Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible, by John Wesley, [1754-65], at sacred-texts.com
exo 31:2See I have called Bezaleel, the grandson of Hur, probably that Hur who had helped to hold up Moses's hand, Exo 17:10-12, and was at this time in commission with Aaron for the government of the people in the absence of Moses. Aholiab of the tribe of Dan is appointed next to Bezaleel, and partner with him. Hiram, who was the head - workman in the building of Solomon's temple, was also of the tribe of Dan, Ch2 2:14.
exo 31:3And I have filled him with the spirit of God; and Exo 31:6. In the hearts of all that are wise - hearted I have put wisdom. Skill in common employments is the gift of God; It is he that puts even this wisdom into the inward parts, Job 38:36. He teacheth the husbandman discretion, Isa 28:26, and the tradesman too, and he must have the praise of it.
exo 31:13It is a sign between me and you - The institution of the sabbath was a great instance of God's favour, and a sign that he had distinguished them from all other people: and their religious observance of it, was a great instance of their duty to him. God, by sanctifying this day among them, let them know that he sanctified them, and set them apart for his service, otherwise he would not have revealed to them his holy sabbaths to be the support of religion among them. The Jews by observing one day in seven, after six days labour, testified that they worshipped the God that made the world in six days, and rested the seventh; and so distinguished themselves from other nations, who having first lost the sabbath, the memorial of the creation, by degrees lost the knowledge of the creator, and gave the creature the honour due to him alone.
exo 31:14It is holy unto you - That is, it is designed for your benefit as well as for God's honour; it shall be accounted holy by you.
exo 31:15It is the sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord - It is separated from common use, for the service of God; and by the observance of it we are taught to rest from worldly pursuits, and devote ourselves, and all we are, have, and can do, to God's glory.
exo 31:16It was to be observed throughout their generations, in every age, for a perpetual covenant - This was to be one of the most lasting tokens of the covenant between God and Israel.
exo 31:17On the seventh day he rested - And as the work of creation is worthy to be thus commemorated, so the great Creator is worthy to be thus imitated, by a holy rest the seventh day.
exo 31:18These tables of stone, were not prepared by Moses, but probably by the ministry of angels. They were written with the finger of God - That is, by his will and power immediately, without the use of any instrument. They were written in two tables, being designed to direct us in our duty, towards God, and towards man. And they were called tables of testimony, because this written law testified the will of God concerning them, and would be a testimony against them if they were disobedient.