The Scofield Bible Commentary, by Cyrus Ingerson Scofield, , at sacred-texts.com
The word "apostle", meaning "one sent forth," is used of our Lord (Heb 3:1). Elsewhere it is used for the twelve who were called to that office by our Lord during His earth ministry; of Paul, called to the apostleship by the risen and ascended Lord, and of Barnabas (Act 14:14) specially designated by the Holy Spirit (Act 13:2). Of Matthias, chosen by lot by the eleven to take the place of Judas Iscariot, (Act 1:16-26) it is said: "And he was numbered with the eleven." (Act 1:26).
The "signs" of an apostle were
(1) They were chosen directly by the Lord Himself, or, as in the case of Barnabas, by the Holy Spirit (Mat 10:1-2); (Mar 3:13-14); (Luk 6:13); (Act 9:6); (Act 9:15); (Act 13:2); (Act 22:10); (Act 22:14); (Act 22:15); (Rom 1:1).
(2) They were endued with sign gifts, miraculous powers which were the divine credentials of their office (Mat 10:1); (Act 5:15-16); (Act 16:16-18); (Mat 28:8-9).
(3) Their relation to the kingdom was that of heralds, announcing to Israel only (Mat 10:5-6) the kingdom as at hand.
(See Scofield) - (Mat 4:17)
and manifesting kingdom powers (Mat 10:7-8).
(4) To one of them, Peter, the keys of the kingdom of heaven, viewed as the sphere of Christian profession, as in Mat 13, were given (Mat 16:19).
(5) Their future relation to the king will be that of judges over the twelve tribes (Mat 19:28).
(6) Consequent upon the rejection of the kingdom, and the revelation of the mystery hid in God (Mat 16:18); (Eph 3:1-12) the Church, the apostolic office was invested with a new enduement, the baptism with the Holy Spirit (Act 2:1-4) a new power, that of imparting the Spirit to Jewish-Christian believers; a new relation, that of foundation stones of the new temple (Eph 2:20-22) and a new function, that of preaching the glad tidings of salvation through a crucified and risen Lord to Jew and gentile alike.
(7) The indispensable qualification of an apostle was that he should have been an eye-witness of the resurrection (Act 1:22); (Co1 9:1).
James son of Zebedee
(See Scofield) - (Mat 4:21).
The kingdom was promised to the Jews. Gentiles could be blessed only through Christ crucified and risen.
Compare (Joh 12:20-24).
(See Scofield) - (Joh 3:16).
Also (Mat 15:24); (Mat 15:26); (Act 13:46).
(See Scofield) - (Mat 7:22).
Provide neither gold
Compare (Mar 6:8-9); (Luk 9:3).
The central thought here, urgency, must be kept in mind. The emphasis is upon "provide." Time is not to be taken to search for additional staves or shoes. The disciples were to go in their ordinary sandals, with such staff as they might have, or with none.
Compare Paul, (Rom 1:15).
The scope of (Mat 10:16-23) reaches beyond the personal ministry of the twelve, covering in a general sense the sphere of service during the present age. (Mat 10:23) has in view the preaching of the remnant. (Isa 1:9).
(See Scofield) - (Rom 11:5)
in the tribulation (Psa 2:5).
(See Scofield) - (Rev 7:14).
And immediately preceding the return of Christ in glory; (Deu 30:3); (Act 1:9-11).
(See Scofield) - (Act 1:11).
The remnant then will not have gone over the cities of Israel till the Lord comes.
for it shall be given
An instruction to martyrs, not to preachers.
Son of man
(See Scofield) - (Mat 8:20).
Beelzebul, title of a heathen deity.
(See Scofield) - (Mat 5:22).
Compare (Joh 14:27).
Peace is spoken of in Scripture in three ways:
(1) "Peace with God"; (Rom 5:1); this is the work of Christ into which the individual enters by faith; (Eph 2:14-17); (Rom 5:1).
(2) "The peace of God"; (Phi 4:7); inward peace, the state of soul of that believer who, having entered into peace with God through faith in Christ, has also committed to God through prayer and supplication with thanksgiving all his anxieties; (Luk 7:50); (Phi 4:6).
(3) Peace "on earth"; (Luk 2:14); (Psa 72:7); (Psa 85:10); (Isa 9:6-7); (Isa 11:1-12); the universal prevalency of peace in the earth under the kingdom. (Mat 10:34) was Christ's warning that the truth which He was proclaiming would not bring in the kingdom age of peace, but conflict rather. (Joh 14:27).
(See Scofield) - (Rom 10:10).