or coffer used for any purpose (Gen 50:26; Kg2 12:9, Kg2 12:10). It is distinguished from all others by such titles as the "ark of God" (Sa1 3:3), "ark of the covenant" (Jos 3:6; Heb 9:4), "ark of the testimony" (Exo 25:22). It was made of acacia or shittim wood, a cubit and a half broad and high and two cubits long, and covered all over with the purest gold. Its upper surface or lid, the mercy-seat, was surrounded with a rim of gold; and on each of the two sides were two gold rings, in which were placed two gold-covered poles by which the ark could be carried (Num 7:9; Num 10:21; Num 4:5, Num 4:19, Num 4:20; Kg1 8:3, Kg1 8:6). Over the ark, at the two extremities, were two cherubim, with their faces turned toward each other (Lev 16:2; Num 7:89). Their outspread wings over the top of the ark formed the throne of God, while the ark itself was his footstool (Exo 25:10; Exo 37:1). The ark was deposited in the "holy of holies," and was so placed that one end of the poles by which it was carried touched the veil which separated the two apartments of the tabernacle (Kg1 8:8). The two tables of stone which constituted the "testimony" or evidence of God's covenant with the people (Deu 31:26), the "pot of manna" (Exo 16:33), and "Aaron's rod that budded" (Num 17:10), were laid up in the ark (Heb 9:4). (See TABERNACLE.) The ark and the sanctuary were "the beauty of Israel" (Lam 2:1). During the journeys of the Israelites the ark was carried by the priests in advance of the host (Num 4:5, Num 4:6; Num 10:33; Psa 68:1; Psa 132:8). It was borne by the priests into the bed of the Jordan, which separated, opening a pathway for the whole of the host to pass over (Jos 3:15, Jos 3:16; Jos 4:7, Jos 4:10, Jos 4:11, Jos 4:17, Jos 4:18). It was borne in the procession round Jericho (Jos 6:4, Jos 6:6, Jos 6:8, Jos 6:11, Jos 6:12). When carried it was always wrapped in the veil, the badgers' skins, and blue cloth, and carefully concealed even from the eyes of the Levites who carried it. After the settlement of Israel in Palestine the ark remained in the tabernacle at Gilgal for a season, and was then removed to Shiloh till the time of Eli, between 300 and 400 years (Jer 7:12), when it was carried into the field of battle so as to secure, as they supposed, victory to the Hebrews, and was taken by the Philistines (Sa1 4:3), who sent it back after retaining it seven months (Sa1 5:7, Sa1 5:8). It remained then at Kirjath-jearim (Sa1 7:1, Sa1 7:2) till the time of David (twenty years), who wished to remove it to Jerusalem; but the proper mode of removing it having been neglected, Uzzah was smitten with death for putting "forth his hand to the ark of God," and in consequence of this it was left in the house of Obed-edom in Gath-rimmon for three months (Sa2 6:1), at the end of which time David removed it in a grand procession to Jerusalem, where it was kept till a place was prepared for it (Sa2 6:12). It was afterwards deposited by Solomon in the temple (Kg1 8:6). When the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and plundered the temple, the ark was probably taken away by Nebuchadnezzar and destroyed, as no trace of it is afterwards to be found. The absence of the ark from the second temple was one of the points in which it was inferior to the first temple.
Arkite (Gen 10:17; Ch1 1:15), a designation of certain descendants from the Phoenicians or Sidonians, the inhabitants of Arka, 12 miles north of Tripoli, opposite the northern extremity of Lebanon.
Arm Used to denote power (Psa 10:15; Eze 30:21; Jer 48:25). It is also used of the omnipotence of God (Exo 15:16; Psa 89:13; Psa 98:1; Psa 77:15; Isa 53:1; Joh 12:38; Act 13:17)
Armageddon Occurs only in Rev 16:16 (R.V., "Har-Magedon"), as symbolically designating the place where the "battle of that great day of God Almighty" (Rev 16:14) shall be fought. The world properly means the "mount of Megiddo." It is the scene of the final conflict between Christ and Antichrist. The idea of such a scene was suggested by the Old Testament great battle-field, the plain of Esdraelon (q.v.).
Armenia High land, occurs only in Authorized Version, Kg2 19:37; in Revised Version, "Ararat," which is the Hebrew word. A country in western Asia lying between the Caspian and the Black Sea. Here the ark of Noah rested after the Deluge (Gen 8:4). It is for the most part high table-land, and is watered by the Aras, the Kur, the Euphrates, and the Tigris. Ararat was properly the name of a part of ancient Armenia. Three provinces of Armenia are mentioned in Jer 51:27, Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz. Some, however, think Minni a contraction for Armenia. (See ARARAT.)
Armoni Inhabitant of a fortress, the first-named of the two sons of Saul and Rizpah. He was delivered up to the Gibeonites by David, and hanged by them (Sa2 21:8, Sa2 21:9).
Armour Is employed in the English Bible to denote military equipment, both offensive and defensive. (1.) The offensive weapons were different at different periods of history. The "rod of iron" (Psa 2:9) is supposed to mean a mace or crowbar, an instrument of great power when used by a strong arm. The "maul" (Pro 25:18; cognate Hebrew word rendered "battle-axe" in Jer 51:20, and "slaughter weapon" in Eze 9:2) was a war-hammer or martel. The "sword" is the usual translation of hereb, which properly means "poniard." The real sword, as well as the dirk-sword (which was always double-edged), was also used (Sa1 17:39; Sa2 20:8; Kg1 20:11). The spear was another offensive weapon (Jos 8:18; Sa1 17:7). The javelin was used by light troops (Num 25:7, Num 25:8; Sa1 13:22). Saul threw a javelin at David (Sa1 19:9, Sa1 19:10), and so virtually absolved him from his allegiance. The bow was, however, the chief weapon of offense. The arrows were carried in a quiver, the bow being always unbent till the moment of action (Gen 27:3; Gen 48:22; Psa 18:34). The sling was a favorite weapon of the Benjamites (Sa1 17:40; Ch1 12:2. Compare Sa1 25:29). (2.) Of the defensive Armour a chief place is assigned to the shield or buckler. There were the great shield or target (the tzinnah), for the protection of the whole person (Gen 15:1; Psa 47:9; Sa1 17:7; Pro 30:5), and the buckler (Heb. mageen ) or small shield (Kg1 10:17; Eze 26:8). In Psa 91:4 "buckler" is properly a roundel appropriated to archers or slingers. The helmet (Eze 27:10; Sa1 17:38), a covering for the head; the coat of mail or corselet (Sa1 17:5), or habergeon (Neh. 4; 16), harness or breast-plate (Rev 9:9), for the covering of the back and breast and both upper arms (Isa 59:17; Eph 6:14). The cuirass and corselet, composed of leather or quilted cloth, were also for the covering of the body. Greaves, for the covering of the legs, were worn in the time of David (Sa1 17:6). Reference is made by Paul (Eph 6:14) to the panoply of a Roman soldier. The shield here is the thureon, a door-like oblong shield above all, i.e., covering the whole person, not the small round shield. There is no armour for the back, but only for the front.
Armour-bearer An officer selected by kings and generals because of his bravery, not only to bear their armour, but also to stand by them in the time of danger. They were the adjutants of our modern armies (Jdg 9:54; Sa1 14:7; Sa1 16:21; Sa1 31:6).
Armoury The place in which armour was deposited when not used (Neh 3:19; Jer 50:25). At first each man of the Hebrews had his own arms, because all went to war. There were no arsenals or magazines for arms till the time of David, who had a large collection of arms, which he consecrated to the Lord in his tabernacle (Sa1 21:9; Sa2 8:7; Ch1 26:26, Ch1 26:27).
Army The Israelites marched out of Egypt in military order (Exo 13:18, "harnessed;" marg., "five in a rank"). Each tribe formed a battalion, with its own banner and leader (Num 2:2; Num 10:14). In war the army was divided into thousands and hundreds under their several captains (Num 31:14), and also into families (Num 2:34; Ch2 25:5; Ch2 26:12). From the time of their entering the land of Canaan to the time of the kings, the Israelites made little progress in military affairs, although often engaged in warfare. The kings introduced the custom of maintaining a bodyguard (the Gibborim; i.e., "heroes"), and thus the nucleus of a standing army was formed. Saul had an army of 3,000 select warriors (Sa1 13:2; Sa1 14:52; Sa1 24:2). David also had a band of soldiers around him (Sa1 23:13; Sa1 25:13). To this band he afterwards added the Cherethites and the Pelethites (Sa2 15:18; Sa2 20:7). At first the army consisted only of infantry (Sa1 4:10; Sa1 15:4), as the use of horses was prohibited (Deu 17:16); but chariots and horses were afterwards added (Sa2 8:4; Kg1 10:26, Kg1 10:28, Kg1 10:29; Kg1 9:19). In Kg1 9:22 there is given a list of the various gradations of rank held by those who composed the army. The equipment and maintenance of the army were at the public expense (Sa2 17:28, Sa2 17:29; Kg1 4:27; Kg1 10:16, Kg1 10:17; Jdg 20:10). At the Exodus the number of males above twenty years capable of bearing arms was 600,000 (Exo 12:37). In David's time it mounted to the number of 1,300,000 (Sa2 24:9).