Aner A boy. (1.) A Canaanitish chief who joined his forces with those of Abraham in pursuit of Chedorlaomer (Gen 14:13, Gen 14:24). (2.) A city of Manasseh given to the Levites of Kohath's family (Ch1 6:70).
Angel A word signifying, both in the Hebrew and Greek, a "messenger," and hence employed to denote any agent God sends forth to execute his purposes. It is used of an ordinary messenger (Job 1:14; Sa1 11:3; Luk 7:24; Luk 9:52), of prophets (Isa 42:19; Hag 1:13), of priests (Mal 2:7), and ministers of the New Testament (Rev 1:20). It is also applied to such impersonal agents as the pestilence (Sa2 24:16, Sa2 24:17; Kg2 19:35), the wind (Psa 104:4). But its distinctive application is to certain heavenly intelligences whom God employs in carrying on his government of the world. The name does not denote their nature but their office as messengers. The appearances to Abraham at Mamre (Gen 18:2, Gen 18:22. Compare Gen 19:1), to Jacob at Peniel (Gen 32:24, Gen 32:30), to Joshua at Gilgal (Jos 5:13, Jos 5:15), of the Angel of the Lord, were doubtless manifestations of the Divine presence, "foreshadowings of the incarnation," revelations before the "fulness of the time" of the Son of God. (1.) The existence and orders of angelic beings can only be discovered from the Scriptures. Although the Bible does not treat of this subject specially, yet there are numerous incidental details that furnish us with ample information. Their personal existence is plainly implied in such passages as Gen 16:7, Gen 16:10, Gen 16:11; Judg. 13:1-21; Mat 28:2; Heb 1:4, etc. These superior beings are very numerous. "Thousand thousands," etc. (Dan 7:10; Mat 26:53; Luk 2:13; Heb 12:22, Heb 12:23). They are also spoken of as of different ranks in dignity and power (Zac 1:9, Zac 1:11; Dan 10:13; Dan 12:1; Th1 4:16; Jde 1:9; Eph 1:21; Col 1:16). (2.) As to their nature, they are spirits (Heb 1:14), like the soul of man, but not incorporeal. Such expressions as "like the angels" (Luk 20:36), and the fact that whenever angels appeared to man it was always in a human form (Gen 18:2; Gen 19:1, Gen 19:10; Luk 24:4; Act 1:10), and the titles that are applied to them ("sons of God," Job 1:6; Job 38:7; Dan 3:25; compare Dan 3:28) and to men (Luk 3:38), seem all to indicate some resemblance between them and the human race. Imperfection is ascribed to them as creatures (Job 4:18; Mat 24:36; Pe1 1:12). As finite creatures they may fall under temptation; and accordingly we read of "fallen angels." Of the cause and manner of their "fall" we are wholly ignorant. We know only that "they left their first estate" (Mat 25:41; Rev 12:7, Rev 12:9), and that they are "reserved unto judgment" (Pe2 2:4). When the manna is called "angels' food," this is merely to denote its excellence (Psa 78:25). Angels never die (Luk 20:36). They are possessed of superhuman intelligence and power (Mar 13:32; Th2 1:7; Psa 103:20). They are called "holy" (Luk 9:26), "elect" (Ti1 5:21). The redeemed in glory are "like unto the angels" (Luk 20:36). They are not to be worshipped (Col 2:18; Rev 19:10). (3.) Their functions are manifold. (a) In the widest sense they are agents of God's providence (Exo 12:23; Psa 104:4; Heb 11:28; Co1 10:10; Sa2 24:16; Ch1 21:16; Kg2 19:35; Act 12:23). (b) They are specially God's agents in carrying on his great work of redemption. There is no notice of angelic appearances to man till after the call of Abraham. From that time onward there are frequent references to their ministry on earth (Gen. 18; 19; Gen 24:7, Gen 24:40; Gen 28:12; Gen 32:1). They appear to rebuke idolatry (Jdg 2:1), to call Gideon (Jdg 6:11, Jdg 6:12), and to consecrate Samson (Jdg 13:3). In the days of the prophets, from Samuel downward, the angels appear only in their behalf (Kg1 19:5; Kg2 6:17; Zech. 1-6; Dan 4:13, Dan 4:23; Dan 10:10, Dan 10:13, Dan 10:20, Dan 10:21). The Incarnation introduces a new era in the ministrations of angels. They come with their Lord to earth to do him service while here. They predict his advent (Mat 1:20; Luk 1:26), minister to him after his temptation and agony (Mat 4:11; Luk 22:43), and declare his resurrection and ascension (Mat 28:2; Joh 20:12, Joh 20:13; Act 1:10, Act 1:11). They are now ministering spirits to the people of God (Heb 1:14; Psa 34:7; Psa 91:11; Mat 18:10; Act 5:19; Act 8:26; Act 10:3; Act 12:7; Act 27:23). They rejoice over a penitent sinner (Luk 15:10). They bear the souls of the redeemed to paradise (Luk 16:22); and they will be the ministers of judgment hereafter on the great day (Mat 13:39, Mat 13:41, Mat 13:49; Mat 16:27; Mat 24:31). The passages (Psa 34:7, Mat 18:10) usually referred to in support of the idea that every individual has a particular guardian angel have no such meaning. They merely indicate that God employs the ministry of angels to deliver his people from affliction and danger, and that the angels do not think it below their dignity to minister even to children and to the least among Christ's disciples. The "angel of his presence" (Isa 63:9. Compare Exo 23:20, Exo 23:21; Exo 32:34; Exo 33:2; Num 20:16) is probably rightly interpreted of the Messiah as the guide of his people. Others have supposed the expression to refer to Gabriel (Luk 1:19).
Anger The emotion of instant displeasure on account of something evil that presents itself to our view. In itself it is an original susceptibility of our nature, just as love is, and is not necessarily sinful. It may, however, become sinful when causeless, or excessive, or protracted (Mat 5:22; Eph 4:26; Col 3:8). As ascribed to God, it merely denotes his displeasure with sin and with sinners (Psa 7:11).
Anim Fountains, a city in the mountains of Judah (Jos 15:50), now el Guwein, near Eshtemoh, about 10 miles south-west of Hebron.
Animal An organized living creature endowed with sensation. The Levitical law divided animals into clean and unclean, although the distinction seems to have existed before the Flood (Gen 7:2). The clean could be offered in sacrifice and eaten. All animals that had not cloven hoofs and did not chew the cud were unclean. The list of clean and unclean quadrupeds is set forth in the Levitical law (Deut. 14:3-20; Lev. 11).
Anise This word is found only in Mat 23:23. It is the plant commonly known by the name of dill, the Peucedanum graveolens of the botanist. This name dill is derived from a Norse word which means to soothe, the plant having the carminative property of allaying pain. The common dill, the Anethum graveolens, is an annual growing wild in the cornfields of Spain and Portugal and the south of Europe generally. There is also a species of dill cultivated in Eastern countries known by the name of shubit. It was this species of garden plant of which the Pharisees were in the habit of paying tithes. The Talmud requires that the seeds, leaves, and stem of dill shall pay tithes. It is an umbelliferous plant, very like the caraway its leaves, which are aromatic, being used in soups and pickles. The proper anise is the Pimpinella anisum.
Anna Grace, an aged widow, the daughter of Phanuel. She was a "prophetess," like Miriam, Deborah, and Huldah (Ch2 34:22). After seven years of married life her husband died, and during her long widowhood she daily attended the temple services. When she was eighty-four years old, she entered the temple at the moment when the aged Simeon uttered his memorable words of praise and thanks to God that he had fulfilled his ancient promise in sending his Son into the world (Luk 2:36, Luk 2:37).
Annas Was high priest A.D. 7-14. In A.D. 25 Caiaphas, who had married the daughter of Annas (Joh 18:13), was raised to that office, and probably Annas was now made president of the Sanhedrim, or deputy or coadjutor of the high priest, and thus was also called high priest along with Caiaphas (Luk 3:2). By the Mosaic law the high-priesthood was held for life (Num 3:10); and although Annas had been deposed by the Roman procurator, the Jews may still have regarded him as legally the high priest. Our Lord was first brought before Annas, and after a brief questioning of him (Joh 18:19) was sent to Caiaphas, when some members of the Sanhedrim had met, and the first trial of Jesus took place (Mat 26:57). This examination of our Lord before Annas is recorded only by John. Annas was president of the Sanhedrim before which Peter and John were brought (Act 4:6).
Anoint The practice of anointing with perfumed oil was common among the Hebrews. (1.) The act of anointing was significant of consecration to a holy or sacred use; hence the anointing of the high priest (Exo 29:29; Lev 4:3) and of the sacred vessels (Exo 30:26). The high priest and the king are thus called "the anointed" (Lev 4:3, Lev 4:5, Lev 4:16; Lev 6:20; Psa 132:10). Anointing a king was equivalent to crowning him (Sa1 16:13; Sa2 2:4, etc.). Prophets were also anointed (Kg1 19:16; Ch1 16:22; Psa 105:15). The expression, "anoint the shield" (Isa 21:5), refers to the custom of rubbing oil on the leather of the shield so as to make it supple and fit for use in war. (2.) Anointing was also an act of hospitality (Luk 7:38, Luk 7:46). It was the custom of the Jews in like manner to anoint themselves with oil, as a means of refreshing or invigorating their bodies (Deu 28:40; Rut 3:3; Sa2 14:2; Psa 104:15, etc.). This custom is continued among the Arabians to the present day. (3.) Oil was used also for medicinal purposes. It was applied to the sick, and also to wounds (Psa 109:18; Isa 1:6; Mar 6:13; Jam 5:14). (4.) The bodies of the dead were sometimes anointed (Mar 14:8; Luk 23:56). (5.) The promised Delivered is twice called the "Anointed" or Messiah (Psa 2:2; Dan 9:25, Dan 9:26), because he was anointed with the Holy Ghost (Isa 61:1), figuratively styled the "oil of gladness" (Psa 45:7; Heb 1:9). Jesus of Nazareth is this anointed One (Joh 1:41; Act 9:22; Act 17:2, Act 17:3; Act 18:5, Act 18:28), the Messiah of the Old Testament.
Ant (Heb. nemalah from a word meaning to creep, cut off, destroy), referred to in Pro 6:6; Pro 30:25, as distinguished for its prudent habits. Many ants in Palestine feed on animal substances, but others draw their nourishment partly or exclusively from vegetables. To the latter class belongs the ant to which Solomon refers. This ant gathers the seeds in the season of ripening, and stores them for future use; a habit that has been observed in ants in Texas, India, and Italy.