A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:1
sol 4:1Contrast with the bride's state by nature (Isa 1:6) her state by grace (Sol 4:1-7), "perfect through His comeliness put upon her" (Eze 16:14; Joh 15:3). The praise of Jesus Christ, unlike that of the world, hurts not, but edifies; as His, not ours, is the glory (Joh 5:44; Rev 4:10-11). Seven features of beauty are specified (Sol 4:1-5) ("lips" and "speech" are but one feature, Sol 4:3), the number for perfection. To each of these is attached a comparison from nature: the resemblances consist not so much in outward likeness, as in the combined sensations of delight produced by contemplating these natural objects.
doves'--the large melting eye of the Syrian dove appears especially beautiful amid the foliage of its native groves: so the bride's "eyes within her locks" (Luk 7:44). MAURER for "locks," has "veil"; but locks suit the connection better: so the Hebrew is translated (Isa 47:2). The dove was the only bird counted "clean" for sacrifice. Once the heart was "the cage of every unclean and hateful bird." Grace makes the change.
eyes-- (Mat 6:22; Eph 1:18; contrast Mat 5:28; Eph 4:18; Jo1 2:16). Chaste and guileless ("harmless," Mat 10:16, Margin; Joh 1:47). John the Baptist, historically, was the "turtledove" (Sol 2:12), with eye directed to the coming Bridegroom: his Nazarite unshorn hair answers to "locks" (Joh 1:29, Joh 1:36).
hair . . . goats--The hair of goats in the East is fine like silk. As long hair is her glory, and marks her subjection to man (Co1 11:6-15), so the Nazarite's hair marked his subjection and separation unto God. (Compare Jdg 16:17, with Co2 6:17; Tit 2:14; Pe1 2:9). Jesus Christ cares for the minutest concerns of His saints (Mat 10:30).
appear from--literally, "that lie down from"; lying along the hillside, they seem to hang from it: a picture of the bride's hanging tresses.
Gilead--beyond Jordan: there stood "the heap of witness" (Gen 31:48).
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:2
sol 4:2even shorn--the Hebrew is translated (Kg1 6:25), "of one size"; so the point of comparison to teeth is their symmetry of form; as in "came up from the washing," the spotless whiteness; and in "twins," the exact correspondence of the upper and lower teeth: and in "none barren," none wanting, none without its fellow. Faith is the tooth with which we eat the living bread (Joh 6:35, Joh 6:54). Contrast the teeth of sinners (Psa 57:4; Pro 30:14); also their end (Psa 3:7; Mat 25:30). Faith leads the flock to the washing (Zac 13:1; Co1 6:11; Tit 3:5).
none . . . barren-- (Pe2 1:8). He who is begotten of God begets instrumentally other sons of God.
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:3
sol 4:3thread--like a delicate fillet. Not thick and white as the leper's lips (type of sin), which were therefore to be "covered," as "unclean" (Lev 13:45).
scarlet--The blood of Jesus Christ (Isa 6:5-9) cleanses the leprosy, and unseals the lips (Isa 57:19; Hos 14:2; Heb 13:15). Rahab's scarlet thread was a type of it (Jos 2:18).
speech--not a separate feature from the lips (Zep 3:9; Col 4:6). Contrast "uncircumcised lips" (Exo 6:12). MAURER and BURROWES translate, "thy mouth."
temples--rather, the upper part of the cheek next the temples: the seat of shamefacedness; so, "within thy locks," no display (Co1 11:5-6, Co1 11:15). Mark of true penitence (Ezr 9:6; Eze 16:63). Contrast Jer 3:3; Eze 3:7.
pomegranate--When cut, it displays in rows seeds pellucid, like crystal, tinged with red. Her modesty is not on the surface, but within, which Jesus Christ can see into.
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:4
sol 4:4neck--stately: in beautiful contrast to the blushing temples (Sol 4:3); not "stiff" (Isa 48:4; Act 7:51), as that of unbroken nature; nor "stretched forth" wantonly (Isa 3:16); nor burdened with the legal yoke (Lam 1:14; Act 15:10); but erect in gospel freedom (Isa 52:2).
tower of David--probably on Zion. He was a man of war, preparatory to the reign of Solomon, the king of peace. So warfare in the case of Jesus Christ and His saints precedes the coming rest. Each soul won from Satan by Him is a trophy gracing the bride (Luk 11:22); (each hangs on Him, Isa 22:23-24); also each victory of her faith. As shields adorn a temple's walls (Eze 27:11), so necklaces hang on the bride's neck (Jdg 5:30; Kg1 10:16).
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:5
sol 4:5breasts--The bust is left open in Eastern dress. The breastplate of the high priest was made of "two" pieces, folded one on the other, in which were the Urim and Thummim (lights and perfection). "Faith and love" are the double breastplate (Th1 5:8), answering to "hearing the word" and "keeping it," in a similar connection with breasts (Luk 12:27-28).
roes--He reciprocates her praise (Sol 2:9). Emblem of love and satisfaction (Pro 5:19).
feed-- (Psa 23:2).
among the lilies--shrinking from thorns of strife, worldliness, and ungodliness (Sa2 23:6; Mat 13:7). Roes feed among, not on the lilies: where these grow, there is moisture producing green pasturage. The lilies represent her white dress (Psa 45:14; Rev 19:8).
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:6
sol 4:6Historically, the hill of frankincense is Calvary, where, "through the eternal Spirit He offered Himself"; the mountain of myrrh is His embalmment (Joh 19:39) till the resurrection "daybreak." The third Canticle occupies the one cloudless day of His presence on earth, beginning from the night (Sol 2:17) and ending with the night of His departure (Sol 4:6). His promise is almost exactly in the words of her prayer (Sol 2:17), (the same Holy Ghost breathing in Jesus Christ and His praying people), with the difference that she then looked for His visible coming. He now tells her that when He shall have gone from sight, He still is to be met with spiritually in prayer (Psa 68:16; Mat 28:20), until the everlasting day break, when we shall see face to face (Co1 13:10, Co1 13:12).
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:7
sol 4:7Assurance that He is going from her in love, not in displeasure (Joh 16:6-7).
all fair--still stronger than Sol 1:15; Sol 4:1.
no spot--our privilege (Eph 5:27; Col 2:10); our duty (Co2 6:17; Jde 1:23; Jam 1:27).
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:8
sol 4:8Invitation to her to leave the border mountains (the highest worldly elevation) between the hostile lands north of Palestine and the Promised Land (Psa 45:10; Phi 3:13).
Amana--south of Anti-Libanus; the river Abana, or Amana, was near Damascus (Kg2 5:12).
Shenir--The whole mountain was called Hermon; the part held by the Sidonians was called Sirion; the part held by the Amorites, Shenir (Deu 3:9). Infested by the devouring lion and the stealthy and swift leopard (Psa 76:4; Eph 6:11; Pe1 5:8). Contrasted with the mountain of myrrh, &c. (Sol 4:6; Isa 2:2); the good land (Isa 35:9).
with me--twice repeated emphatically. The presence of Jesus Christ makes up for the absence of all besides (Luk 18:29-30; Co2 6:10). Moses was permitted to see Canaan from Pisgah; Peter, James, and John had a foretaste of glory on the mount of transfiguration.
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:9
sol 4:9sister . . . spouse--This title is here first used, as He is soon about to institute the Supper, the pledge of the nuptial union. By the term "sister," carnal ideas are excluded; the ardor of a spouse's love is combined with the purity of a sister's (Isa 54:5; compare Mar 3:35).
one--Even one look is enough to secure His love (Zac 12:10; Luk 23:40-43). Not merely the Church collectively, but each one member of it (Mat 18:10, Mat 18:14; Luk 15:7, Luk 15:24, Luk 15:32).
chain--necklace (Isa 62:3; Mal 3:17), answering to the "shields" hanging in the tower of David (Sol 4:4). Compare the "ornament" (Pe1 3:4); "chains" (Pro 1:9; Pro 3:22).
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:10
sol 4:10love--Hebrew, "loves"; manifold tokens of thy love.
much better--answering to her "better" (Sol 1:2), but with increased force. An Amoebean pastoral character pervades the Song, like the classic Amoebean idylls and eclogues.
wine--The love of His saints is a more reviving cordial to Him than wine; for example, at the feast in Simon's house (Luk 7:36, Luk 7:47; Joh 4:32; compare Zac 10:7).
smell of . . . ointments than all spices--answering to her praise (Sol 1:3) with increased force. Fragrant, as being fruits of His Spirit in us (Gal 5:22).
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:11
sol 4:11drop--always ready to fall, being full of honey, though not always (Pro 10:19) actually dropping (Sol 5:13; Deu 32:2; Mat 12:34).
honeycomb-- (Pro 5:3; Pro 16:24).
under thy tongue--not always on, but under, the tongue, ready to fall (Psa 55:21). Contrast her former state (Psa 140:3; Rom 3:13). "Honey and milk" were the glory of the good land. The change is illustrated in the penitent thief. Contrast Mat 27:44 with Luk 23:39, &c. It was literally with "one" eye, a sidelong glance of love "better than wine," that he refreshed Jesus Christ (Sol 4:9-10). "To-day shalt thou be with Me (compare Sol 4:8) in Paradise" (Sol 4:12), is the only joyous sentence of His seven utterances on the cross.
smell of . . . garments--which are often perfumed in the East (Psa 45:8). The perfume comes from Him on us (Psa 133:2). We draw nigh to God in the perfumed garment of our elder brother (Gen 27:27; see Jde 1:23).
Lebanon--abounding in odoriferous trees (Hos 14:5-7).
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:12
sol 4:12The Hebrew has no "is." Here she is distinct from the garden (Sol 5:1), yet identified with it (Sol 4:16) as being one with Him in His sufferings. Historically the Paradise, into which the soul of Jesus Christ entered at death; and the tomb of Joseph, in which His body was laid amid "myrrh," &c. (Sol 4:6), situated in a nicely kept garden (compare "gardener," Joh 20:15); "sealed" with a stone (Mat 27:66); in which it resembles "wells" in the East (Gen 29:3, Gen 29:8). It was in a garden of light Adam fell; in a garden of darkness, Gethsemane, and chiefly that of the tomb, the second Adam retrieved us. Spiritually the garden is the gospel kingdom of heaven. Here all is ripe; previously (Sol 2:13) it was "the tender grape." The garden is His, though He calls the plants hers (Sol 4:13) by His gift (Isa 61:3, end).
spring . . . fountain--Jesus Christ (Joh 4:10) sealed, while He was in the sealed tomb: it poured forth its full tide on Pentecost (Joh 7:37-39). Still He is a sealed fountain until the Holy Ghost opens it to one (Co1 12:3). The Church also is "a garden enclosed" (Psa 4:3; Isa 5:1, &c.). Contrast Psa 80:9-12. So "a spring" (Isa 27:3; Isa 58:11); "sealed" (Eph 4:30; Ti2 2:19). As wives in the East are secluded from public gaze, so believers (Psa 83:3; Col 3:3). Contrast the open streams which "pass away" (Job 6:15-18; Pe2 2:17).
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:13
sol 4:13orchard--Hebrew, "a paradise," that is, a pleasure-ground and orchard. Not only flowers, but fruit trees (Joh 15:8; Phi 1:11).
camphire--not camphor (Sol 1:14), hennah, or cypress blooms.
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:14
sol 4:14calamus--"sweet cane" (Exo 30:23; Jer 6:20).
myrrh and aloes--Ointments are associated with His death, as well as with feasts (Joh 12:7). The bride's ministry of "myrrh and aloes" is recorded (Joh 19:39).
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:15
sol 4:15of--This pleasure-ground is not dependent on mere reservoirs; it has a fountain sufficient to water many "gardens" (plural).
living-- (Jer 17:8; Joh 4:13-14; Joh 7:38-39).
from Lebanon--Though the fountain is lowly, the source is lofty; fed by the perpetual snows of Lebanon, refreshingly cool (Jer 18:14), fertilizing the gardens of Damascus. It springs upon earth; its source is heaven. It is now not "sealed," but open "streams" (Rev 22:17).
Song of Solomon (Canticles) 4:16
sol 4:16Awake--literally, "arise." All besides is ready; one thing alone is wanted--the breath of God. This follows rightly after His death (Sol 6:12; Act 2:1-4). It is His call to the Spirit to come (Joh 14:16); in Joh 3:8, compared to "the wind"; quickening (Joh 6:63; Eze 27:9). Saints offer the same prayer (Psa 85:6; Hab 3:2). The north wind "awakes," or arises strongly, namely, the Holy Ghost as a reprover (Joh 16:8-11); the south wind "comes" gently, namely, the Holy Ghost as the comforter (Joh 14:16). The west wind brings rain from the sea (Kg1 18:44-45; Luk 12:54). The east wind is tempestuous (Job 27:21; Isa 27:8) and withering (Gen 41:23). These, therefore, are not wanted; but first the north wind clearing the air (Job 37:22; Pro 25:23), and then the warm south wind (Job 37:17); so the Holy Ghost first clearing away mists of gloom, error, unbelief, sin, which intercept the light of Jesus Christ, then infusing spiritual warmth (Co2 4:6), causing the graces to exhale their odor.
Let my beloved, &c.--the bride's reply. The fruit was now at length ripe; the last passover, which He had so desired, is come (Luk 22:7, Luk 22:15-16, Luk 22:18), the only occasion in which He took charge of the preparations.
his--answering to Jesus Christ's "My." She owns that the garden is His, and the fruits in her, which she does not in false humility deny (Psa 66:16; Act 21:19; Co1 15:10) are His (Joh 15:8; Phi 1:11).