A Commentary, Critical, Practical, and Explanatory on the Old and New Testaments, by Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset and David Brown  at sacred-texts.com
pro 4:1To an earnest call for attention to his teachings, the writer adds a commendation of wisdom, preceded and enforced by the counsels of his father and teacher. To this he adds a caution (against the devices of the wicked), and a series of exhortations to docility, integrity, and uprightness. (Pro. 4:1-27)
(Compare Pro 1:8).
to know--in order to know.
doctrine--the matter of learning (Pro 1:5), such as he had received (Lam 3:1).
pro 4:3father's son--emphatic, a son specially regarded, and so called tender, as an object of special care (compare Ch1 22:7; Ch1 29:1); an idea further expressed by
only beloved--or, "as an only son" (Gen 22:2), though he had brothers (see on Ch1 3:5).
pro 4:4He taught--or directed me.
retain--as well as receive.
keep . . . and live--observe, that you may live (Pro 7:2).
pro 4:5Get--as a possession not to be given up.
neither decline--that is, from obeying my word.
pro 4:6Not only accept but love wisdom, who will keep thee from evil, and evil from thee.
pro 4:7(Compare Job 28:28).
getting--or possession; a desire for wisdom is wise.
pro 4:8As you highly esteem her, she will raise you to honor.
embrace her--with fond affection.
pro 4:9ornament--such as the chaplet or wreath of conquerors.
deliver--(Compare Gen 14:20). The allusion to a shield, contained in the Hebrew, suggests protection as well as honor (compare Pro 4:6).
pro 4:10(Compare Pro 2:1; Pro 3:2).
pro 4:11way of wisdom--which it prescribes.
led thee--literally, "caused thee to tread," as a path (Psa 107:7).
not be straitened--have ample room (Psa 18:36).
pro 4:13(Compare Pro 3:18). The figure of laying hold with the hand suggests earnest effort.
pro 4:14(Compare Psa 1:1). Avoid all temptations to the beginning of evil.
pro 4:16The reason is found in the character of sinners, whose zeal to do evil is forcibly depicted (Pro 6:4; Psa 36:5). They live by flagrant vices (Pro 1:13). Some prefer to render, "Their bread is wickedness, their drink violence" (compare Job 15:16; Job 34:7).
pro 4:18As shining light increases from twilight to noonday splendor, so the course of the just increases in purity, but that of the wicked is as thickest darkness, in which one knows not on what he stumbles.
pro 4:20(Compare Pro 4:10, Pro 4:13; Pro 3:8, &c.).
pro 4:22health . . . flesh--by preserving from vices destructive of health.
pro 4:23with all diligence--or, "above," or "more than all," custody (compare Margin), all that is kept (compare Eze 38:7), because the heart is the depository of all wisdom and the source of whatever affects life and character (Mat 12:35; Mat 15:19).
pro 4:24a froward mouth--that is, a mouth, or words of ill nature. The Hebrew word differs from that used (Pro 2:15; Pro 3:32).
pro 4:25Let . . . before thee--that is, pursue a sincere and direct purpose, avoiding temptations.
pro 4:26Ponder--Consider well; a wise course results from wise forethought.
pro 4:27(Compare Pro 4:25). Avoid all by-paths of evil (Deu 2:27; Deu 17:11). A life of integrity requires attention to heart, speech, eyes, and conduct.