Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible, by John Wesley, [1754-65], at sacred-texts.com
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 21:1
sa1 21:1Nob - A city of priests, where the tabernacle now was. Hither David resorted, for a supply of his necessities, which he supposed he might receive here, without danger of being betrayed into Saul's hands: and principally, that in this great distress, he might receive comfort and counsel from the Lord. Ahimelech - The chief priest, brother to that Ahiah, Sa1 14:3, and he being now dead, his successor in the priesthood, for they were both sons of Ahitub. Was afraid - Suspecting some extraordinary cause of his coming in such a manner. Alone - For though David had some servants as is manifest from Sa1 21:4-5, whom Jonathan probably had sent to a place appointed, yet they were left at another place: as David himself affirmeth, Sa1 21:2. And David was now alone, as also he was when he fled to Achish. He who had been suddenly advanced to the highest honour, is as soon reduced to the desolate conditions of an exile. Such changes are there in this world, and so uncertain are its smiles.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 21:2
sa1 21:2The king, &c. - This seems to be a plain lie extorted from him, by fear. But it was pernicious to all the priests there. Whence David afterwards declares his repentance for this sin of lying, Psa 119:29. To such a place - To a certain place which it not convenient now to mention; because the whole business requires concealment.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 21:4
sa1 21:4There is, &c. - Here in the tabernacle: though doubtless he had other provisions is his house; but David was in great haste, and in fear of Doeg whom he saw, and knew and therefore would not stay 'till any thing could be fetched thence. There was a double impediment to the giving this bread to them; Its sacredness in itself; which the priest implies, and David answers Sa1 21:5, and the priest was satisfied therein by David's great necessities. The abstinence from all women, which he supposed should be in those that use it; concerning which he now enquires. And though he mentions this only concerning David's young men, and out of reverence forbears to name him; yet he is also included in the number, as David's answer shews.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 21:5
sa1 21:5Three days - As long as the law required, Exo 19:15. And so long David, and his men hid, it seems, hid themselves for fear of Saul, whereby they were kept both from women: and from food convenient for them. Vessels - That is, Either, Their garments, or other utensils for their journey. Or their bodies. The bread - Heb. and this bread; is in a manner common: that is, considering the time, and our necessity, this maybe used in a manner, like common bread. For though for a season while it is to stand before the Lord, it be so holy, that the priest himself might not eat it; yet afterwards it is eaten by the priest, and his whole family, and so it may be by us, in our circumstances. Tho' it were - But newly put into the vessel, it must give place to the great law of necessity, and charity; because God will have mercy preferred before sacrifice.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 21:7
sa1 21:7Detained - Not by force but by his choice; he fixed his abode there for that day; either because it was the sabbath - day; on which he might not proceed in his journey, or for the discharge of some vow. Before the Lord - That is, at the tabernacle. An Edomite - By birth, but he was proselyted to the Jewish religion.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 21:9
sa1 21:9Ephod - That is, behind that holy place allotted for the keeping of the sacred, or priestly garments; all which are here comprehended under the ephod; which, as the chief is put for all the rest. Here it was laid up as a sacred monument of God's power and goodness. None like it - Because it not only served him for his use, for he was a strong and tall man, and one that could wield that sword, but was also a pledge of God's favour to him. Whenever be looked upon it, it would be a support to his faith, by reminding him of what God had already done.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 21:10
sa1 21:10To Achish - A strange action; but it must be considered, that Saul's rage was so great, his power also, and diligence in hunting after him that he despaired of escaping any other way: and a desperate disease, produceth a desperate remedy. The king elect is here an exile: anointed to the crown, and yet forced to run his country. So do God's providences sometimes run counter to his promises, for the trial of our faith, and the glorifying his name in accomplishing his counsels, notwithstanding the difficulties that lie in the way.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 21:11
sa1 21:11King of the land - Of Canaan. They call him king, either more generally for the governor, the most eminent captain and commander, or, as the king elect, the person designed to be king: for, by this time, the fame of Saul's rejection, and David's destination to the kingdom, was got abroad among the Israelites, and from them, probably to the Philistines. Did they not sing, &c. - And therefore consider what to do; and now our great enemy is in thy hand, be sure thou never let him go alive.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 21:12
sa1 21:12Was afraid - Lest either their revenge or policy should prompt them to kill him. Perhaps he was the more apprehensive, because he wore Goliath's sword, which was probably well known at Gath. He now learned by experience what he afterward taught us, Psa 118:9. It is better to trust in the Lord, than to put any confidence in princes.
1 Kings (1 Samuel) 21:15
sa1 21:15Mad men - It is highly probable, Achish was aware, that this madness was counterfeit. But being desirous to preserve David, he speaks as if he thought it real.