Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
1 Corinthians 14:3
To edification - exhortation - comfort (οἰκοδομὴν - παράκλησιν - παραμυθίαν)
Omit to. For edification see on build up, Act 20:32. Exhortation, so American Rev. Rev., comfort. See on Luk 6:24. Παραμυθία comfort, Rev., consolation, occurs only here in the New Testament. Παραμύθιον, which is the same, in Phi 2:1. The two latter words are found together in Phi 2:1, and their kindred verbs in Th1 2:11. The differences in rendering are not important. The words will bear either of the meanings in the two Revisions. If παράκλησιν be rendered as Rev., comfort, παραμυθία might be rendered incentive, which implies exhortation. Consolation and comfort border a little too closely on each other.
1 Corinthians 14:7
See on sound, Rom 10:18. The sound generally. Used sometimes of sounds emitted by things without life, as a trumpet or the wind. See Mat 24:31; Joh 3:8.
See on Rev 5:8.
Proper modulation. Compare the use of the word in Rom 3:22; Rom 10:12.
The distinctive sounds as modulated. See on Rom 10:18.
1 Corinthians 14:8
The trumpet (σάλπιγξ)
Properly, a war-trumpet.
Rev., much better, voice, preserving the distinction between the mere sound of the trumpet and the modulated notes. The case might be illustrated by the bugle calls or points by which military commands are issued, as distinguished from the mere blare of the trumpet.
1 Corinthians 14:10
Voices - without signification (φωνῶν - ἄφωνων)
The translation loses the word-play. So many kinds of voices, and no kind is voiceless. By voices are meant languages.
1 Corinthians 14:11
Supposed to be originally a descriptive word of those who uttered harsh, rude accents - bar bar. Homer calls the Carians, βαρβαρόφωνοι barbar-voiced, harsh-speaking ("Illiad," 2, 867). Later, applied to all who did not speak Greek. Socrates, speaking of the way in which the Greeks divide up mankind, says: "Here they cut off the Hellenes as one species, and all the other species of mankind, which are innumerable and have no connection or common language, they include under the single name of barbarians" (Plato, "Statesman," 262). So Clytaemnestra of the captive Cassandra: "Like a swallow, endowed with an unintelligible barbaric voice" (Aeschylus, "Agamemnon," 1051). Prodicus in Plato's "Protagoras" says: "Simonides is twitting Pittacus with ignorance of the use of terms, which, in a Lesbian, who has been accustomed to speak in a barbarous language, is natural" (341). Aristophanes calls the birds barbarians because they sing inarticulately ("Birds," 199); and Sophocles calls a foreign land ἄγλωσσος without a tongue. "Neither Hellas nor a tongueless land" ("Trachiniae," 1060). Later, the word took the sense of outlandish or rude.
1 Corinthians 14:12
Spiritual gifts (πνευμάτων)
Lit., spirits. Paul treats the different spiritual manifestations as if they represented a variety of spirits. To an observer of the unseemly rivalries it would appear as if not one spirit, but different spirits, were the object of their zeal.
1 Corinthians 14:13
Pray that he may interpret (προσευχέσθω ἵνα διερμηνεύῃ)
Not, pray for the gift of interpretation, but use his unknown tongue in prayer, which, above all other spiritual gifts, would minister to the power of interpreting.
1 Corinthians 14:14
The human spirit, which is moved by the divine Spirit. See on Rom 8:4.
See on Rom 7:23.
Is unfruitful (ἄκαρπός ἐστιν)
Furnishes nothing to others.
1 Corinthians 14:15
I will sing (ψαλῶ)
See on Jam 5:13. The verb, ᾄδω is also used for sing, Eph 5:19; Col 3:16; Rev 5:9; Rev 14:3; Rev 15:3. In the last two passages it is combined with playing on harps. In Eph 5:19 we have both verbs. The noun ψαλμός psalm (Eph 5:19; Col 3:16; Co1 14:26), which is etymologically akin to this verb, is used in the New Testament of a religious song in general, having the character of an Old Testament psalm; though in Mat 26:30; Mar 14:26, ὑμνέω hymneo, whence our hymn, is used of singing an Old Testament psalm. Here applied to such songs improvised under the spiritual ecstasy (Co1 14:26). Some think that the verb has here its original signification of singing with an instrument. This is its dominant sense in the Septuagint, and both Basil and Gregory of Nyssa define a psalm as implying instrumental accompaniment; and Clement of Alexandria, while forbidding the use of the flute in the agapae, permitted the harp. But neither Basil nor Ambrose nor Chrysostom, in their panegyrics upon music, mention instrumental music, and Basil expressly condemns it. Bingham dismisses the matter summarily, and sites Justin Martyr as saying expressly that instrumental music was not used in the Christian Church. The verb is used here in the general sense of singing praise.
1 Corinthians 14:16
The place (τὸν τόπον)
Some explain of a particular seat in the assembly. Rather it expresses the condition of those who are unintelligent as regards the utterance in an unknown tongue.
The unlearned (ἰδιώτου)
Only once outside of the Corinthian Epistles: Act 4:13 (see note). In the Septuagint it does not occur, but its kindred words are limited to the sense of private, personal. Trench ("Synonyms") illustrates the fact that in classical Greek there lies habitually in the word "a negative of the particular skill, knowledge, profession, or standing, over against which it is antithetically set; and not of any other except that alone." As over against the physician, for instance, he is ἰδιώτης in being unskilled in medicine. This is plainly the case here - the man who is unlearned as respects the gift of tongues. From the original meaning of a private individual, the word came to denote one who was unfit for public life, and therefore uneducated, and finally, one whose mental powers were deficient. Hence our idiot. Idiot, however, in earlier English, was used in the milder sense of an uneducated person. Thus "Christ was received of idiots, of the vulgar people, and of the simpler sort" (Blount). "What, wenest thou make an idiot of our dame?" (Chaucer, 5893). "This plain and idiotical style of Scripture." "Pictures are the scripture of idiots and simple persons" (Jeremy Taylor).
Rev., correctly, the Amen. The customary response of the congregation, adopted from the synagogue worship. See Deu 27:15 sqq.; Neh 8:6. The Rabbins have numerous sayings about the Amen. "Greater is he who responds Amen than he who blesses." "Whoever answers Amen, his name shall be great and blessed, and the decree of his damnation is utterly done away." "To him who answers Amen the gates of Paradise are open." An ill-considered Amen was styled "an orphan Amen." "Whoever says an orphan Amen, his children shall be orphans." The custom was perpetuated in Christian worship, and this response enters into all the ancient liturgies. Jerome says that the united voice of the people in the Amen sounded like the fall of water or the sound of thunder.
1 Corinthians 14:19
Orally. See on Luk 1:4.
1 Corinthians 14:20
Only here in the New Testament. Originally, in a physical sense, the diaphragm. Denoting the reasoning power on the reflective side, and perhaps intentionally used instead of νοῦς (Co1 14:15), which emphasizes the distinction from ecstasy.
Children - be ye children (παιδία - νηπιάζετε)
The A.V. misses the distinction between children and babes, the stronger term for being unversed in malice. In understanding they are to be above mere children. In malice they are to be very babes. See on child, Co1 13:11.
See on Jam 1:21.
Lit., perfect. See on Co1 2:6.
1 Corinthians 14:21
It is written, etc.
From Isa 28:11, Isa 28:12. The quotation does not correspond exactly either to the Hebrew or to the Septuagint. Heb., with stammerings of lip. Sept., By reason of contemptuous words of lips. Paul omits the Heb.: This is the rest, give ye rest to the weary, and this is the repose. Sept.: This is the rest to him who is hungry, and this is the ruin. The point of the quotation is that speech in strange tongues was a chastisement for the unbelief of God's ancient people, by which they were made to hear His voice "speaking in the harsh commands of the foreign invader." So in the Corinthian Church, the intelligible revelation of God has not been properly received.
1 Corinthians 14:24
Of his sins. See on tell him his fault, Mat 18:15; see on convinced, Jam 2:9; see on reproved, Joh 3:20. Rev., reproved: convicted in margin.
Examined and judged. The word implies inquiry rather than sentence. Each inspired speaker, in his heart-searching utterances, shall start questions which shall reveal the hearer to himself. See on discerned, Co1 2:14. On the compounds of κρίνω, see on Co1 11:29, Co1 11:31, Co1 11:32.
1 Corinthians 14:27
By two, etc.
That is, to the number of two or three at each meeting.
By course (ἀνὰ μέρος)
Rev., correctly, in turn. Edwards' explanation, antiphonally, is quite beside the mark.
1 Corinthians 14:29
See on Co1 11:29. Referring to the gift of the discernment of spirits. See on Co1 12:10.
1 Corinthians 14:30
Rev., sitting by. The speaker standing.
1 Corinthians 14:32
The movements and manifestations of the divine Spirit in the human spirit, as in Co1 12:10.
"People speak as if the divine authority of the prophetic word were somehow dependent on, or confirmed by, the fact that the prophets enjoyed visions.... In the New Testament Paul lays down the principle that, in true prophecy, self-consciousness, and self-command are never lost. 'The spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets'" (W. Robertson Smith, "The Prophets of Israel").
1 Corinthians 14:33
See on commotions, Luk 21:9; and see on unruly, Jam 3:8. Compare Co2 6:5.
As in all the churches of the saints
Many connect these words with let the women, etc. The old arrangement is retained by Rev. and by Westcott and Hort, though the latter regard the words and the spirits - of peace as parenthetical. I see no good reason for departing from the old arrangement.
1 Corinthians 14:38
Let him be ignorant (ἀγνοείτω)
Let him remain ignorant. The text is doubtful. Some read ἀγνοεῖται he is not known; i.e., he is one whom God knows not.